Secrecy News

Information Operations in Iraq — What Went Wrong?

Information operations that are designed to influence the perceptions and conduct of enemy combatants and non-combatants can be a highly effective adjunct to military force, but they were not effectively executed by the U.S. military in Iraq, a new U.S. Army monograph (pdf) reports.

Information operations can include military deception, psychological operations, operations security, and electronic warfare.

The Army monograph investigates the role of information operations in Iraq and presents recommendations for changes in doctrine, training, resources and intelligence support.

See “Information Operations in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom — What Went Wrong?” by Major Joseph L. Cox, US Army School of Advanced Military Studies, Fort Leavenworth, May 2006 (134 pages, 3.6 MB PDF).