Index Military Definitions

gadget. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radar equipment. (Type of equipment may be indicated by a letter as listed in operation orders.) May be followed by a color to indicate state of jamming. Colors will be used as follows:

green – clear of jamming

amber – sector partially jammed

red – sector completely jammed

blue – completely jammed

gain. The level of amplification of a signal.

Galaxy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A large cargo transport aircraft powered by four turbofan engines, capable of carrying a very large payload (including outsize cargo and personnel) into forward area air fields. It is capable of inflight refueling. Designated C-5.

gaming. A training technique in which the student is presented situations involving choice and risks. The choices and the consequences resemble real life situations, and the players are reinforced for various decisions. Gaming is typically an enjoyable learning method for the student.

gamma rays. [JP 1-02] (DoD) High energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during a nuclear reaction. Gamma rays and very high energy X-rays differ only in origin. X-rays do not originate from atomic nuclei but are produced in other ways.

Gantt chart. [DSMC] A graphic portrayal of a project which shows the activities to be completed and the time to complete represented by horizontal lines drawn in proportion to the duration of the activity. Some Gantt charts will be able to show the float for the activity.

gap. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area within a minefield or obstacle belt, free of live mines or obstacles, whose width and direction will allow a friendly force to pass through in tactical formation. See also phony minefield.

gap (imagery). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any space where imagery fails to meet minimum coverage requirements. This might be a space not covered by imagery or a space where the minimum specified overlap was not obtained. See also holiday.

gap filler radar. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A radar used to supplement the coverage of the principal radar in areas where coverage is inadequate.

gap marker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In landmine warfare, markers used to indicate a minefield gap. Gap markers at the entrance to, and exit from, the gap will be referenced to a landmark or intermediate marker. See also marker.

garble. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An error in transmission, reception, encryption, or decryption that changes the text of a message or any portion thereof in such a manner that it is incorrect or undecryptable.

garnishing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In surveillance, natural or artificial material applied to an object to achieve or assist camouflage.

garrison force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All units assigned to a base or area for defense, development, operation, and maintenance of facilities. See also forces.

gate. 1[TR 350-70] A performance requirement that must be satisfied to continue training. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Fly at maximum possible speed (or power)." (To be maintained for a limited time only, depending on type of aircraft. Use of afterburners, rockets, etc., in accordance with local doctrine.)

gated laser intensifier (GLINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) This is part of the AC-130 low light level television (LLLTV) targeting system and is used as an alternate source of IR illumination. It also has the capability to illuminate and identify IR ("GLINT") tape worn by friendly ground forces. The drawback of the GLINT is it highlights the aircraft to enemy forces using night vision devices. See also laser.

gear. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A general term for a collection of spars, ropes, blocks, and equipment used for lifting and stowing cargo and ships stores.

gender changer. A hardware connecting device used to change a male/female device to female/ male.

gender neutral language. Terminology that cannot be construed to indicate a particular sex (i.e., the use of the term service member instead of serviceman or servicewoman).

General Accounting Office (GAO). [DSMC] An agency of the Legislative Branch, responsible solely to the Congress, which functions to audit all negotiated government office contracts and investigate all matters relating to the receipt, disbursement, and application of public funds. Determines whether public funds are expended in accordance with appropriations.

general agency agreement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A contract between the Maritime Administration and a steamship company which, as general agent, exercises administrative control over a government-owned ship for employment by the Military Sealift Command. See also Military Sealift Command.

general air cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Cargo without hazardous or dangerous properties and not requiring extra precautions for air transport.

general and administrative (G&A). [DSMC] Costs Any management, financial, or other expense incurred or allocated to a business unit for the general management and administration of the business unit as a whole.

general and complete disarmament. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reductions of armed forces and armaments by all states to levels required for internal security and for an international peace force. Connotation is total disarmament by all states.

general cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Cargo which is susceptible for loading in general, nonspecialized stowage areas; e.g., boxes, barrels, bales, crates, packages, bundles, and pallets.

General Defense Intelligence Program (GDIP). The GDIP includes those national intelligence activities of the Department of Defense not included in other NFIP components. The GDIP Includes specialized national reconnaissance subsystems and communications intelligence components of multi-sensor systems. It may include other NFIP activities as agreed between the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence.

general intelligence. The product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, interpretation, and management of information concerning one or more aspects of foreign countries or areas that is immediately or potentially significant to the development and execution of plans, policies, and operations and that is excluded from the purview of cryptology and signals intelligence.

General Intelligence Training Advisory Committee (GITAC). The GITAC is composed of representatives from DIA, unified commands, service elements, and other agencies. It is responsible for ensuring the adequacy of general intelligence training. Within its assigned general intelligence functional area, the GITAC is responsible for the technical review and assessment of joint and executive agent training requirements and curricula.

General Intelligence Training Council (GITC). The senior level DoD body responsible for recommending overall management of the DoD General Intelligence Training System. Chaired by the DIA, formal membership includes senior representatives from each military service, USACOM, and CIO.

general intelligence training requirement. A concise statement of need, including a definition of the job performance requirement, expressed by the GITS element, validated by the appropriate headquarters, and submitted to the appropriate training authority.

General Intelligence Training System (GITS). DIA and military service elements responsible for the planning, programming, management, and conduct of general intelligence and general intelligence-related training and organizations/command that conduct general intelligence operations.

general map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map of small scale used for general planning purposes. See also map.

general military intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence concerning the

l Military capabilities of foreign countries or organizations.

l Topics affecting potential US or allied military operations, relating to the following subjects: armed forces capabilities, including order of battle, organization, training, tactics, doctrine, strategy, and other factors bearing on military strength and effectiveness; area and terrain intelligence, including urban areas, coasts and landing beaches, and meteorological, oceanographic, and geological intelligence; transportation in all modes; military materiel production and support industries; military and civilian C4 systems; military economics, including foreign military assistance; insurgency and terrorism; military-political-sociological intelligence; location, identification, and description of military-related installations; government control; escape and evasion; and threats and forecasts. (Excludes scientific and technical intelligence.)

See also intelligence; military intelligence.

general orders. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Permanent instructions, issued in order form, that apply to all members of a command, as compared with special orders, which affect only individuals or small groups. General orders are usually concerned with matters of policy or administration.

l A series of permanent guard orders that govern the duties of a sentry on post.

general provisions. [DSMC] The mandatory (by law or regulation) clauses for all DoD contracts for the type of procurement involved — sometimes called boiler plate. The clauses devised particularly for the procurement are called special provisions.

general purchasing agents. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Agents who have been appointed in the principal overseas areas of operations to supervise, control, coordinate, negotiate, and develop the local procurement of supplies, services, and facilities by United States Armed Forces, in order that the most effective utilization may be made of local resources and production.

general purpose test equipment. [DSMC] Mechanical, hydraulic, electrical, electronics, or other test equipment which, without modification or alteration, has more than one use and is not limited to a special or peculiar research, development, production, maintenance, or test application.

general purpose trainer. A trainer that can be configured through hardware or software changes to represent more than one operational system.

general purpose user. A term used to indicate that the operator of a piece of equipment holds the MOS most prevalent in the unit. For example: MOS 19D is the general purpose user of the M577A1 in the cavalry squadron; CMF 13 is the general purpose user in an artillery unit.

general quarters. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A condition of readiness when naval action is imminent. All battle stations are fully manned and alert; ammunition is ready for instant loading; guns and guided missile launchers may be loaded.

general reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Reserve of troops under the control of the overall commander. See also floating reserve.

general skill. An ability having wide application and transferability.

general specification. [DSMC] A general specification covers requirements common to two or more types, classes, grades, or styles of products, services, or materials avoiding the repetition of common requirements in detail specifications. It also permits changes to common requirements to be readily effected. General specifications may also be used to cover common requirements for weapon systems and subsystems.

general staff. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A group of officers in the headquarters of Army or Marine divisions, Marine brigades and aircraft wings, or similar or larger units that assist their commanders in planning, coordinating, and supervising operations. A general staff may consist of four or more principal functional sections: personnel (G1), military intelligence (G2), operations and training (G3), logistics (G4), and (in Army organizations) civil affairs/military government (G5). (A particular section may be added or eliminated by the commander, dependent upon the need that has been demonstrated.) The comparable Air Force staff is found in the wing and larger units, with sections designated personnel, operations, etc. G2 air and G3 air are Army officers assigned to G2 or G3 at division, corps, and Army headquarters level who assist in planning and coordinating joint operations of ground and air units. Naval staffs ordinarily are not organized on these lines, but when they are, they are designated N1, N2, etc. Similarly, a joint staff may be designated J1, J2, etc. In Army brigades and smaller units and in Marine Corps units smaller than a brigade or aircraft wing, staff sections are designated S1, S2, etc., with corresponding duties; referred to as a unit staff in the Army and as an executive staff in the Marine Corps. See also staff.

general stopping power. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The percentage of a group of vehicles in battle formation likely to be stopped by mines when attempting to cross a minefield.

general support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That support which is given to the supported force as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof. See also close support; direct support; mutual support; support.

general support artillery. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Artillery which executes the fire directed by the commander of the unit to which it organically belongs or is attached. It fires in support of the operation as a whole rather than in support of a specific subordinate unit.

general support rocket system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A multiple rocket launcher system that supplements cannon artillery by delivery of large quantities of firepower in a short time against critical, time-sensitive targets.

general support-reinforcing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tactical artillery mission. General support-reinforcing artillery has the mission of supporting the force as a whole and of providing reinforcing fires for another artillery unit.

general unloading period. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In amphibious operations, that part of the ship-to-shore movement in which unloading is primarily logistic in character, and emphasizes speed and volume of unloading operations. It encompasses the unloading of units and cargo from the ships as rapidly as facilities on the beach permit. It proceeds without regard to class, type, or priority of cargo, as permitted by cargo handling facilities ashore. See also initial unloading period.

general war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Armed conflict between major powers in which the total resources of the belligerents are employed, and the national survival of a major belligerent is in jeopardy.

generation. The number of times a reproduction is removed from the original source. A copy of the original is a first generation, a copy of that is a second generation, and so forth.

generation (photography). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The preparation of successive positive/negative reproductions from an original negative/ positive (first-generation). For example, the first positive produced from an original negative is a second-generation product; the negative made from this positive is a third-generation product; and the next positive or print from that negative is a fourth-generation product.

generic courseware. Courseware that is not specific to one organization and appeals to a broader market.

generic task. [TR 350-70] A task that is very broad in scope, such as repair an engine. It is really a summary of individual tasks which share some, but not all, of the same task performance specifications. Skills, knowledges, safety hazards, environmental factors, and performance steps can not be adequately identified for a generic task. TRADOC training proponents will not develop or use generic tasks.

generic trainer. A trainer designed to provide training on a type or class of equipment as opposed to a specific system. See general purpose trainer.

generic training. [TR 350-70] This is the training of skills and knowledge that support a number of individual critical tasks, e.g., tracing an electric circuit is a shill that supports a number of critical tasks. These skills and knowledge were identified during the task analyses of approved critical tasks.

generic videodisk. Videodisk material that can be used with courseware developed by more than one organization; disks associated with the subject matter but not with a particular course.

geodetic datum. See datum (geodetic).

geographic coordinates. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The quantities of latitude and longitude which define the position of a point on the surface of the Earth with respect to the reference spheroid. See also coordinates.

geographic reference points. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A means of indicating position, usually expressed either as double letters or as code words that are established in operation orders or by other means.

georef. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A worldwide position reference system that may be applied to any map or chart graduated in latitude and longitude regardless of projection. It is a method of expressing latitude and longitude in a form suitable for rapid reporting and plotting. (This term is derived from the words "The World Geographic Reference System.")

geospatial information and services (GI&S). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The concept for collection, information extraction, storage, dissemination, and exploitation of geodetic, geomagnetic, imagery (both commercial and national source), gravimetric, aeronautical, topographic, hydrographic, littoral, cultural, and toponymic data accurately referenced to a precise location on the earth's surface. These data are used for military planning, training, and operations including navigation, mission planning, mission rehearsal, modeling, simulation and precise targeting. Geospatial information provides the basic framework for battlespace visualization. It is information produced by multiple sources to common interoperable data standards. It may be presented in the form of printed maps, charts, and publications; in digital simulation and modeling data bases; in photographic form; or in the form of digitized maps and charts or attributed centerline data. Geospatial services include tools that enable users to access and manipulate data, and also includes instruction, training, laboratory support, and guidance for the use of geospatial data.

get well. [DSMC] To solve a program problem. Usually implies requirement for, or discovery of, additional funding.

given. [DSMC] A premise, fact, or assumption generally universally accepted at the outset.

glide bomb. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A bomb fitted with airfoils to provide lift and which is carried and released in the direction of a target by an airplane.

glide mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In a flight control system, a control mode in which an aircraft is automatically positioned to the center of the glide slope course.

Global Command and Control System (GCCS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Highly mobile, deployable command and control system supporting forces for joint and multinational operations across the range of military operations, any time and anywhere in the world with compatible, interoperable, and integrated command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence systems. See also command and control; command and control system.

global grid. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An open systems architecture that provides global connectivity instantaneously on warrior demand. The global grid can support both vertical and horizontal information flow to joint and multinational forces. See also common operating environment; node/command, control, communications, and computers node.

global information infrastructure (GII). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The worldwide interconnection of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that make vast amounts of information available to users. The global information infrastructure encompasses a wide range of equipment, including cameras, scanners, keyboards, facsimile machines, computers, switches, compact disks, video and audio tape, cable, wire, satellites, fiber-optic transmission lines, networks of all types, televisions, monitors, printers, and much more. The friendly and adversary personnel who make decisions and handle the transmitted informaiton constitute a critical component of the global information infrastructure. See also Defense Information Infrastructure; information; information system; National information infrastructure.

Global Patient Movement Requirements Center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A joint activity reporting directly to the Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command, the Department of Defense single manager for the regulation of movement of uniformed services patients. The Global Patient Movement Requirements Center authorizes transfers to medical treatment facilities of the Military Departments or the Department of Veterans Affairs and coordinates intertheater and inside continental United States patient movement requirements with the appropriate transportation component commands of US Transportation Command. See also medical treatment facility.

global transportation management (GTM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The integrated process of satisfying transportation requirements using the Defense Transportation System to meet national security objectives. The process begins with planning, programming and budgeting for transportation assets, services and associated systems and continues through delivery of the users transportation movement requirements. See also Defense Transportation System; global transportation network.

global transportation network (GTN). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The automated support necessary to enable USTRANSCOM and its components to provide global transportation management. The global transportation network provides the integrated transportation data and systems necessary to accomplish global transportation planning, command and control, and in-transit visibility across the range of military operations. See also command and control; global transportation management; in-transit visibility; United States Transportation Command.

go around mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an automatic flight control system, a control mode which terminates an aircraft approach and programs a climb.

go no-go. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The condition or state of operability of a component or system: go, functioning properly; or no-go, not functioning properly. 2[DSMC] The decision on whether or not to proceed (with a program).

GO/NO-GO – pass or fail. [TR 350-70] This is an absolute measure: the performer either performed or did not perform the action described in the learning objective, met or did not meet the performance criteria. The performer cannot partially pass. The performer either passes (meets the standard and receives a GO) or fails (does not meet the standard and receives a NO-GO).

goal. [DSMC] Something to which one aspires for a program, or a point aimed at for achievement.

goal analysis. A method of analyzing the affective requirements of an instructional program.

Golden Crescent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The heroin-producing countries of Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan.

Golden Triangle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A remote area where the countries of Myanmar (formerly Burma), Thailand, and Laos meet.

goldie. The term, peculiar to air support radar team operations, indicating that the aircraft automatic flight-control system and ground-control bombing system are engaged and awaiting electronic ground control commands.

goldie lock. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The term, peculiar to air support radar team operations, indicating ground controller has electronic control of the aircraft.

Goldwater-Nichols. [DSMC] Name given to the Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, which restructured certain aspects of DoD management. Named for Senator Barry Goldwater and Representative Bill Nichols, co-authors.

GOLDWING. A portable communications system for transmitting weather products in forward areas.

goods. [DSMC] Any articles, materials, supplies, or manufactured products, including inspection and test equipment. The term excludes technical data.

Government acquisition quality assurance. [DSMC] The function by which the government determines whether a contractor has fulfilled contractual obligations pertaining to quality and quantity.

Government furnished equipment (GFE). Hardware/ software that has been selected to be furnished by the [U.S.] Government to a contractor or Government activity for installation in, for use with, or in support of the system/equipment. See government furnished property (GFP)

Government furnished information (GFI). [TR 350-70] GFI lists and describes data and information in the possession of or acquired by the Government and made available to the contractor. For training development contracts, proponents will most commonly provide the contractor with GFI in the form of outputs from the in-house performance of previous SAT phases. For example, if a proponent decides to contract out the development of a training course, the proponent would provide the contractor with the analysis and design data as critical inputs to the development phase.

Government furnished material (GFM). [DSMC] Material is government property which may be incorporated into or attached to an end item to be delivered under a contract or which may be consumed in the performance of a contract. It includes, but is not limited to, raw and processed material, parts, components, assemblies, and small tools and supplies.

Government furnished property (GFP). 1Property (e.g., real and personal, including facilities, materiel, special tooling, special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property) in the possession of or directly acquired by the Government and subsequently made available to the contractor. Documents, equipment, facilities, and services supplied to a contractor before and during the execution of a contract. 2[TR 350-70] GFP lists and describes property in the possession of or acquired by the Government and made available to the contractor. Types of GFP include facilities, utilities, equipment, and materials.

Government Information Locator Service (GILS). [TP 25-71] GILS is a Federal Government service to help the general public locate and access information throughout the Federal Government. It describes the information available in those resources, and provides assistance in obtaining the information. GILS uses network technology and international standards for information search and retrieval. These standards are described in the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 192, "Application Profile for the Government Information Locator Service."

Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP). An applications portability profile interface definition for data communication network services in an open systems environment (OSE). GOSIP is a Federal information processing standard (FIPS), FIPS 146, that requires agencies to buy data communication products and services complying with a set of international standards called The Open Systems Interconnectivity.

Government property (GP). All property (e.g., real and personal, including facilities, materiel, special tooling, special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property) owned by or leased to the Government, acquired by the Government under the terms of the contract, or property acquired by the contractor for performing a contract and to which the Government has title. It includes contractor-acquired property, Government furnished equipment, government furnished information, government furnished material, and government furnished property.

Government purpose license rights. [DSMC] Rights to use, duplicate, or disclose technical data for government purposes only, and to have or permit others to do so for government purposes only. Government purposes include competitive procurement, but do not include the right to permit others to use for commercial purposes.

government-owned, contract-operated ships. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those ships to which the US Government holds title and which the Military Sealift Command operates under a contract (i.e., nongovernment-manned). These ships are designated United States Naval Ships and use the prefix "USNS" with the ship name and the letter "T" as a prefix to the ship classification (e.g., T-AKR). See also Military Sealift Command; United States Naval Ship.

Government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO). [DSMC] A manufacturing plant that is owned by the government and operated by a contractual civilian organization.

Government-owned government-operated (GOGO). [DSMC] A manufacturing plant that is both owned and operated by the government.

Government-owned, Military Sealift Command operated ships. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those ships to which the U.S. Government holds title and which the Military Sealift Command operates with U.S. Government (civil service) employees. These ships are designated United States Naval Ships and use the prefix USNS with the ship name and the letter T as a prefix to the ship classification (e.g., T-AKR). See also Military Sealift Command; United States Naval Ship.

Government-wide FACENET. Government-wide FACNET means that the Federal Government has certified its FACNET capability, and more than 75 percent of eligible contracts (not otherwise exempted from FACNET) in amounts exceeding the micro-purchase threshold, but not exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold, entered into by the executive agencies during the preceding fiscal year were made through electronic automated information systems with full FACNET certification.

Government/Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). A cooperative data interchange among [U.S.] Government and industry participants seeking to reduce or eliminate expenditures of time and money by making maximum use of existing knowledge. GIDEP provides a means to exchange certain types of data essential during the life cycle of systems and equipment.

gradient. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The rate of inclination to horizontal expressed as a ratio, such as 1:25, indicating a one unit rise to 25 units of horizontal distance.

gradient circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, a circuit which is actuated when the rate of change, with time, of the magnitude of the influence is within predetermined limits.

grand slam. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All enemy aircraft originally sighted are shot down.

graphic. 1A visual representation of an idea, object, or other factors, shown by means of lines, marks, shapes, and symbols. A still picture, illustration, symbol, shape, or other visual image (e.g., charts, graphs, line drawings, illustrations, equipment panels, animation, 3-D). 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any and all products of the cartographic and photogrammetric art. A graphic may be a map, chart, or mosaic or even a film strip that was produced using cartographic techniques.

graphic artist. One who designs and prepares a wide variety of visual illustrations such as graphs, charts, and diagrams.

graphic overlay. Computer generated text/graphics superimposed onto video (moving or still).

graphic scale. 1In training, a measurement device which includes some type of number line on which students indicate their attitude toward a social object. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A graduated line by means of which distances on the map, chart, or photograph may be measured in terms of ground distance. See also scale.

graphic training aid (GTA). [TR 350-70] A GTA provides a means for trainers to conduct and sustain task-based training without using extensive printed material or an expensive piece of equipment. The uses of GTAs range from quick reference training aids to simulation games for a battalion.

graphics library. The storage and documentation of graphics that are built within the units of interactive courseware. Graphics can be pulled from the library and be inserted into other units of interactive courseware.

graphics output device. Used to display or output an image.

grapnel. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a mine mooring designed to grapple the sweep wire when the mooring is cut.

grass roots cost estimate. [DSMC] See engineering cost estimate.

graticule. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In cartography, a network of lines representing the Earth's parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.

l In imagery interpretation, see reticle.

graticule ticks. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, short lines indicating where selected meridians and parallels intersect.

graves registration. Supervision and execution of matters pertaining to the identification, removal, and burial of the dead, and collection and processing of their effects. See also burial.

graves registration program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A program which provides for search, recovery, tentative identification, and evacuation, or temporary interment. Temporary interment is only authorized by the geographic combatant commander. Disposition of personal effects is included in this program. See also personal effects.

gravity extraction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The extraction of cargoes from the aircraft by influence of their own weight. See also extraction parachute.

graze. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that all bursts occurred on impact.

grazing fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire approximately parallel to the ground where the center of the cone of fire does not rise above one meter from the ground. See also fire.

gray propaganda. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Propaganda that does not specifically identify any source. See also propaganda.

grid. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Two sets of parallel lines intersecting at right angles and forming squares; the grid is superimposed on maps, charts, and other similar representations of the Earth's surface in an accurate and consistent manner to permit identification of ground locations with respect to other locations and the computation of direction and distance to other points.

l A term used in giving the location of a geographic point by grid coordinates.

See also military grid; military grid reference system.

grid bearing. Bearing measured from grid north.

grid convergence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The horizontal angle at a place between true north and grid north. It is proportional to the longitude difference between the place and the central meridian. See also convergence.

grid convergence factor. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ratio of the grid convergence angle to the longitude difference. In the Lambert Conical Orthomorphic projection, this ratio is constant for all charts based on the same two standard parallels. See also convergence; grid convergence.

grid coordinate system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A plane-rectangular coordinate system usually based on, and mathematically adjusted to, a map projection in order that geographic positions (latitudes and longitudes) may be readily transformed into plane coordinates and the computations relating to them may be made by the ordinary method of plane surveying. See also coordinates.

grid coordinates. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Coordinates of a grid coordinate system to which numbers and letters are assigned for use in designating a point on a gridded map, photograph, or chart. See also coordinates.

grid interval. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The distance represented between the lines of a grid.

grid magnetic angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Angular difference in direction between grid north and magnetic north. It is measured east or west from grid north. Grid magnetic angle is sometimes called grivation and/or grid variation.

grid navigation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of navigation using a grid overlay for direction reference. See also navigational grid.

grid north. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The northerly or zero direction indicated by the grid datum of directional reference.

grid ticks. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Small marks on the neatline of a map or chart indicating additional grid reference systems included on that sheet. Grid ticks are sometimes shown on the interior grid lines of some maps for ease of referencing.

grid variation. See grid magnetic angle.

grivation. See grid magnetic angle.

gross error. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nuclear weapon detonation at such a distance from the desired ground zero as to cause no nuclear damage to the target.

gross weight. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Weight of a vehicle, fully equipped and serviced for operation, including the weight of the fuel, lubricants, coolant, vehicle tools and spares, crew, personal equipment, and load.

l Weight of a container or pallet including freight and binding.

See also net weight.

grossly transportation feasible. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A determination made by the supported commander that a draft operation plan can be supported with the apportioned transportation assets. This determination is made by using a transportation feasibility estimator to simulate movement of personnel and cargo from port of embarkation to port of debarkation within a specified time frame.

ground alert. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That status in which aircraft on the ground/ deck are fully serviced and armed, with combat crews in readiness to take off within a specified short period of time (usually 15 minutes) after receipt of a mission order. See also airborne alert; alert.

ground combat element. See Marine air-ground task force.

ground control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system of accurate measurements used to determine the distances and directions or differences in elevation between points on the Earth. See also common control (artillery); control point; field control; traverse.

ground control (geodetic). See ground control.

ground controlled interception. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A technique which permits control of friendly aircraft or guided missiles for the purpose of effecting interception. See also air interception.

ground fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Small arms ground-to-air fire directed against aircraft.

ground liaison officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer trained in offensive air support activities. Ground liaison officers are normally organized into parties under the control of the appropriate Army commander to provide liaison to Air Force and naval units engaged in training and combat operations.

ground liaison party. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An army unit consisting of a variable number of personnel responsible for liaison with a tactical air support agency.

ground liaison section. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An army unit consisting of a variable number of army officers, other ranks, and vehicles responsible for army/air liaison, under control of army headquarters.

ground mine. See bottom mine.

ground nadir. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The point on the ground vertically beneath the perspective center of the camera lens. On a true vertical photograph this coincides with the principal point.

ground observer center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A center to which ground observer teams report and which in turn will pass information to the appropriate control and/or reporting agency.

ground observer team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Small units or detachments deployed to provide information of aircraft movements over a defended area, obtained either by aural or visual means.

ground position. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The position on the Earth vertically below an aircraft.

ground readiness. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That status wherein aircraft can be armed and serviced and personnel alerted to take off within a specified length of time after receiving orders.

ground return. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The reflection from the terrain as displayed and/or recorded as an image.

ground signals. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A visual signal displayed on an airfield to give local air traffic rules information to flight crews in the air.

ground speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The horizontal component of the speed of an aircraft relative to the Earth's surface.

ground speed mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In a flight control system, a control mode in which the ground speed of an aircraft is automatically controlled to a computed value.

ground visibility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Prevailing horizontal visibility near the Earth's surface as reported by an accredited observer.

ground zero. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The point on the surface of the Earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of a planned or actual nuclear detonation. See also actual ground zero; desired ground zero.

ground-controlled approach procedure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The technique for talking down, through the use of both surveillance and precision approach radar, an aircraft during its approach so as to place it in a position for landing. See also automatic approach and landing.

grounding. The bonding of an equipment case, frame or chassis, to an object or vehicle structure to ensure a common potential. See also bonding; earthing.

group. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A flexible administrative and tactical unit composed of either two or more battalions or two or more squadrons. The term also applies to combat support and combat service support units.

l A number of ships and/or aircraft, normally a subdivision of a force, assigned for a specific purpose.

group burial. A burial in a common grave of two or more individually unidentified remains. See also burial.

group interment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An interment in a common grave of two or more individually unidentified remains. See also emergency interment; mortuary affairs; temporary interment; trench interment.

group lock-step instruction. Instructor centered training with fixed periods of instruction. All class members or small groups are instructed on the same task at the same time. See lock-step instruction.

group management plan. Arrangement whereby instruction is scheduled and conducted for groups instead of individuals.

group of targets. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Two or more targets on which fire is desired simultaneously. A group of targets is designated by a letter/number combination or a nickname.

group rendezvous. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A check point at which formations of the same type will join before proceeding. See also force rendezvous.

group training. A group of people gathered together for the purpose of receiving information or instruction in the performance of some specific task.

group trial. [TR 350-70] The tryout of a training course on a representative sample of the target population. It is used to gather data on the effectiveness of instruction based on error rates, criterion test performance, and time to complete the course. See field test.

group-paced instruction. Students progress as a group at a rate equal to that of the slowest student. There is no fixed minimum time for a unit.

group-paced training. [TR 350-70] A mode of instruction where soldiers move through a course as a group and accomplish milestones together. Often the rapid learners may assist slower ones so that they all finish at the same time.

guarantee. [DSMC] Congressional language term for contractor warranty. See warranty.

guard. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A security element whose primary task is to protect the main force by fighting to gain time, while also observing and reporting information.

l [JP 1-02] (DoD) A radio frequency that is normally used for emergency transmissions and is continuously monitored. UHF band: 243.0 MHZ; VHF band: 121.5 MHZ.

See also flank guard; screen.

guard tracks or guard bands. The protective bands sometimes inserted between tracks of recorded material on audio or video tape to prevent crosstalk between unrelated tracks.

guerrilla. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A combat participant in guerrilla warfare. See also unconventional warfare.

guerrilla force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A group of irregular, predominantly indigenous personnel organized along military lines to conduct military and paramilitary operations in enemy-held, hostile, or denied territory.

guerrilla warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Military and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy-held or hostile territory by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces. See also unconventional warfare.

guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Policy, direction, decision, or instruction having the effect of an order when promulgated by a higher echelon.

l The entire process by which target intelligence information received by the guided missile is used to effect proper flight control to cause timely direction changes for effective target interception.

See also active homing guidance; celestial guidance; command guidance; homing guidance; inertial guidance; midcourse guidance; passive homing guidance; preset guidance; semi-active homing guidance; stellar guidance; terminal guidance; terrestrial reference guidance.

guidance coverage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That volume of space in which guidance information (azimuth and/or elevation and/or distance) is provided to aircraft to the specified performance and accuracy. This may be specified either with relation to airfield/airstrip geometry, making assumptions about deployment of ground equipment, or with relation to the coverage provided by individual ground units.

guidance station equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ground-based portion of the missile guidance system necessary to provide guidance during missile flight.

guide specification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Minimum requirements to be used as a basis for the evaluation of a national specification covering a fuel, lubricant or associated product proposed for standardization action.

guided discussion method. A learning experience in which students participate in an instructor-controlled, interactive process of sharing information and experiences related to achieving an instructional objective.

guided missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An unmanned vehicle moving above the surface of the Earth whose trajectory or flight path is capable of being altered by an external or internal mechanism. See also aerodynamic missile; ballistic missile.

guided missile cruiser. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A warship designed to operate with strike and amphibious forces against air, surface, and subsurface threats. Normal armaments consist of 5-inch guns, an advanced area-defense antiair-warfare missile system, and antisubmarine-warfare weapons. Designated as CG.

guided missile destroyer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) For mission, see destroyer. This destroyer type is equipped with Standard guided missiles, naval guns, long-range sonar, and antisubmarine-warfare weapons, including ASROC. Designated as DDG.

guided missile equipment carrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A self-propelled, full-tracked, amphibious, air transportable, unarmored carrier for various guided missile systems and their equipment.

guided missile frigate. Equipped with Standard missile launchers, 5"/54 or 76-mm gun battery, torpedoes, embarked helicopters, and towed array sonar. Designated as FFG. See also frigate.

guided missile submarine. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A submarine designed to have an additional capability to launch guided missile attacks. Designated as SSG and SSGN. The SSGN is nuclear powered.

guinea-pig. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a ship used to determine whether an area can be considered safe from mines under certain conditions, or, specifically, to detonate pressure mines.

gull.[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In electronic warfare, a floating radar reflector used to simulate a surface target at sea for deceptive purposes.

gun. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A cannon with relatively long barrel, operating with relatively low angle of fire, and having a high muzzle velocity.

l A cannon with tube length 30 calibers or more.

See also howitzer; mortar.

gun carriage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mobile or fixed support for a gun. It sometimes includes the elevating and traversing mechanisms. Also called carriage.

gun-target line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An imaginary straight line from the gun(s) to the target. See also spotting line.

gun-type weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device in which two or more pieces of fissionable material, each less than a critical mass, are brought together very rapidly so as to form a supercritical mass that can explode as the result of a rapidly expanding fission chain.

guns/weapons free. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, means fire may be opened on all aircraft not recognized as friendly.

guns/weapons tight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, means do not open fire, or cease firing on any aircraft (or on bogey specified, or in section indicated) unless target(s) known to be hostile.

gyro-magnetic compass. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A directional gyroscope whose azimuth scale is maintained in alignment with the magnetic meridian by a magnetic detector unit.