Index Military Definitions

ultraviolet imagery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That imagery produced as a result of sensing ultraviolet radiations reflected from a given target surface.

unaccounted for. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An inclusive term (not a casualty status) applicable to personnel whose person or remains are not recovered or otherwise accounted for following hostile action Commonly used when referring to personnel who are killed in action and whose bodies are not recovered. See also casualty; casualty category; casualty status; casualty type.

unavoidable delay. [DSMC] A production delay the operator cannot prevent.

uncertain environment. See operational environment.

uncertainty. [DSMC] A condition, event, outcome, or circumstance of which the extent, value, or consequence is not predictable. State of knowledge about outcomes in a decision which are such that it is not possible to assign probabilities in advance. Ignorance about the order of things. Some techniques for coping with this problem are fortiori analysis (making use of conclusions inferred from another reasoned conclusion or recognized fact), contingency analysis, and sensitivity analysis.

uncharged demolition target. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A demolition target for which charges have been calculated, prepared, and stored in a safe place, and for which execution procedures have been established. See also demolition; demolition target.

unclassified matter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Official matter which does not require the application of security safeguards, but the disclosure of which may be subject to control for other reasons. See also classified matter.

uncontrolled mosaic. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mosaic composed of uncorrected photographs, the details of which have been matched from print to print, without ground control or other orientation. Accurate measurement and direction cannot be accomplished. See also controlled mosaic.

unconventional assisted recovery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Evader recovery conducted by directed unconventional warfare forces, dedicated extraction teams, and/or unconventional assisted recovery mechanisms operated by guerrilla groups or other clandestine organizations to seek out, contact, authenticate, support, and return evaders to friendly control. See also assisted recovery; authenticate; evader; recovery.

unconventional assisted recovery mechanism. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That entity, group of entities, or organizations within enemy-held or hostile areas which operates to receive, support, move, and exfiltrate military personnel or selected individuals to friendly control. See also assisted recovery; recovery; unconventional assisted recovery.

unconventional recovery operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Evader recovery operations conducted by unconventional forces. See also evader; recovery operations.

unconventional warfare (UW). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A broad spectrum of military and paramilitary operations, normally of long duration, predominantly conducted by indigenous or surrogate forces who are organized, trained, equipped, supported, and directed in varying degrees by an external source. It includes guerrilla warfare and other direct offensive, low visibility, covert, or clandestine operations, as well as the indirect activities of subversion, sabotage, intelligence activities, and evasion and escape.

unconventional warfare forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) United States forces having an existing unconventional warfare capability consisting of Army Special Forces and such Navy, Air Force, and Marine units as are assigned for these operations.

undefinitized contractual action. [DSMC] New procurement action entered into by the government for which contractual terms, specifications, or price are not agreed upon before performance is begun (letter contract or change order). Letter contract and change order await negotiations to definitize prices.

undelivered orders. [DSMC] An undelivered order is any document, meeting the criteria of an obligation, issued for material or services that has not as yet been received by the activity that ordered it. Includes material requisitions applicable to reimbursable orders issued for material requisitions applicable to reimbursable orders issued for material to be delivered from a stock funded inventory, and purchase orders issued which cite annual appropriations.

Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) (USD(A&T)). [DSMC] The USD(A&T) has policy and procedural authority for the defense acquisition system, is the principal acquisition official of the Department, and is the acquisition advisor to the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF). In this capacity the USD(A&T) serves as the Defense Acquisition Executive, the Defense Senior Procurement Executive, and the National Armaments Director, the last regarding matters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. For acquisition matters, the USD(A&T) takes precedence over the secretaries of the Services after the SECDEF and Deputy SECDEF. The USD(A&T) authority ranges from directing the Services and Defense Agencies on acquisition matters, to establishing the DoD Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, and chairing the Defense Acquisition Board for major defense acquisition program reviews.

Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) (USD(A&T)); Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) (OUSD(A&T)). [DSMC] The OUSD(A&T), is organized around services, research and development, and materiel acquisition. Several organizational elements report directly to the USD(A&T): Principal Deputy USD (DUSD)(A&T); Director, Defense Research and Engineering; DUSD (International and Commercial Programs); DUSD (Industrial Affairs & Installations); Assistant to the SECDEF, Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Defense; DUSD (Space); DUSD (Advanced Technology); DUSD (Environmental Security); DUSD (Logistics); DUSD (Acquisition Reform); Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization; and Director, Defense Logistics Agency. Reporting into staff elements within OUSD(A&T) are a number of other Defense agencies, including the Defense Mapping Agency, the Defense Special Weapons Agency, and the On Site Inspection Agency.

understowed cargo. See flatted cargo.

undergraduate flying training (UFT). Any formal, syllabus-driven training program that prepares unrated, newly rated, or rerated students for a follow-on training program, usually at a Replacement Training Unit (RTU).

undertrain. Provide inadequate training that does not prepare a student to meet regular job performance requirements.

underwater demolition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The destruction or neutralization of underwater obstacles; this is normally accomplished by underwater demolition teams.

underwater demolition team. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A group of officers and men specially trained and equipped for making hydrographic reconnaissance of approaches to prospective landing beaches; for effecting demolition of obstacles and clearing mines in certain areas; locating, improving, and marking of useable channels; channel and harbor clearance; acquisition of pertinent data during preassault operations, including military information; visual observation of the hinterland to gain information useful to the landing force; and for performing miscellaneous underwater and surface tasks within their capabilities.

underway replenishment. See replenishment at sea.

underway replenishment force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A task force of fleet auxiliaries (consisting of oilers, ammunition ships, stores issue ships, etc.) adequately protected by escorts furnished by the responsible operational commander. The function of this force is to provide underway logistic support for naval forces. See also force.

underway replenishment group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task group configured to provide logistic replenishment of ships underway by transfer-at-sea methods.

undistributed budget. [DSMC] Budget applicable to contract effort which has not yet been distributed to the cost accounts.

unexpended balance. [DSMC] The amount of budget authority previously granted to an agency but still unspent and available for future payments.

unexpended weapons or ordnance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Airborne weapons that have not been subjected to attempts to fire or drop and are presumed to be in normal operating conditions and can be fired or jettisoned if necessary. See also ordnance.

unexploded explosive ordnance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Explosive ordnance which has been primed, fused, armed or otherwise prepared for action, and which has been fired, dropped, launched, projected or placed in such a manner as to constitute a hazard to operations, installations, personnel or material and remains unexploded either by malfunction or design or for any other cause.

unfilled order. [DSMC] An unfilled order is any document issued for goods or services, which meet the criteria of an obligation, yet has not been received.

uni-service command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command comprised of forces of a single service.

unified action. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A broad generic term that describes the wide scope of actions (including the synchronization of activities with governmental and non-governmental agencies) taking place within unified commands, subordinate unified commands, or joint task forces under the overall direction of the commanders of those commands. See also joint task force; subordinate unified command; unified command.

Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A publication setting forth the principles, doctrines, and functions governing the activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States when two or more services or elements thereof are acting together.

unified command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command with broad continuing missions under a single commander and composed of forces from two or more military departments, and which is established by the President, through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Also called unified combatant command.

Unified Command Plan (UCP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The document, approved by the President, which sets forth basic guidance to all unified combatant commanders; establishes their missions, responsibilities, and force structure; delineates the general geographical area of responsibility for geographic combatant commanders; and specifies functional responsibilities for functional combatant commanders. See also combatant command; combatant commander.

unified combatant command. See unified command.

unified operation. A broad generic term that describes the wide scope of actions taking place within unified commands under the overall direction of the commanders of those commands.

Uniform Procurement System (UPS). [DSMC] An interagency group of senior procurement officials, known as the Council on the Uniform Procurement System, chaired by the Administrator, Office of Federal Procurement Policy.

uniformed services. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Public Health Service. See also military department; military service.

unilateral arms control measure. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An arms control course of action taken by a nation without any compensating concession being required of other nations.

unintentional radiation exploitation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Exploitation for operational purposes of non-information-bearing elements of electromagnetic energy unintentionally emanated by targets of interest.

unintentional radiation intelligence (RINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of non-information-bearing elements extracted from the electromagnetic energy unintentionally emanated by foreign devices, equipment, and systems, excluding those generated by the detonation of nuclear weapons. See also intelligence.

unique general intelligence training. Institutional training in a general intelligence or intelligence related discipline, system, or subject area which is unique to one DoD component for the purpose of skill, career development, and mission accomplishment.

unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Any military element whose structure is prescribed by competent authority, such as a table of organization and equipment; specifically, part of an organization.

l An organization title of a subdivision of a group in a task force.

l A standard or basic quantity into which an item of supply is divided, issued, or used. In this meaning, also called unit of issue.

l With regard to reserve components of the Armed Forces, denotes a Selected Reserve unit organized, equipped and trained for mobilization to serve on active duty as a unit or to augment or be augmented by another unit. Headquarters and support functions without wartime missions are not considered units.

unit aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those aircraft provided an aircraft unit for the performance of a flying mission. See also aircraft.

unit combat readiness. See combat readiness.

unit commitment status. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The degree of commitment of any unit designated and categorized as a force allocated to NATO.

unit cost curve. [DSMC] A plot of the cost of each unit of a given quantity. The total cost for the given quantity in the sum of the cost of each individual unit.

unit designation list. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A list of actual units by unit identification code designated to fulfill requirements of a force list.

unit identification code (UIC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A six-character, alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies each Active, Reserve, and National Guard unit of the Armed Forces.

unit line number (ULN). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A seven-character, alphanumeric field that uniquely describes a unit entry (line) in a Joint Operation Planning and Execution System time-phased force and deployment data.

unit loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The loading of troop units with their equipment and supplies in the same vessels, aircraft, or land vehicles. See also loading.

unit of issue. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In its special storage meaning, refers to the quantity of an item; as each number, dozen, gallon, pair, pound, ream, set, yard. Usually termed unit of issue to distinguish it from unit price. See also unit.

unit personnel and tonnage table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A table included in the loading plan of a combat-loaded ship as a recapitulation of totals of personnel and cargo by type, listing cubic measurements and weight.

unit price. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The cost or price of an item of supply based on the unit of issue.

unit readiness. See readiness.

unit reserves. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Prescribed quantities of supplies carried by a unit as a reserve to cover emergencies. See also reserve supplies.

unit training. [TR 350-70] Training (individual, collective, and joint or combined) which takes place outside the Army's institutional base.

unit training assembly. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An authorized and scheduled period of unit inactive duty training of a prescribed length of time.

unit training evaluation. [TR 350-70]

l Unit training evaluation is the process used to identify collective and individual task performance and product deficiencies in unit training and to obtain recommendations for improvement of training or the products that support training. (This is referred to as an external evaluation by the training/TD (task) proponent.)

l The process used to measure the demonstrated ability of individuals or units to perform a task to the task performance standard; e.g., GO or NO GO.

l The process used to measure the demonstrated ability of individuals and units to accomplish specified training objectives. (FM 25-100)

unit type code (UTC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A five-character, alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies each type unit of the Armed Forces.

United Effort. Program to gather data on the SA-2 Guideline SAM missile by unmanned reconnaissance drones.

United States Armed Forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Used to denote collectively only the regular components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. See also Armed Forces of the United States.

United States Army Training and Doctrine Command Long Range Plan. See TRADOC Long-Range Plan.

United States Army Training and Doctrine Command Review of Manpower. See TRADOC Review of Manpower (TRM).

United States Civil Authorities. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those elected and appointed public officials and employees who constitute the governments of the 50 States, District of Columbia, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States possessions and territories, and political subdivisions thereof.

United States Civilian Internee Information Center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The national center of information in the United States for enemy and United States civilian internees.

United States Code (U.S.C.). [DSMC] A consolidation and codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States arranged according to subject matter under 50 title headings, in alphabetical order to a large degree. Sets out the current status of the laws, as amended. Title 10 governs the Armed Forces.

United States controlled shipping. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That shipping under United States flag plus those selected ships under foreign flag which are considered to be under "effective United States control," i.e., which can reasonably be expected to be made available to the United States in time of national emergency.

United States country team. The senior, in country, U.S. coordinating and supervising body, headed by the chief of the U.S. diplomatic mission, usually an ambassador, and composed of the senior member of each represented U.S. department or agency.

United States Military Service Funded Foreign Training. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Training which is provided to foreign nationals in United States Military Service schools and installations under authority other than the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.

United States Naval ship (USNS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A public vessel of the United States in the custody of the Navy and is operated by the Military Sealift Command and manned by a civil service crew, or operated by a commercial company under contract to the Military Sealift Command and manned by a merchant marine crew. See also Military Sealift Command.

United States Prisoner of War Information Center. The national center of information in the United States for enemy and United States prisoners of war.

United States Signals Intelligence System (USSS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The unified organization of signals intelligence activities under the direction of the Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service. It consists of the National Security Agency/Central Security Service, the components of the Military Services authorized to conduct signals intelligence, and such other entities (other than the Federal Bureau of Investigation) authorized by the National Security Council or the Secretary of Defense to conduct signals intelligence activities. See also counterintelligence.

United States Strategic Army Forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That part of the Army, normally located in the Continental United States, which is trained, equipped, and maintained for employment at national level in accordance with current plans.

United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The unified command with the mission to provide strategic air, land, and sea transportation for the Department of Defense, across the range of military operations. See also global transportation network; single port manager; transportation component command; unified command.

unitized load. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single item, or a number of items packaged, packed or arranged in a specified manner and capable of being handled as a unit. Unitization may be accomplished by placing the item or items in a container or by banding them securely together. See also palletized unit load.

unity of command/unity of effort. For every objective, ensure unity of effort. Unity of effort means directing and coordinating the action of all forces toward a common objective. Unity of effort may be achieved by cooperation. This is the usual method at national and alliance level. At theater level and below, however, it is best achieved by vesting a single commander with the requisite authority to direct and to coordinate all forces employed in pursuit of a common goal. At the strategic level, this common goal equates to the political purpose of the U.S. and the broad strategic objectives which flow from this purpose. At the national level, this common goal determines the military forces necessary for its achievement. The coordination of these forces requires unity of effort. The President, as the Commander in Chief of the U.S. Armed Forces, is assisted in this role by the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and combatant commands in or in support of a theater. The employment of forces in a theater in a manner that develops their full combat power requires unity of effort.

unity of effort. Coordinated and cooperation among all forces, not necessarily part of the same command structure, toward a commonly recognized objective.

universal polar stereographic grid. A military grid prescribed for joint use in operations in limited areas and used for operations requiring precise position reporting. It covers areas between the 80 degree parallels and the poles.

Universal Time (UT1). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A measure of time that conforms, within a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping. Universal Time (UT1) is determined from observations of the stars, radio sources, and also from ranging observations of the Moon and artificial Earth satellites. The scale determined directly from such observations is designated Universal Time Observed (UTO); it is slightly dependent on the place of observation. When UTO is corrected for the shift in longitude of the observing station caused by polar motion, the time scale UT1 is obtained. When an accuracy better than one second is not required, Universal Time can be used to mean Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Also called ZULU time. Formerly called Greenwich Mean Time.

Universal Time Observed (UTO); it is slightly dependent on the place of observation. When UTO is corrected for the shift in longitude of the observing station caused by polar motion, the time scale UT1 is obtained. When an accuracy better than one second is not required, Universal Time can be used to mean Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Also called ZULU time. Formerly called Greenwich Mean Time.

universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid. A grid coordinate system based on the transverse Mercator projection, applied to maps of the Earth's surface extending to 84 degrees N and 80 degrees S latitudes.

unknown. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A code meaning information not available.

l An unidentified target.

unknown-unknowns (UNK(s)). [DSMC] Future situation impossible to plan, predict, or even know what to look for.

unlimited rights. [DSMC] Rights to use, modify, reproduce, display, release, or disclose technical data in whole or in part, in any manner, and for any purpose whatsoever, and to have or authorize others to do so.

unlimited war. Not to be used. See general war.

unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload. Ballistic or semiballistic vehicles, cruise missiles, and artillery projectiles are not considered unmanned aerial vehicles.

unobligated balance. [DSMC] The amount of budget authority, previously granted to an agency but not yet committed, that continues to be available for commitment in the future.

unobserved fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire for which the points of impact or burst are not observed. See also fire.

unplanned stimuli. [DSMC] Thermal, impact, or shock inputs which munitions are designed to withstand.

unpremeditated expansion of a war. Not to be used. See escalation.

unpremeditated war. Not to be used. See accidental attack.

unscheduled convoy phase. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The period in the early days of war when convoys are instituted on an ad hoc basis before the introduction of convoy schedules in the regular convoy phase.

unscheduled maintenance. [DSMC] Corrective maintenance required by item conditions.

unsolicited proposal. [DSMC] A written proposal that is submitted to an agency or the submitter's initiative for the purpose of obtaining a contract with the government, and which is not in response to a formal or informal request.

unstuffing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Removal of cargo from container(s). See also cargo; stuffing.

unwanted cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A cargo loaded in peacetime which is not required by the consignee country in wartime. See also cargo.

unwarned exposed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vulnerability of friendly forces to nuclear weapon effects. In this condition, personnel are assumed to be standing in the open at burst time, but have dropped to a prone position by the time the blast wave arrives. They are expected to have areas of bare skin exposed to direct thermal radiation, and some personnel may suffer dazzle. See also warned exposed; warned protected.

up. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support: 1A term used in a call for fire to indicate that the target is higher in altitude than the point which has been used as a reference point for the target location. 2A correction used by an observer or a spotter in time fire to indicate that an increase in height of burst is desired.

up front. [DSMC] See front end.

uplink. [TR 350-70] The teletraining site that broadcasts the training. There is only one uplink site in a teletraining network capable of one-way video over satellite. In a network capable of two-way video, all sites are uplinks. See downlink.

upward compatible. Programs written on a low level of system configuration for a particular processor that will operate without change on higher level configurations using the same processor.

urgent mining. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the laying of mines with correct spacing but not in the ordered or planned positions. The mines may be laid either inside or outside the allowed area in such positions that they will hamper the movements of the enemy more than those of our own forces.

urgent priority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A category of immediate mission request which is lower than emergency priority but takes precedence over ordinary priority, e.g., enemy artillery or mortar fire which is falling on friendly troops and causing casualties or enemy troops or mechanized units moving up in such force as to threaten a breakthrough. See also immediate mission request; priority of immediate mission request.

U.S. Roland. A short range, low-altitude, all-weather, Army air defense artillery surface-to-air missile system which is based upon the Franco-German Roland III missile system.

U.S. Transportation Command coordinating instructions. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Instructions of the U.S. Transportation Command that establish suspense dates for selected members of the joint planning and execution community to complete updates to the operation plan data base. Instructions will ensure the target date movement requirements will be validated and available for scheduling.

use constraints. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that describes constraints or legal prerequisites for using an information resource or its component, products, or services. This includes use constraints applied to assure the protection of privacy or intellectual property and other special restrictions or limitations on using the information resource.

user. 1[TP 71-9] TOE or TDA command, unit, element, agency, crew or person (soldier or civilian) operating, maintaining, and/ or otherwise applying DTLOMS products in accomplishment of a designated mission. 2[DSMC] An operational command or agency that receives or will receive benefit from the acquired system. Commanders-in-Chief and the Services are the users. There may be more than one user for a system. The Services are seen as users for systems required to organize, equip, and train forces for the CINCs of the unified command.

user friendly. [DSMC] Primarily a term used in automated data processing (ADP), it connotes a machine (hardware) or program (software) that are compatible with a person's ability to operate them successfully and easily.

user functional description. [TP 71-9] A vehicle used by CBTDEVs with users, MATDEVs, testers, and evaluators to refine and amplify operational requirements for automated capabilities.

user interface requirement (UIR). The UIR is the combat developer’s "official" statement of user information exchange requirements. The UIR is a stand-alone document and is the basis for interface specification development by the materiel developer. A UIR is developed for each objective interface.

user representative. [TP 71-9] Presents the user viewpoint during DTLOMS requirements determination, documentation, and acquisition processes.

user representatives. [DSMC] A command or agency that has been formally designated by proper authority to represent single or multiple users in the requirements and acquisition process. The Services and the Service components of the Commanders-in-Chief are normally the user representative. There should be only one user representative for a system.

user survey. A collection of information from users on the subject of the evaluation.

user testing (UT). Testing and evaluation of materiel systems accomplished with typical user operators, crews, or units is as realistic an operational environment as possible to provide data for estimating:

l The military utility, operational effectiveness, and operational suitability (including compatibility, interoperability, reliability, availability, maintainability, supportability, operational man-(soldier) machine interface, and training requirements) of new systems.

l From the user viewpoint, the system’s desirability, considering systems already available, and the operational benefits and burdens associated with the new system.

l The need for modification to the system.

l The adequacy of doctrine, organization, operating techniques, tactics, and training for employment of the system; and, when appropriate, its performance in a countermeasures environment. (AR 70-10, AR 71-3)

utility. 1[DSMC] The state or quality of being useful militarily or operationally. Designed for or possessing a number of useful or practical purposes rather than a single, specialized one. 2A specialized program that allows an operator to modify or extract data from a program.

utility helicopter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Multi-purpose helicopter capable of lifting troops but may be used in a command and control, logistics, casualty evacuation or armed helicopter role.

UUM. Submarine-launched, anti-submarine missile. Subroc is launched underwater, breaks trough the surface, travels through air, and then drops it warhead into the water. It has a nuclear warhead. UUM-4 Subroc.