`Moscow '95':
All of Russia's New Planes, Missiles, Satellites

Nos. 1529, 1530, 1531; 1,8,15 Sep 95 [Three-part report, by special correspondents Jean- Pierre Casamayou, Christian Lardier, and Pierre Langereux, at Moscow-Zhukovskiy Aerospace Show]

[1 Sep 95 No. 1529, pp 13-19]

Although introducing a few surprises--in the military sector, new airborne detection equipment, a scramjet-powered missile; and in space, new rockets and satellites--this fourth Moscow aerospace show, displaying greater realism, played the spotlight mainly on commercial planes.

Moscow's fourth aerospace show, held at the Zhukovskiy Flight Test Base, 22-27 August of this year, seems to have attained cruising speed. Having taken the measure of its Bourget and Farnborough counterparts, it matched their professionalism in the exposition of equipment and exhibits by the participating firms. More than 400 firms attended from 23 countries, and 120 planes were exhibited. The Western presence was strong, with some 60-odd firms and 13 planes. For once, commercial planes took precedence over military planes, while in the space sector the emphasis was placed on the modernization of current launchers, and on the revamping of satellite telecommunications networks. The principal characteristic of this show, marking its coming of age, was its return to realism. After the period of euphoria that succeeded its debut in 1990, and that gave rise to a multitude of projects and alliances with Western firms, the industrialists of both camps have become more pragmatic. The numerous difficulties and setbacks that marked many of the joint aeronautical projects have borne their fruits.

Thus, several programs--the MM-1 cargo plane (Miassischev and Tec Avia) and Galaxy executive plane (Yakovlev and IAI) programs, for example--have been halted. In addition, all the aircraft manufacturers have given up announcing order projections as fabulous as they were unrealistic.

The snail's pace at which business moves is also there as a reminder that working jointly with the Russian aeronautics industry in crisis is difficult. In general, all of the projects announced during the preceding shows are running two to three years behind schedule, be they domestic Russian programs (100-passenger Tu-334 plane, Ka- 62 helicopter) or joint programs (delayed certifications of the Tu-204-120, Falcon stabilizers produced by MiG). Another unaccustomed point: The emphasis placed on the introduction of companies. The design bureaus unveiled their present and planned alliances with the production entities, to form companies on the Western model. In the planes sector, MiG has merged with the Moscow production entity to create "MiG-MAPO." Tupolev is following suit with the creation of a holding company to control the design firm and the Taganrog, Kiev, Ulyanovsk (Aviastar), and Samara (Aviakor) production entities. And most recently Ilyushin has officially merged with the Voronezh plant (which builds the Il-96) and the Chkalov plant in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Mikhail Simonev, general manager of Sukhoy, for his part, announced that his design bureau is merging with the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant, Irkutsk's IAPO plant, and Novosibirsk's NAPO plant.

The production centers, which formerly operated under the supervision of the design bureaus are now enjoying a degree of independence. Several of them modeled their promotional approach on the Western style: slick brochures and press conferences. Notably in this regard, the Ulan-Ude center presented its latest production: a modernized version of the Su-25 attack plane. And the Irkutsk production organization (IAPO) highlighted its production of Sukhoy fighter bombers and the fabrication of the initial prototypes of the Be-200 transport hydroplane. Despite the difficulties that Russian industry is encountering, this show was rich in new departures, both civil and military. With regard to commercial planes, Tupolev was incontestably the star of the Moscow '95 Aerospace Show. Although he hopes to "continue producing strategic bombers," which he has made one of Tupolev's specialties (Tu-22M and Tu-160), general builder Valentin Klimov is now centering his strategy on the development of three families of commercial airliners: the Tu-334, shown for the first time officially on this occasion; the Tu-204, which is entering service; and the Tu-304 (equivalent of the Boeing 777) whose launching was announced.

Commercial Planes: Projects Nearing Completion

After a completion delay of two years, owing mainly to equipment delivery delays, the finished 100-passenger Tu- 334 was finally presented officially. It is a short-range plane powered by two Progress D-436T jet engines, each developing a thrust of 75 kN, and is designed to transport 102 passengers over a distance of 2,000 km. The engines are mounted astern and the plane's fuselage is again that of the Tu-204, with a new wing whose aerodynamics aroused the admiration of the Western experts. According to the managers of the program, flight tests can be expected to begin in two months. Meanwhile, other versions have already been developed: a cargo version Tu-334C, and a "stretched" version to increase seating capacity to 126 seats, the Tu- 354. The Taganrog and Kiev plants will produce the cargo version of this family, and the Samara plant the "stretched" version.

But the Moscow builder's battle-steed remains the Tu- 204 family. Its basic model, the Tu-204-100, powered by two Perm Aviadvigatel PS-90A engines, has had some rather jarring entries into on-line service owing to lack of reliability of its engines. The Tu-204-100 version was certificated in December 1994, but certification of the Tu- 120, powered by Rolls-Royce RB211-535's, is still awaited. This is not preventing the Russian engineers from continuing the development of the family. Thus, the Tu-204C cargo version and especially the Tu-234 were both presented at Zhukovskiy, the latter for the first time publicly before the start of its flight tests.

This plane is a shortened version of the Tu-204 (by 6 meters). It can transport 150 to 160 passengers, taking off from short runways (2,000 meters). More specifically designed for the Far East and Siberia, it is being offered in two versions: 84 metric tons [mt] of MTOW [maximum weight at takeoff] with a distance range of 3,000 km, and 103 mt of MTOW with a distance range of 9,000 km. Like the rest of the Tu-204 family, it has an "all-screens" cockpit (six multi-function screens), and although it can be flown by two pilots, it is designed to accommodate two additional crew members.

But the big news was the announcement of the launching of the Tu-304 program, a family of twin-engined wide bodies of the Boeing 777 and Airbus 330 class. Since Russia does not produce an engine of the range of thrust required for this program, Tupolev has opted for the Rolls-Royce Trent 890 (400 kN of thrust), and has signed a memorandum of agreement with Rolls-Royce. This wide-bodied plane (fuselage 62 m long and 57 m in circumference) will be able to transport up to 400 passengers over a distance in excess of 10,000 km. It will have an MTOW of 245 mt (55 mt of payload) and will be capable of a 15-percent weight upgrade. If the government gives the green light to the launching of the program by the end of this year as called for by its calendar, building of the prototype at Kazan could commence around the end of 1998, leading to a first flight by the beginning of year 2000 and a certification by the end of 2001.

The actual launching of the Tu-330 cargo plane of the An-70 and future FLA class (30 mt of payload over a range of 3,000 km), will depend on obtainment of the necessary loans. Although the government has authorized a preproduction launching of 10 planes last year, Tupolev acknowledged that the financing has not followed. A mockup of this twin-engined (two PS90A's) high-winged plane, which incorporates 75 percent of the elements of the Tu-204, is nearing completion.

The pace of design studies of previously announced high-speed planes has slowed to an idle. The Tu-2000 hypersonic plane project is virtually at a standstill. Research on the supersonic commercial plane alone continues, thanks to American contracts. A Tu-144 has been reconditioned to flight worthiness (retrofitted with 250-kN- thrust NK-32 engines of the Tu-160). According to Alexandre Pukhov, the project manager, it is scheduled to make its first flights around the beginning of next year, to serve NASA.

At Ilyushin, the big news was the Il-76 MF cargo plane, whose first flight, made at Tashkent in Uzbekistan, dated back only to 1 August of this year. It is a "stretched" version--by 6.6 m, in two 3.3-meter sections fore and aft of the wing--of the famed Russian cargo plane more than 900 units of which were produced. With its four PS-90A engines in place of the old D-30's, it has a payload capacity of 52 mt--an increase of 4 mt over that of the preceding version. With an MTOW of 210 mt, it can transport 40 mt over a range of 5,800 km.

The situation of the airliners is status quo.

Aeroflot's order for 20 Il-96-M's is still contingent upon obtsention of a U.S. Import-Export Bank loan to finance the equipment, including the PW2337 motors, that is to be supplied by 15 American firms involved in the program. Under Boeing's severe pressure, the loan was frozen. But American experts are expected to arrive in Moscow this month to reach a decision that, according to Pratt & Whitney, will be favorable to the Russian-American program. The project to retrofit the Il-86 and Il-76 with CFM56 engines remains virtually unchanged. Its takeoff is tied to the setting up of a financial holding company that would take over the financing of the transformations and then the leasing of the planes to Aeroflot.

The Ukranian firm Antonov's disclosure of the existence of an An-71 radar plane (see Box 2 [end of Part 1]) aroused considerable comment. For the rest, Antonov was content to announce that, after the accident suffered by its first An-70 cargo plane powered by turboprop-jet engines, work was being speeded up on another prototype which is scheduled to begin its flight tests next year. Antonov has also started building the prototype of its An- 140 commuter plane.

As regards combat planes, the new releases such as the An-71 and the Ka-31 radar helicopter were insufficient to assuage the disappointment of not seeing the awaited stars: the Su-35 No. 711 powered by vectored-thrust engines, and especially MiG's I-42.

Sukhoy acknowledged that optimization problems were delaying the development of the Su-35 No. 711, and that the experimental plane could not be shown. As for the I-42, MiG's general builder, Rotislav Beliakov, stated that the defense minister had personally opposed its public presentation "so as to not reveal its revolutionary characteristics too soon"!

Actually, it appears that this "multifunction" interceptor program, designated the MFI by MiG, is also facing development problems. This stealth fighter, of the American F-22 class, is already 3 years behind schedule, owing principally to the difficulty of optimizing its Liulka-Saturn Al-41 steerable-nozzle jet engines, derived from the Al-31F's that power the Su-27 family. In the absence of these show-stealers, the builders cast the spotlight on the latest versions of their current production. Sukhoy's main entries were its Su-35 multi- mission fighter and its Su-32FN fighter bomber, derived from the Su-34 and previously presented at the Bourget Air Show in June. Mikhail Simonov had to disclose that "negotiations are under way with a foreign country on a contract for the production of a dozen planes of this type over a 2-year period." It is being offered at the price of $36 million (180 million francs [Fr]).

He also presented an upgraded version of the twin- engined Su-25 jet fighter. This model, produced by the Ulan-Ude plant and baptized the Su-25TM, possesses a guidance system that, according to Mikhail Simonov, is "unique in the world." It consists of a Kopyo radar mounted in a pod below the fuselage--enabling the all-weather sighting of ground targets, as well as air-to-air combat-- and coupled with the traditional Klyon laser fire-control system. According to the general manager, the overall performance capabilities of the weapons system have been improved by a factor of 20. "The probability of destruction of a moving target at a distance of 8 km is greater than 90 percent," he says. It is to be noted that this attack plane possesses an array of countermeasures that is as yet unknown in the West: Epson system of infrared jamming in bursts, mounted at the foot of the vertical stabilizer; radar detector and jammer at the wingtips; and MSP-410 jammer pod in an external offset housing. In addition, the Soyuz R-195 jet engines were also modified. They can operate on Diesel fuel, and their cooling system has been improved, dropping the turbine front-end temperature from 1000[DEG]C to 200[DEG]C.

MiG, in addition to its now well-known MiG-29 family, presented an upgraded version of the MiG-31 interceptor. This was the Mig-31's first public appearance. This MiG-31 has an enlarged radome designed to accommodate a Zazlon radar with a new electronic-scanning antenna 1.2 times larger in diameter. It is equipped with two small electronic countermeasure balloons at the wing-tips, and has been stretched 20 cm longer than the basic MiG-31. Its D-30F6M motors have a 20 percent greater thrust at takeoff. Overall, the design-rated detection and interception capabilities of this interceptor designed to counter the SR71 have been augmented by 50 percent over those of the original version. According to information obtained at the Show, six units are currently undergoing tests.

Rotislav Beliakov provided a few details concerning the Mig-AT trainer powered by Snecma-Turbomeca Larzacs. Having already commenced its ground testing, it was preparing for its first flight, scheduled to take place within a matter of days. Although the choice between the MiG-AT and its rival Yak-130 is not to be made until after completion of in-flight evaluations, MiG has decided to launch production. Five planes are to be produced this year, and between 15 and 20 next year, after which production will be set at a "cruising-speed" rate of 50 planes a year. This goal may seem optimistic considering that licensing agreement problems have still not been worked out between Snecma/Turbomeca and the Russian engine manufacturer Rybinsk.

New Russian Launchers and Satellites

The Zhukovskiy Show also provided an opportunity to take readings on the progress being made in current programs, particularly in the realm of launchers and telecommunications satellites.

The Khrunichev Space Center exhibited, as it did at the Bourget Air Show (AIR & COSMOS Nos, 1523, 1524, 1526): the FGB module of the international station Alpha; the mini-launcher Rockot, whose first Plessetsk launching is scheduled for 1997; the future Proton-M launcher, which is to fly in 1998; and the new Angara super-rocket. The latter incorporates elements of the Energia, Zenith, and Proton-M rockets. It is to be launched from the Zenith launching platform at Plessetsk. It has a liftoff weight of 640 mt and can put 26 mt into low orbit inclined at 63[DEG]. With a third stage, it can put 3.2 mt (Breeze-M stage) or 4.2 mt (cryogenic stage) into geostationary orbit. Flight tests are to begin during year 2005, and operations in 2006, replacing the Proton, which can be launched only from the Baykonur base--which Russia expects to lease from Kazakhstan for $115 million (Fr575 million) annually until 2014.

Samara's TsSKB [Central Specialized Design Bureau] is currently building the Rus, alias Soyuz-2, rocket that is to replace the Soyuz-U and Molnya-M launchers beginning in 1998. Plessetsk's platform No. 16 is undergoing modifications to adapt it to the Rus launcher, which, in addition to improvements to its guidance and propulsion systems, will be equipped with a new Fregate upper stage developed by Lavotchkine NPO [Scientific Production Association]. The stage will be equipped with a 2-mt-thrust S5-92 motor supplied by Kaliningrad's KhimMash KB [Design Bureau].

TsSKB is also planning two remote-sensing satellites, probably derived from its military reconnaissance digital- communications satellites. They are the Ressource-Spectre-R radar imaging satellite and the Ressource-Spectre-V satellite equipped with two optical cameras (3 to 5 m resolution) and two microwave sounders. They could be launched by Zeniths beginning in 1996. But TsSKB has not launched any Ressource-F satellites over the past two years, and only two military reconnaissance satellites (Yantar type) have been launched since the beginning of 1995. The Poliot firm at Omsk plans to put an improved version of the Cosmos-3M launcher in service in 1998. This version is the Cosmos-U, equipped with improved propulsion and guidance systems. The Cosmos rocket, which launched the Faisat-1 (United States) and Astrid-1 (Sweden) microsatellites in January, had been presented by NASA as an alternative to the American Pegasus-XL mini-launcher after its recent setbacks. The rocket--selling at $10-$12 million (Fr50-Fr60 million), for a payload of 0.5 to 1.5 mt--could have launched NASA scientific satellites. But political pressures put a stop to this project.

Nevertheless, the next Faisat satellite will be launched in January 1996. Poliot also produces the Krasnoyarsk-based PM NPO's navigational satellites. Also shown were the military Cyclone and Parus, and the civil Tsicada and Nadejda, the Uuragan of the Glonass system, and the Nadejda-M the first unit of which was launched this year. The latter combines the Tsicada (navigational), Cospas (rescue), and Course (merchant fleet tracking) systems. Poliot is also offering a new platform for Nadejda satellites that could be used beginning in 1996.

The government's Makeyev Center, prime contractor for the Rikcha mini-launcher project (AIR & COSMOS No. 1523), announced the creation of the KompoMash group, which brings together an array of industrial enterprises employing a total of 65,000 persons and capitalized at $2.6 billion (Fr13 billion). It comprises the following firms: Makeyev at Miass; EnergoMash NPO at Khimki; Kompozit AO [Joint Stock Company] at Kaliningrad; VILS AO in Moscow; TechnoMash NPO in Moscow; Korpus PO [Production Organization] at Saratov; Iskra NPO at Perm; Micropribor NII [Scientific Research Institute] at Zelenograd; RostProdMash AO at Rostov; the Oboukhov plant at Saint- Petersburg; the aircraft manufacturing plant at Tomsk; the electromechanisms manufacturing plant in Moscow; the Vympel plant in Moscow; the medical instruments plant at Mozhaysk; and the electromechanical equipment plant in Moscow. KompoMash also includes the Kora financial group consisting of six banks. The development of the Rikcha mini-launcher, the first launching of which is targeted for 1999, thus seems to be ensured. According to its builder, the investment, estimated at $135 million (Fr675 million) will be recovered after 20 to 22 launches.

Energia NPO presented, alongside models of the Energia and Energia-M rockets, whose programs have been abandoned, a small-scale mockup of the Sea Launch project. This is to be a maritime platform designed to launch the Zenith-3 rocket from the Pacific Ocean (Hawaii and Christmas Islands region). The 31,000-mt platform and the 34,000-mt assembly ship will be built by the Norwegian firm Kvaerner. The American firm Boeing will provide the management of the program, integration of the satellites, supplying of the detonating cap, and the launching operations. Energia NPO, for its part, will be responsible for integration of the launcher and for the supplying of the third stage (Bloc- DM). The Youjnoe NPO (Ukraine) will supply the Zenith-2 launcher. The investment will total between $100 and $150 million (Fr500 to Fr750 million), and the first launch is targeted for February 1998... provided clients are found!

The Mashinostroenie NPO showed, in addition to its Almaz program, its Strela mini-launcher project and Igla experimental hypersonic vehicle. Like the Rockot, the Strela rocket is a derivative of the UR-100N (alias SS-19) missile. It is the subject of an agreement with Khrunichev. Launched from a Baykonur or Plessetsk silo, it can place payloads of 1.2 mt to 1.8 mt in circular orbits at 300 to 1,100 km, inclined at 63[DEG]. The Igla demonstrator is part of the Oriol national program devoted to the study of hypersonic flight. Weighing 2 mt, it is to be launched by the SS-19 missile over a suborbital trajectory. TsIAM's [Central Institute of Aviation Engine Building] liquid hydrogen scramjet is designed to operate from Mach 6 to Mach 14 at an altitude of 45 km. However, lack of funding has delayed this project, in which Aerospatiale participates. Another similar project is in the making at the Radouga firm in Doubna. Radouga plans to use its 5.8-mt D-2 demonstrator to test a TsAGI [Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute] scramjet built in cooperation with the German engine manufacturer MTU [Motor and Turbine Union, Inc.]. In the realm of telecommunications, three small- satellite projects were presented. They are the survivors of the multitude of similar projects that have flourished these past years, and consist of the Yamal, Signal, and Gonetz systems respectively, which were finally accepted by the RKA [Russian Space Agency] June.

The Yamal system of fixed links is being developed by Energia NPO for the account of the GazProm [gas industry] company, which, since May, has been operating a Yamal-U network of 20 ground stations via Gorizont satellites. Around the beginning of 1997, two satellites will be launched by a single Proton rocket. They are to be positioned at 19.5[DEG]W (Atlantic Ocean) and 75[DEG]E (Indian Ocean). These satellites will weigh 1,360 kg, carry a payload of 315 kg, and transmit at 4/6 GHz. The total payload capacity will be 9,000 telephone channels. The solar panels will supply a total of 2.2 kW, of which 1.3 kW will be allocated to the payload. The orientation system uses a liquid-xenon electric motor manufactured by Fakel OKB [Special Design Bureau].

The Signal mobile telephone system is also being developed by the Energia NPO for the account of the KOSS company. This company was formed by a group from the NII Radio Instrumentation Institute responsible for antimissile defense systems. The satellite's payload, a dynamic model of which was shown at Zhukovskiy, is being built by one of the Institute's plants located at Khimki, where the first ground station of the network is also located. The 310-kg satellite is equipped with a 45-kg payload operating at three frequencies (0.2-0.4 GHz, 1.5-1.6 GHz, and 11-14 GHz). The latter has a capacity of 800 telephone channels. The system will be developed in four phases. The first phase aims to launch two satellites via a single Cosmos-3M rocket in 1996, and to install a station at Khimki for 200 subscribers. This phase will be followed by the placing in orbit of 12 satellites by two Cyclone rockets in 1997, and the putting in service of a second station at Tomsk. The third phase will orbit 24 satellites in 1998, install four new stations at Samara, Ekaterinburg, Chita, and Komsomolsk-on-Amur, and serve up to 80,000 subscribers. And the final phase will consist of a constellation of 48 satellites in 1999 with 500,000 subscribers.

The Gonetz electronic-mail system is being developed by the PM NPO and the Precision Instrumentation Institute for the account of the Smallsat company. The payload, operating at 0.3-0.4 GHz, has a capacity of 1 million A4 pages daily. Two Gonetz 270-kg satellites had previously been launched on 13 July 1992, but the 45-satellite constellation is to be placed in orbit by Cyclone rockets beginning in 1996.

Another project was exhibited for the first time by the Mashinostroenie NPO. It called for the launching of 3.7- mt Ruslan geostationary telecommunications satellite by a Proton rocket around the beginning of 1998. Its 800-kg payload would have a capacity of 31,440 telephone channels. This project could be realized together with the American firm Loral, in the manner of the PM NPO and Alcatel Sesat Plus. A relay satellite version with a payload manufactured by Japan's NEC [Nippon Electric Corporation] is also under study. Financing, however, remains to be found, as is the case for most of the Russian projects.

|Russian Space Launches a/o 24 August 1995                                 |
|Cosmodrome    |Baykonur      |Plessetsk     |Kapustin Yar  |Total         |
|Launches                                                                  |
|First launch  |4 Oct 57      |17 Mar 66     |27 Oct 61     |
|Successful la-|959           |1408          |115           |2482          |
|unches        |              |              |              |              |
|Partial succe-|31            |15            |1             |47            |
|sses          |              |              |              |              |
|Failures      |73            |47            |23            |143           |
|Total         |1063          |1470          |139           |2672          |
|Percentage    |40%           |55%           |5%            |100%          |
|Satellites                                                                |
|Correct orbit |1029          |1813          |83            |2912          |
|Incorrect orb-|33            |28            |1             |62            |
|it            |              |              |              |              |
|Total         |1062          |1851          |84            |2997          |
|Percentage    |35%           |62%           |3%            |100%          |

|Russian Space Telecommunications Programs                                   |
|Satellite |Builder   |Launcher  |Weight Kg |Number in |Number of |Service L-|
|          |          |          |          |Orbit     |Transpond-|ife Yrs   |
|          |          |          |          |          |ers       |          |
|Gorizont  |PM NPO    |Proton    |2150      |10        |8         |3         |
|Express   |PM NPO    |Proton    |2500      |10        |12        |5-7       |
|Gals      |PM NPO    |Proton    |2300      |undetermi-|3         |5         |
|          |          |          |          |ned       |          |          |
|Gals-R    |PM NPO    |Proton    |2500      |undetermi-|12-16     |5-7       |
|          |          |          |          |ned       |          |          |
|Ekran-M   |PM NPO    |Proton    |2000      |2         |2         |3         |
|Arkos     |PM NPO    |Proton    |2500      |3-5       |3         |5-7       |
|Mayak     |PM NPO    |Proton    |2500      |4         |3         |5-7       |
|Coupon    |Lavotchki-|Proton    |2650      |3         |16        |5-7       |
|          |ne        |          |          |          |          |          |
|Yamal     |Energia   |Proton    |1360      |2-4       |9         |10        |
|Gonetz    |PM NPO    |Cyclone   |225       |45        |3         |5         |
|Signal    |Energia   |Cosmos    |310       |48        |13        |6         |
[Box 1, p. 15]

Airbus Industry Touching Down in Russia Airbus Industrie was present in force at the Moscow Show. With only eight A310's in service on CIS [Commonwealth of Independent States] airlines (6 on Aeroflot and 2 on Uzbekistan Airlines), the consortium wants to remedy this state of things. And this despite Boeing's strong presence and the 50-percent tax imposed by the government on imports (and the leasing) of aeronautical equipment.

Jean Pierson, who was present at the show, therefore decided to open a permanent office in Moscow, headed by Igor Bocharov, formerly head of quality control. Pierson hopes that this will contribute to helping him penetrate a market he estimates at 400 planes over the next five years. "A figure of 80 airliners a year stacks up well against a current one of 38 Western planes in service in the CIS, and 36 planes of all types manufactured in the CIS in 1994," the CEO points out. Good opportunities therefore do exist for the Europeans. And all the more so in that the A320 was certificated by the Russian authorities in December 1994, and the A300-600 will be certificated in October of this year.

Pressing its penetration in the CIS, Airbus Industrie is also urging its partners to increase their industrial alliances with Russian industries. Like DASA [Daimler-Benz Aerospace], which collaborates with Tupolev on cryogenic propulsion, and Aerospatiale, which is having structural components in titanium produced there for the engine nacelle stubs of its A320's. The first component of a lot of 200 being produced by VMPO/Tupolev is expected to arrive in Toulouse next year. In addition, the consortium has undertaken some forty-odd basic research efforts with institutes like VIAM [All Russian Institute of Aviation Materials], MAI, and TsAGl, which has tested an A310 model in one of its transonic wind tunnels. [Box 2, p. 16]

Antonov Unveils AN-71 Radar Plane for Detection at 350 Km

At the Zhukovskiy aerospace show last week, Antonov disclosed, for the first time, the existence of a new radar plane for the detection of air and maritime targets, the An-71, a derivative of the An-72, of a class comparable to that of the American Hawkeye radar plane (bought by France) to which another Russian radar plane, the Yak-44, is also comparable.

Actually, the An-71 has existed for 10 years. But its existence has remained secret until now. Not even at the previous Zhukovskiy show two years ago did Antonov evoke it. Indeed, this year, only very discreetly did Antonov unveil the plane--by way of photos and a mockup. Alexandre I. Naumenko, deputy chief builder on Antonov's staff, responsible for the An-71, explained to us that this Ukranian radar plane was not physically present at Zhukovskiy for lack of credits to finance its displacement from the shop in Kiev (Ukraine).

The origin of the An-71 program dates back to 1985, when Antonov designed the radar plane in response to a request from the Soviet defense minister. Three prototypes were built at Kiev using An-72 airframes. The radar version retains the An-72's fuselage and wings, the vertical stabilizer having been reinforced to support the radar radome and antenna designed by the Russian firm Vega-M, which is a part of the Antonov group.

The An-71 is 23.5 m long and has a wing span of 31.9 m. The plane takes off with the aid of a 2.9 mt RD-38A booster, from hard-surfaced runways or grassy airstrips 1,400-1,800 m long. It is powered by two D-436K ducted- turbofan engines that together develop a thrust of 15 mt for the thruster at a cruising speed of 500-530 km/hr. With its fuel reserve (1 hour of flight), the plane can patrol for 5 hours at 8,000 m.

The wideband (UHF) pulse-compression coherent-pulse radar operates in conjunction with a signal and telecommunications processing set (RCIS). It is served by three operators. The rotating antenna (10 revolutions/sec) scans over an elevation of 30 km and an azimuth of 360[DEG]. It can track 120 targets simultaneously with a precision of 2.5 km. Its parasitic-ground-echo suppression capability is 50 to 60 dB. Its rated maximum range for a target 2 m2 in area is 200 km, and for a very large plane 350 km.

These capabilities have been demonstrated during flight tests," asserts Alexandre Naumenko, adding that of the three prototypes built, one was used for structural tests, and two in flight tests totaling around 1,000 hours. The first An-71 flew to Kiev on 12 June 1985. But having failed to receive the backing of the Russian and Ukranian Defense Ministries, the program has been at a standstill for several years for lack of funds, Antonov has now resurrected the prototypes in an attempt to market the plane in the East European countries or other export markets and so recover some sorely needed hard currency. According to Naumenko, "The An-71 could be sold at a somewhat lower price than a Hawkeye's $70 million to $100 million (Fr350 to Fr500 million)!" [Box 3, p. 17]:

Radouga Tests Experimental Hypersonic Missile at Mach 5

Radouga, the Russian missile builder based in the Doubna region of Moscow, presented at the Zhukovskiy show its experimental hypersonic missile, alias "GELA"--this time its actual self--developed between 1985 and 1992. Although it was not unveiled in its full-scaled real-life form until last week, the kerosine-propellant scramjet- powered missile had been presented in the form of a wind- tunnel-test mockup at the preceding show in 1993. Its flight tests also date back to 1993.

As Valentin N. Troitsky, the project manager, explained it to us, the experimental missile, developed under funding provided by the Soviet Aeronautical Industry Ministry, has undergone only two flight tests, from Zhukovskiy. They proved successful. Jettisoned from a Tu-95 plane at an altitude of 8,000 m, the scramjet-powered missile--6 m long, 1.2 m in diameter, weight not disclosed- -accelerated from Mach 2.5 to Mach 5, attaining an altitude of 35,000 m.

According to the builder, these initial tests were fully satisfying in that they enabled verification of the general operation of the scramjet engine, which is characterized by a semicircular fixed-cone air intake designed to be integrated under an aircraft fuselage. But lack of funding prevented continuation of the flight-test program to optimize the operating parameters (fuel consumption, pressure, flight envelope, etc) of the GELA kerosine-propellant scramjet-powered missile. [8 Sep 95, No. 1530, pp 20-25]

Latest Russian Aerospace Releases

This second part of our report on the Moscow- Zhukovskiy Show is devoted mostly to Russia's new civil and military planes, helicopters, and satellites, as well as to the unveiling of its drones and missiles. It also includes a general survey of the state of aviation in Russia, and reports on initial tests of the Energya cryogenic motor for the SEP [European Propulsion Company].

In the military planes sector, this Show made new information available on airborne detection systems. For example, the existence of a new radar plane, the An-71, never put into service was disclosed. And seen for the first time was the Ka-31 radar helicopter (AIR & COSMOS No. 1529 [first part of report, above]), which unlike the French Horizon is designed to detect airborne targets, and not ground (or naval) ones. In addition, the presence of a new version, A-50 U, of the A-50 radar plane, and of its radar maker Vega, made it possible to add to one's knowledge of this plane's detection system.

This three-dimensional detection system was developed, beginning in 1985, to replace the Liana system that had been carried by the Tu-126 since the 1970's. Among other things, by comparison with its predecessor, this system, baptized the Schmel (bumblebee), enables the determination of the altitude of airborne targets. It consists of an array of passive sensors, a three-dimensional pulse-Doppler radar, computers, and a numerical subsystem that enables the extraction of all moving airborne targets. Ten operators positioned at consoles perform the monitoring and guidance functions of interceptions. It can serve some 50 targets and guide some ten interceptors. As to its design- rated performance capabilities, its builder cites: a detection range of 230 km for a Mig-21 type target, and 400 km for a ship. Radar builder Vega asserts that the improved version Schmel-M, which is entering service, features capabilities equivalent to those of the USAF's AWACS E-3C.

In the helicopters sector, the Moscow Show was not sparing of new releases. On the military side, there were new arrivals. Kamov presented the carrier-borne Ka-31 radar helicopter, and the Ka-52 two-seater version of the single-seater Ka-50 attack helicopter (AIR & COSMOS No. 1529 [above]). Mil presented an upgraded version, by Thomson- CSF, of the Mi-24 attack helicopter--the Mi35M, previously presented at the Bourget Show (AIR & COSMOS No. 1522)--as well as a new model of the M-28 attack helicopter.

This version, the M-28N, is a heavy helicopter (11.6 mt at takeoff) with an all-weather, day and night, attack capability. It borrows the general configuration of the Mi- 28, with a nose altogether reshaped to house new sensors, and a radar pylon atop the rotor. The former optronic turret (with TV and laser telemeter/designator) is replaced by a more compact setup, consisting of a "bubble" that is mobile in elevation and azimuth, and that encloses infrared optronics for flight control and navigation at night and under poor visibility conditions. Above, the Mi-28N retains the radome that protects the Schturm C (and AT-6 Spiral) antitank missile radio-guidance antenna. Below this "bubble," a cylindrical unit (whose portholes were shut) encloses an optronic target-designation system with low- light-level TV camera, infrared camera, and laser telemeter. According to Mil's representatives, this helicopter is capable of automatic terrain-following flight hugging an altitude as low as 5 m above ground. In addition, it has a millimetric radar enclosed in a bubble mounted above the rotor, like the Longbow AH-64D Apache. This radar, for the guidance of new-generation antitank missiles, is thought to be currently under development.

As of now, Mil has only one prototype of the Mi-28N which is on the way to starting its flight tests. As for the mass production stage, it is far from assured, especially since reports seem to indicate that the military have opted for this helicopter's rival, the Ka-50, although the Russian Defense Ministry has still not officially communicated its decision.

In the civil domain, the delays in most of the projects were only too notable. Michail Vainberg, himself, the general manager of Mil, who announced the forthcoming meeting of the design bureau he heads with the production entities, was compelled to acknowledge this fact. The certification of the Mi-26 giant helicopter has been delayed "for financial reasons," even as the heavy helicopter developed jointly with Eurocopter "is proceeding at a very slow pace."

Kamov's Ka-62 prototype, which bears a strong family resemblance to the Dauphin, has been waiting since the beginning of 1994 to make its first flight. Although the different joint ventures with the West to date concerning this helicopter (first with Eurocopter, then with IAI) have failed, it seems that the Italians in their turn are showing an interest in this program. Agusta appears to be prepared to help the Russians develop a "Westernized" version powered by General Electric CT-7 motors, in a version designated the Ka-64. This helicopter, equipped with two Rybinsk RD-600 turbines (1,300 [French] horsepower), is being offered at a price of around Fr25 million.

Although Kamov's general builder Sergei Mikheev designed the Ka-62 around the basic configuration of a main rotor with anti-torque rotor (here a ducted tail rotor) for the comfort of the passengers, he reverts to the coaxial contrarotating rotors configuration for his new Ka-115. It is a light helicopter weighing 1,850 kg at liftoff, capable of carrying five persons or a payload of 700 kg. This aircraft, which is targeted for construction next year, is to be equipped with a PK6A turbine (version of the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A assembled by Klimov) developing 580 horsepower.

And Kamov is continuing to develop its KA-37 vertical- takeoff drone, which was tested on an aircraft carrier in 1994. Weighing 250 kg, it can carry a payload of 50 kg at an altitude of 3,500 m. Derived from this experimental model is the Ka-137, which is equipped with a German Hirth 2706 RO5 piston engine developing 65 hp, driving a coaxial two- bladed rotor. Shaped like a bubble 1 m in diameter, it has a liftoff weight of 280 kg and can carry an 80-kg payload. It is expected to have an endurance capability of 4 hours at 50 km and to be able to rise to an altitude of more than 5,000 m.

Before the fall of communism, general and light aviation was virtually nonexistent in Soviet design bureaus and production entities. Yakovlev's and Sukhoy's few design studies hardly really changed anything in this respect, and the Tu-134 and Yak-40 remained among the lightest planes built in the USSR. The little that was produced with respect to light aviation was done by the satellite countries such as Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Toward a Light Aviation Industry

The profound political changes and crisis situation in which the design bureaus find themselves have compelled them to revise their plans, go back to the drawing board, and rapidly concentrate their efforts on the study and development of light aviation projects. During the two preceding shows at Zhukovskiy, in 1992 and 1993, numerous mockups of light plane projects were presented. Actually, the total absence of production of planes of this type offers the Russian builders a fabulous economic opportunity. On the other hand, the lack of funding considerably reduces the research and development effort they can expend and their ability to purchase such equipment. In March 1993, President Boris Yeltsin introduced a bill designed to foster "the development and manufacture of light planes within the Russian Federation." Shortly thereafter the government drew up a strategy for the development of general aviation in Russia around the turn of the third millennium. This year was the yeas of reckoning, and many projects were presented in their definitive form.

Several light-plane designs had already been presented at the Bourget, Farnborough, and Berlin shows. Ilyushin's Il-103 four-seater program is probably the most advanced of these, with three planes presented in flight this year at Zhukovskiy. This plane is expected to be certificated very soon in Great Britain, and will be marketed in Western Europe by a British firm. The Il-103's main competitor is Yakovlev's Yak-112, which is certainly the first Russian light plane to have been certificated in the United States. A joint certification program is to be worked out next year. The Yak-112 will be certificated by the Russian authorities in accordance with Russian Regulations AP-23, which are very close to the FAA's FAR 23. According to the American administration, the AP-23 certification procedure is not expected to pose no and should be faster than initially foreseen, with completion probable in 1996/1997.

This builder's other projects, including its Yak-58 six-seater, on the other hand appear to be "frozen" for the moment. The Yak-58 project, which was to have been cofinanced initially by South Korea's Daewoo company, is still awaiting the agreement of that country's government, Yakovlev having no intention of seeking a new partner. The specter of the Yak-58's accident at the Berlin show still hovers over this program, even though technical modifications were subsequently brought to bear on it.

Myasishchev presented its 8-seat executive turboprop, the M-101 Gzhel, powered by a Walter M601 of Czech manufacture. The first five mass-produced planes are to roll out of the factory before the end of this year, and 20 are to be produced in 1996. This project received financial support from the Russian banks, which deem this plane to have a market. The first five of these planes will all go to Russian clients, and the builder reports a long list of firm orders. The M-101 features a high degree of conversion capability, from the transport of passengers to the transport of freight.

The imposing Myasishchev M-102 Duet was presented only in the form of a full-sized mockup. This joint Russian- Indian (National Aeronautical Laboratory) has been slowed by an absence of funding on the part of the Russians, but the builder predicted a first flight in 1996. The mass of production paperwork is ready, and fabrication of the prototype is scheduled to start within a matter of weeks. The M-102 is being offered in an executive and passenger transport version for 9 to 14 persons. It is designed to fly under extreme conditions; that is, very hot weather, and from airports situated at high altitudes. The two turboprops will be OMSK 20M's or Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65P's. The geometric configuration of the M-102, which closely resembles that of the Embraer/FMA CBA-123, provides substantial comfort at the level of the cabin. With a few modifications, the M-102 can be used to transport freight, to patrol, for medical emergency evacuation, or other special missions.

Myasishchev also presented a full-sized mockup of its agricultural and general utility plane M-500. This plane won the competitive bidding on an agricultural plane to replace the aging Antonov An-2's. Despite its payload capacity of 900 kg, the M-500 is smaller in size than the An-2. Powered by an M-14 360-hp rotary engine, it can easily be converted for the transport of eight passengers. It is also offered in a stretched-cabin version. The prototype is in the process of fabrication and its first flight is targeted for next year. The designers of this plane are considering the adoption of new power plants, including the TD-450, a 450- hp diesel motor.

The plane that garnered the most sales at this show appears to have been the SM-92 Finist, a high-winged six- seater designed and produced by Smolensk Aviation Factory. Featuring short takeoff and landing capabilities, it is powered by an M-14 360-hp motor and is posited as a possible replacement for the Cessna 185 and the De Havilland Canada Beaver. Unveiled at the 1994 Berlin show, the Finist flew a presentation tour of Europe and Canada, where five planes were firm-ordered and many options were signed. The plane presented at Zhukovskiy was the first of 16 ordered by border patrol units. It is equipped with two machine-guns, rocket launchers installed on pylons on both sides of the fuselage, and supports below the cockpit for two 50-kg bombs. As a supplement, a machine-gun installed on the starboard side can be operated by the navigator. The SM-92 is currently undergoing operational evaluation, pending a possible order for 300 planes. The SM-92 also appears to be attracting the interest of South American clients.

Worthy of noting, among this company's other products, is the SM-94, which is none other than the former Yak-18T. These old machines seemed to attract many buyers. Six planes were ordered by a Siberian pilot training school. These orders are enabling the builder to keep its workshops busy.

Many design bureaus also attended this show with widely varied projects such as the Molnya-1, the Aviatika- 890, the As-2 Tchmiel, the Beriev-103, the Aerocon Pelican, the Accord, the Dingo, etc. Many are at the paper-plane stage, indeed even at the prototype stage.

Moscow's MAPO [Moscow Aviation Production Organization], which produces the MiG-29 fighter, is, like many enterprises in this sector, keeping its design department and production lines busy by developing and assembling products specific to light aviation, including the Ilyushin Il-103, the Molnyia-1, the Aviatika, the T-101 Grach, the SL-39, and the I-11. The high levels of production-quality-control and manufacturing experience acquired in the building of fighter planes enable this builder to offer light planes meeting the most rigorous of specifications. [Box p. 22]:

T-101 Grach, Successor to Antonov AN-2

Strange is the history of the T-101 Grach. Presented for the first time in 1992 as a product of Aero-Roks, the T-101 has changed proprietors twice and is represented today by Moscow's National Space Research and Production Center. This plane is a second aspirant to replace the aged Antonov An-2. Its construction is based on structural elements of the latter. Its fuselage, cockpit, landing gear, and wing and stabilizer structures are derived from those of the An- 2. The modifications made to the new plane include elimination of the low wing and replacement of the original fabric by a lightweight alloy skin. Negotiations are under way for possible replacement of the TWD-10 turboprop developing 1,000 hp, by a more powerful and more economical motor such as the TWD-15 developing 1,500 hp, which would measurably improve the plane's performance capabilities. Thus refitted, the plane would be designated the T-201. The first production units are expected to roll out of the factory during 1996. In view of the potential market for a plane of this category, the company is studying a twin- engined version designated the T-202. The new model inherits the basic structure of the T-101, but is powered by two Walter M601's installed atop the wings. A stretched version is also already under study.
Characteristics of the T-101 Grach
Width 15.05 m 
Wing span 18.2 m 
Maximum weight at takeoff 5,250 kg 
Payload 1,200 kg 
Cruising speed 270 km/hr 
Range 400 km

The five-seater T-411 Aist-2 with STOL capability has entered its production phase and appears to meet the requirements of the Russian pilot training schools and air clubs.

Two other mockups of light planes were shown at the Moscow show: the T-420 and the T-430, both designed to transport six passengers, and powered by two Textron Lycomings. [End of Box]

New Antiship Missiles

The Mashinostroenie NPO, leading producer of the Russian antiship missiles, wants to pursue this line of activity despite the lack of Defense Ministry orders. It is therefore working on the export of its future Yakhont, Bastion, and Alpha missiles.

Since 1955, the firm has developed three generations of antiship missiles: its surface-launched type (P-5, P-6, P-35); submarine underwater-launched type (Ametist, Malakhit, Granit, Grom, Granat); and its universal type capable of performing several different kinds of missions (Yakhont, Alpha). It has developed some 60-odd different missiles, 14 of which were incorporated in the [Soviet] armament. More than 800 launch facilities were built, each capable of launching up to three missiles, for a total of 2,400 missiles produced for the navy.

The Yakhont supersonic missile, developed since the beginning of 1993, is scheduled to make its first propelled and guided flight around the beginning of 1996. It had already undergone unguided flight tests. The missile is propelled by a dry-fuel booster engine and a Plamya- manufactured ramjet motor with 40 kN of thrust and is capable of attaining Mach 2 to 2.5. With a range of 300 km, the missile can fly close to the surface of the water or at an altitude of up to 14,000 m at cruising speed. It is launched by a missile-launch tube angled in an oblique or vertical position. Moreover, it can be launched from the ground, or from a surface ship (torpedo boat or cruiser), or from underwater (submarine). The Bastion, a coastal defense version, is a launch vehicle carrying three Yakhont missiles. A complete battery can consist of up to eight vehicles totaling 24 missiles.

The Alpha supersonic missile is a still more sophisticated missile. It will be half as heavy as the Yakhont and capable of being launched from diverse platforms, such as a plane, surface ship, or submarine. (It was mounted on an Su-35 at Zhukovskiy.) It is propelled by a turbojet engine that could be supplied by Moscow's Soyuz NPO (general builder V. K. Kobchenko) or by Motor OKB (principal builder A. A. Ryjov). It will be equipped with a universal guidance system enabling it to destroy different types of targets. However, Mashinostroenie NPO needs financing to finish the project before the end of the century. It is therefore seeking clients abroad.

Tupolev Drones

Tupolev guided reconnaissance vehicles made their appearance at the Zhukovskiy show. They included a new drone derived from the Tu-141 Strij and unveiled for the first time.

Tupolev began developing vehicles of this type in 1956. The first one, the Tu-121, was developed in 1958, then abandoned. The second, the Tu-123 Yastreb, was more successful. Its development was finalized between 1959 and 1963, and it was mass-produced at the Voronezh plant. It remained in service until 1979. Weighing 36 mt at takeoff, it was propelled by two dry-fuel booster engines and a KR- 15 turbojet engine derived from the motor of the Mig-25. It flew at Mach 2.5 over a distance of 3,800 km with a ceiling of 20 km. However, only the plane's nose, containing the cameras, was capable of being recovered. Therefore, an entirely recoverable version, the Tu-139 Yastreb-2, was devised. But the project was abandoned.

The next generation concerned smaller tactical vehicles. The first, the Tu-143 Reis (alias VR-3), was integrated in the armament in 1982. Weighing 1.4 mt at takeoff, the vehicle is transportable and reusable. It is propelled by a dry-fuel booster and a TR3-117 motor manufactured by Klimov NPO. It flies at 950 km/hr over a distance of 180 km at an altitude between 200 and 5,000 m. More than 1,000 units were produced in two variants (photo and television). A new version, Tu-243 Reis-D, has a radius of 360 km and a minimal altitude of 50 m. It is 8.29 m long, 1.57 m high, and has a wingspan of 2.25 m. It is launched by a vehicle resembling that of Mashinostroenie NPO's S-5 (alias SSC-1B Sepal) coastal defense missile. And the latest model was the Tu-141 Strij, of which little is known as yet. Weighing 5,370 kg at takeoff, it flies at 1,100 km/hr over a range of 1,000 km, at an altitude of between 50 and 6,000 m. It is 14.3 m long, 2.43 m high, and has a wingspan of 3.87 m. It is launched in several variants (photo, television, infrared, laser, radiation) from a mobile platform. This new drone was derived from the Tu-141 Strij. It is much shorter and features several modifications, especially with respect to the plane's air intake and nose.

The unveiling of the Pantzir-S1 ground-to-air weapon system by Volkhov Defense Systems and KBP occasioned surprise. It is a mixed system, based on a 2A72 type double-barreled 30-mm antiaircraft gun supplemented by 12 hypersonic ground-to-air missiles type 9M311, an improved variant of the Toungouska 2S6 weapon system's 9M111 (see AIR & COSMOS No. 1395). This hyper-fast missile (1,100 m/sec) has a range of around 12 km.

Arsenal KB Projects

Heir of a long tradition, Saint-Petersburg's Arsenal KB is trying its utmost to maintain its activity. Its principal client, the Defense Ministry, did not settle its debts last year, and the firm still does not have any contracts with foreign partners. Yet it was one of the first space enterprises to be privatized and part of the group of 38 firms transferred from the defense industry to the Russian space agency (RKA). Recently, principal builder You. F. Valov, who had headed Arsenal KB since 1983, was replaced by B. I. Poletaiev, who until then had held the position of first assistant.

This bureau was created in 1958 on the premises of the Arsenal gun factory. It started out by producing rockets before taking charge of the oceanic observation satellite Cosmos toward the end of the 1960's. This activity had been developed by OKB-52 (now Mashinostroenie NPO) under the OuS program, which included the Rorsat active radar satellites powered by a nuclear reactor, and the Eorsat satellites equipped with passive radio facilities (AIR & COSMOS No. 1525).

For several years, Arsenal KB has been offering the use of its platform for diverse applications. Thus arose the Odissei satellite project for the location and observation of moving objects, the Predvestnik project for the prediction of earth tremors, and the Obzor radar imaging satellite project. But none of these received funding. The only program in progress is an additional Conus payload for the detection of gamma-ray bursts, that is to be launched this fall aboard the next Eorsat. This equipment pertaining to Saint Petersburg's Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute is to function in low orbit at the same time as an American detector aboard the Wind satellite at Lagrange point L-1. The distance between the two instruments will then be 1.5 million kilometers. When a burst is detected, it will be possible to point a small optical telescope in its direction in order to pinpoint it, whereas with Wind, this operation must be performed on the ground. In addition, Arsenal KB is planning to launch 130-kg subsatellites from Eorsats (Popoutchik project), as well as a new generation of satellites (Plate-forme project) to be launched by the Zenith-M2 rocket from Plessetsk. The first of these satellites could be Obzor. The payload would then be increased by 700 kg to 4.0 mt. In the Obzor case, an RLS-50 Travers 20m-resolution radar would be involved. [Box p. 25]:

Russian Military Telecommunications Satellites

The Russian Space forces unveiled for the first time the Strela military telecommunications satellite. It was a 61-kg satellite with a rated service life of six months. It was launched in clusters of eight satellites each into a circular orbit at an altitude of 1,500 km, inclined at 74[DEG], by means of a Cosmos-3M rocket, from the Plessetsk base. The 45 clusters launched formed a constellation of 12 to 20 satellites in an orbital plane from 1970 to 1992. This network has been replaced since 1985 by the new generation of 230-kg satellites launched in clusters of six satellites each into a circular orbit at 1,500 km, inclined at 82.6[DEG], by a Cyclone rocket, from Plessetsk. Eighteen clusters have been launched to date. The constellation now consists of 10 to 12 satellites in two orbital planes separated by 90[DEG]. These satellites have a rated service life of 2 years and will be used for the Smallsat company's Gonetz civil system (AIR & COSMOS No. 1529). The Army also has another system in single-file deployment consisting of satellites weighing 750-kg to 1,000-kg, launched singly from Plessetsk by the Cosmos-3M. Fifty satellites have been launched since 1970. They are deployed on a circular orbit at 800 km, inclined at 74[DEG], in three orbital planes separated by 120[DEG]. Their service life is rated at 3 years. But unlike the others, this system has not yet been declassified.

The government and the Army both use Molnya-1 satellites placed in 500-40,000 km orbits inclined at 62.8[DEG], as well as Radouga and Geyser geostationary satellites. The latter, launched in 1982, comprise the Potok network. Three satellites (Cosmos-2085, 2172, and 2291) are currently in service at 13.5[DEG]W, 80[DEG]E and 168[DEG]E. They are equipped with an electronic scanning antenna built by Elas NPO at Zelenograd. The latter plans to use them for the Sokoi civil system. All the satellites are built by the PM NPO at Krasnoyarsk, which over the past 30 years has built some 900 satellites of 16 different types. [Box p. 21]:

French Industry in Force at Moscow

With some 15 or so companies present at this show, the French aerospace industry was on a par with the American representation. As pioneers in joint ventures with Russia, the French hoped to develop their business volume. But hardly any progress or new business deals were made. The industrialists such as SEP in space propulsion, Snecma and Turbomeca in aircraft motors with Rybinsk, Thomson in flight control, and Sextant Avionique with GosNIIAS, mainly consolidated their ties around joint ventures already in place. Certain other equipment builders, such as Dassault Electronique, SFIM [Measuring Instruments Manufacturing Company], SAGEM [Company for General Applications of Electricity and Engineering], and Intertechnique, which had all come to Zhukovskiy, acknowledged that business was at a virtual standstill. In general, their contacts were more interested in technologies than in joint ventures or contracts. Intertechnique had somewhat better news, however, with respect to its airport refueling system, and Zodiac. Its subsidiary Aerazur will begin delivering floats for the Mi- 8 and Mi-17 helicopters being built at Kazan.

Dassault Aviation, with three Falcons on site, concentrated more on promoting its executive planes. Indeed, the industrial aspect (its joint venture with MiG) is in a shaky state. On the other hand, Dassault Systemes, succeeded in placing its CATIA [Interactive Three- Dimensional Computer-Aided Design] system with MiG, at TsAGI, in the Samara and Saratov plants, and with automobile manufacturer VAZ [Volga Automobile Factory]. Aerospatiale was able to present joint ventures in all the domains. In helicopters, through Eurocopter, which exhibited two machines, including one Bo-105 bought by the Russian civil protection agency. In planes, through the presentation in flight, by Patrick Baudry, of an A-321 flying the colors of Air Inter. And more generally, with the Russian aeronautical industry, particularly with Tupolev with which Aerospatiale has had close working relations for over 30 years. [15 Sep 95, No. 1531, pp 14-15]

New Revelations on Russian Projects

The Moscow-Zhukovskiy Show enabled discovery of new Russian work on vectorial thrust and new aerodynamic configurations.

Contrary to the expectations of many specialists, the Sukhoy design bureau had decided to not present its Su-35 prototype equipped with steerable nozzles (see AIR & COSMOS No. 1529). The presence of Russian engineers, however, made it possible to glean a few indications relative to this program. According to Yuri Dzneladze, general builder's consultant, this research program on vectorial thrust began between Sukhoy and the engine builder Lyulka toward the end of the 1980's. A first experiment was conducted with an Su- 27 two-seater whose port motor AL-31F was equipped with a flattened mobile nozzle, and which made several flights early in 1990. This system of two-dimensional steerable thrust, similar to that designed for the F-119 engine of the American F-22, helped validate the concept for enhancement of the plane's maneuverability.

Next, Lyulka developed circular mobile nozzles. But contrary to the American concept of axisymmetric nozzles, such as Pratt & Whitney's PYBBN presented at the Bourget Show (see AIR & COSMOS No. 1525), the Russian system is mobile only over the pitch axis. The travel (automatically controlled by the flight controls) is approximately plus or minus 15[DEG]. Sukhoy acknowledges that the tail of the Su- 35 between its two motors impedes movement over the yaw axis and that for this reason the design of their steerable nozzle is much simpler than that of the American axisymmetric nozzle.

As for the exact status of the program, several versions made the rounds. Even as one Sukhoy management official was affirming that the plane has been flying "for the past three or four years," an engineer closer to the project was stating that owing to technical problems the demonstrator had not yet made its first flight. And that, under these conditions, Sukhoy had deemed it unnecessary to present the plane to the public.

Visiting the different stands of the builders, it was noted that some of the original projects proposed by design bureaus were still being developed. A case in point is that of the Ekip flying wing (see AIR & COSMOS No. 1409), the construction of which is proceeding at a snail's pace. A demonstrator of this revolutionary vehicle in the form of a circular flying wing 11 m in diameter for a weight of 9 mt is in the course of construction in the Saratov plant. An air-cushion system eliminates the need of a landing gear and enables it to set down on unimproved ground. Powered by two AL-34 motors, this flying wing is able to fly owing to a boundary-layer control device. The demonstrator is designed to take off within less than 400 m and to fly at around 500 km/hr at an altitude of 8,000 m.

Its designers acknowledge that the project is having trouble advancing for lack of financing. Pessimistically, they do not expect a first flight prior to two or three years from now. Meanwhile, a representative model is targeted to fly this fall for the purpose of validating certain concepts of active control of the boundary layer. Molnya, for its part, presented a complete family of "three-structural-level" planes. According to the builder of the Bourane shuttle, this aerodynamic configuration lightens the plane's structure (particularly at the level of the wing where the area is reduced, hence of the wing- fuselage junction), and reduces fuel consumption at least 20 percent below that of a conventional design. It is a three-structural-level configuration, the first example of which is the Molnya A-1 light plane exhibited in flight.

A canard surface enables avoidance of stalling and enhances the plane's dynamic stability. Based on this configuration, previously proposed by Piaggio on the Avanti and by Beechcraft on the Starship, Molnya is developing several models. These include executive planes (an A-100 powered by two turboprop engines, rear-mounted as on the Starship, and an A-300 designed to accommodate 12 passengers), and a high-winged transport plane: the A-400. But for the moment, all of these projects are in the design stage, inasmuch as Molnya lacks a firm commitment from the government such as would enable it to launch their development.

From radar builder Vega it was learned that the An- 71's airborne radar Kvant (AIR & COSMOS No.1529) had also been designed to be carried aboard the Yak-44 detection plane. This plane, the existence of which had never been disclosed by Russian officials, was to have been put in service on the aircraft carriers Kuznetzov and Ulyanovsk. It was developed by Yakovlev toward the end of the 1980's, because the An-71 was unable to fulfill the mission. Seemingly a twin brother of the American E-2C Hawkeye (but with only two vertical stabilizers in place of four), this twin-engined plane was to have been powered by two D-27 turboprop engines equipped with contrarotating propellers, the same as those on the An-70T. It was also to have carried an improved onboard Kvant-M radar that would have had a 30-percent to 50-percent gain in overall performance relative to the Kvant of the An-71. The funding and the project were halted in 1990-1991, although a full-scale mockup had already been built. While on the one hand the performance capabilities of the plane itself are equivalent to those of its American counterpart, Vega asserts on the other hand that its radar is substantially better. [Box p. 15]:

In Ukraine, Antonov Is Building the AN-140, Rival of ATR-42

The prototype of the An-140 commuter is in the course of construction at Antonov. Launched in 1993 (see AIR & COSMOS No. 1475) this twin turboprop capable of transporting between 46 and 52 passengers a distance of 1,600 km nonstop looms as a rival of the ATR-42. It is offered in two alternative power-plant configurations: two Klimov TV3-117VMA-SB2 (1,590 kW) engines with Stupino propellers, or two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127A (1,850) engines with Hamilton Standard propellers. In this case, the An-140 will be capable of transporting 52 passengers a nonstop distance of 2,000 km.

Designed to replace the An-24's--of which 750 of the 1,200 manufactured are still in service--the Ukranian builder's new commuter plane will be offered in a variety of versions. One is to be a combined passenger-and-freight version with a capacity for 20 to 36 passengers and 2 to 4 mt of freight, and capable of operating on the basis of taking ofsf and landing on unimproved ground. Another is to be a stretched version capable of accommodating up to 70 passengers. An all-cargo version, to succeed the An-26, is also planned.

According to Antonov officials, this Ukrainian commuter is scheduled to be ready to fly around the beginning of next year with Russian engines, and could be certificated by the end of this year. Again according to Antonov, "23 CIS airline companies CIS have signed commitments to buy more than 150 An-140's." Deliveries are to commence in 1996/1997. The Khartov plant will be responsible for mass-production of the commuter. Antonov appears to be speeding up its project, while its rival, the Il-114, is still having optimization problems. After more than five years of flight testing and a timid operating start, Ilyushin's commuter is still not certificated for the transport of passengers. It seems, however, that its power plant (Klimov TV7-117 turboprops) problems have been resolved and that Russian certification may be obtained around the beginning of next year. In view of this delay, some airline companies, such as Uzbekistan Airlines, which has two of these Il-114 planes, are using them to haul freight. This has led Ilyushin to develop a cargo version, which with a maximum weight at takeoff increased by 800 kg relative to the all-passenger version, for an MTOW of 23.5 mt, can transport a payload of 6 mt over a nonstop distance of 1,000 km, and has a side loading hatch (3.3 m by 1.78 m) at the rear of the fuselage.

Another planned modification: the power plant. Ilyushin offers to substitute PW127's for the Russian turboprops, and has signed an agreement to this effect with Pratt & Whitney Canada. In this case, the Ilyushin commuter would take the designation Il-114PC.

Indeed, this project could come to fruition rather rapidly, in that the Canadian turboprop is expected to be "Russianized" very quickly. The Canadian builder has in fact confirmed that under its agreement with Klimov, the PW127 will be the first engine of its product line built in its entirety under license by Ilyushin, the others being merely assembled in Russia. It will then bear the designation TV3000 and its production will begin in 1997 with certification targeted for 1999.