Index Military Definitions

radar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A radio detection device that provides information on range, azimuth and/or elevation of objects.

radar advisory. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The term used to indicate that the provision of advice and information is based on radar observation.

radar altimetry area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A large and comparatively level terrain area with a defined elevation which can be used in determining the altitude of airborne equipment by the use of radar.

radar altitude control mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an automatic flight control system, a control mode in which the height of an aircraft is maintained by reference to signals from a radar altimeter.

radar beacon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A receiver-transmitter combination which sends out a coded signal when triggered by the proper type of pulse, enabling determination of range and bearing information by the interrogating station or aircraft.

radar camouflage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The use of radar absorbent or reflecting materials to change the radar echoing properties of a surface of an object.

radar clutter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Unwanted signals, echoes, or images on the face of the display tube, which interfere with observation of desired signals.

radar countermeasures. See electronic warfare; chaff.

radar coverage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The limits within which objects can be detected by one or more radar stations.

radar danning. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a method of navigating by using radar to keep the required distance from a line of dan buoys.

radar deception. See electromagnetic deception.

radar exploitation report (RADAREXREP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A formatted statement of the results of a tactical radar imagery reconnaissance mission. The report includes the interpretation of the sensor imagery.

radar fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Gunfire aimed at a target which is tracked by radar. See also fire.

radar guardship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any ship which has been assigned the task by the officer in tactical command of maintaining the radar watch.

radar horizon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The locus of points at which the rays from a radar antenna become tangential to the Earth's surface. On the open sea this locus is horizontal but on land it varies according to the topographical features of the terrain.

radar imagery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Imagery produced by recording radar waves reflected from a given target surface.

radar intelligence (RADINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence derived from data collected by radar. See also intelligence.

radar netting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The linking of several radars to a single center to provide integrated target information.

radar netting station. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A center which can receive data from radar tracking stations and exchange this data among other radar tracking stations, thus forming a radar netting system. See also radar netting unit; radar tracking station.

radar netting unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Optional electronic equipment which converts the operations central of certain air defense fire distribution systems to a radar netting station. See also radar netting station.

radar picket. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any ship, aircraft, or vehicle, stationed at a distance from the force protected, for the purpose of increasing the radar detection range.

radar picket CAP. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radar picket combat air patrol.

radar reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reconnaissance by means of radar to obtain information on enemy activity and to determine the nature of terrain.

radar signal film. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The film on which is recorded all the reflected signals acquired by a coherent radar, and which must be viewed or processed through an optical correlator to permit interpretation.

radar silence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An imposed discipline prohibiting the transmission by radar of electromagnetic signals on some or all frequencies.

radar spoking. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Periodic flashes of the rotating time base on a radial display. Sometimes caused by mutual interference.

radar tracking station. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A radar facility which has the capability of tracking moving targets.

radarscope overlay. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A transparent overlay for placing on the radarscope for comparison and identification of radar returns.

radarscope photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A film record of the returns shown by a radar screen.

radiac. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An acronym derived from the words radioactivity, detection, indication and computation and used as an all-encompassing term to designate various types of radiological measuring instruments or equipment. (This word is normally used as an adjective.)

radiac dosimeter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An instrument used to measure the ionizing radiation absorbed by that instrument.

radial. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A magnetic bearing extending from a very high frequency omnirange/tactical air navigation station.

radial displacement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) On vertical photographs, the apparent leaning out, or the apparent displacement of the top of any object having height in relation to its base. The direction of displacement is radial from the principal point on a true vertical, or from the isocentre on a vertical photograph distorted by tip or tilt.

radiant exposure. See thermal exposure.

radiation dose. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by material or tissues, expressed in centigrays. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) The term radiation dose is often used in the sense of the exposure dose expressed in roentgens, which is a measure of the total amount of ionization that the quantity of radiation could produce in air. This could be distinguished from the absorbed dose, also given in rads, which represents the energy absorbed from the radiation per gram of specified body tissue. Further, the biological dose, in rems, is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation exposure. See also absorbed dose; exposure dose.

radiation dose rate. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The radiation dose (dosage) absorbed per unit of time. A radiation dose rate can be set at some particular unit of time (e.g., H + 1 hour) and would be called H + 1 radiation dose rate.

radiation exposure state. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The condition of a unit, or exceptionally an individual, deduced from the cumulative whole body radiation dose(s) received. It is expressed as a symbol which indicates the potential for future operations and the degree of risk if exposed to additional nuclear radiation.

radiation intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of non-information-bearing elements extracted from the electromagnetic energy unintentionally emanated by foreign devices, equipments, and systems, excluding those generated by the detonation of atomic/nuclear weapons.

radiation intensity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The radiation dose rate at a given time and place. It may be used, coupled with a figure, to denote the radiation intensity used at a given number of hours after a nuclear burst, e.g., RI-3 is a radiation intensity 3 hours after the time of burst.

radiation scattering. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The diversion of radiation (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interaction or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media between the source of the radiation (e.g., a nuclear explosion) and a point at some distance away. As a result of scattering, radiation (especially gamma rays and neutrons) will be received at such a point from many directions instead of only from the direction of the source.

radiation sickness. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An illness resulting from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The earliest symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be followed by loss of hair, hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy.

radio and wire integration. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The combining of wire circuits with radio facilities.

radio approach aids. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Equipment making use of radio to determine the position of an aircraft with considerable accuracy from the time it is in the vicinity of an airfield or carrier until it reaches a position from which landing can be carried out.

radio beacon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A radio transmitter which emits a distinctive, or characteristic, signal used for the determination of bearings, courses, or location. See also beacon.

radio countermeasures. See electronic warfare.

radio deception. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of radio to deceive the enemy. Radio deception includes sending false dispatches, using deceptive headings, employing enemy call signs, etc. See also electronic warfare.

radio detection. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The detection of the presence of an object by radio-location without precise determination of its position.

radio direction finding. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Radio-location in which only the direction of a station is determined by means of its emissions.

radio direction finding data base. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The aggregate of information, acquired by both airborne and surface means, necessary to provide support to radio direction finding operations to produce fixes on target transmitters/emitters. The resultant bearings and fixes serve as a basis for tactical decisions concerning military operations, including exercises, planned or underway.

radio fix. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The locating of a radio transmitter by bearings taken from two or more direction finding stations, the site of the transmitter being at the point of intersection.

l The location of a ship or aircraft by determining the direction of radio signals coming to the ship or aircraft from two or more sending stations, the locations of which are known.

radio guard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ship, aircraft, or radio station designated to listen for and record transmissions, and to handle traffic on a designated frequency for a certain unit or units.

radio magnetic indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays aircraft heading and bearing to selected radio navigation aids.

radio navigation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Radio-location intended for the determination of position or direction or for obstruction warning in navigation.

radio range finding. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Radio-location in which the distance of an object is determined by means of its radio emissions, whether independent, reflected, or retransmitted on the same or other wave length.

radio range station. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A radio navigation land station in the aeronautical radio navigation service providing radio equisignal zones. (In certain instances a radio range station may be placed on board a ship.)

radio recognition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The determination by radio means of the friendly or enemy character, or the individuality, of another.

radio recognition and identification. See identification, friend or foe.

radio silence. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A condition in which all or certain radio equipment capable of radiation is kept inoperative. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) (Note: In combined or United States Joint or intra-service communications the frequency bands and/or types of equipment affected will be specified.)

radio sonobuoy. See sonobuoy.

radio telegraphy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transmission of telegraphic codes by means of radio.

radio telephony. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transmission of speech by means of modulated radio waves.

radioactive decay. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The decrease in the radiation intensity of any radioactive material with respect to time.

radioactive decay curve. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A graph line representing the decrease of radioactivity with the passage of time.

radioactive decay rate: [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time rate of the disintegration of radioactive material generally accompanied by the emission of particles and/or gamma radiation.

radioactivity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The spontaneous emission of radiation, generally alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma rays, from the nuclei of an unstable isotope.

radioactivity concentration guide. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The amount of any specified radioisotope that is acceptable in air and water for continuous consumption.

radiological defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Defensive measures taken against the radiation hazards resulting from the employment of nuclear and radiological weapons.

radiological environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Conditions found in an area resulting from the presence of a radiological hazard.

radiological monitoring. See monitoring.

radiological operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The employment of radioactive materials or radiation producing devices to cause casualties or restrict the use of terrain. It includes the intentional employment of fallout from nuclear weapons.

radiological survey. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The directed effort to determine the distribution and dose rates of radiation in an area.

radiological survey flight altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The altitude at which an aircraft is flown during an aerial radiological survey.

radius of action. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The maximum distance a ship, aircraft, or vehicle can travel away from its base along a given course with normal combat load and return without refueling, allowing for all safety and operating factors.

radius of damage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The distance from ground zero at which there is a 0.50 probability of achieving the desired damage.

radius of integration. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The distance from ground zero which indicates the area within which the effects of both the nuclear detonation and conventional weapons are to be integrated.

radius of safety. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The horizontal distance from ground zero beyond which the weapon effects on friendly troops are acceptable.

raid. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation, usually small scale, involving a swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, confuse the enemy, or to destroy installations. It ends with a planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission.

raid report. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air defense, one of a series of related reports that are made for the purpose of developing a plot to assist in the rapid evaluation of a tactical situation.

railhead. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A point on a railway where loads are transferred between trains and other means of transport. See also navigation head.

railway line capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The maximum number of trains which can be moved in each direction over a specified section of track in a 24 hour period. See also route capacity.

railway loading ramp. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sloping platform situated at the end or beside a track and rising to the level of the floor of the rail cars or wagons.

rainfall (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The water that is precipitated from the base surge clouds after an underwater burst of a nuclear weapon. This rain is radioactive and presents an important secondary effect of such a burst.

rainout. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Radioactive material in the atmosphere brought down by precipitation.

ramjet. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A jet-propulsion engine containing neither compressor nor turbine which depends for its operation on the air compression accomplished by the forward motion of the engine. See also pulsejet.

ramp up. [DSMC] Usually refers to low rate initial production (LRIP) with small number of quantities gradually increasing as production line is proven and additional procurement dollars obtained.

random minelaying. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, the laying of mines without regard to pattern.

random selection. [TR 350-70] A process of choosing people or objects at random rather than through some systematic plan. A selection is random when all elements available for selection have the same chance of selection.

range. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The distance between any given point and an object or target.

l Extent or distance limiting the operation or action of something, such as the range of an aircraft, ship, or gun.

l The distance which can be covered over a hard surface by a ground vehicle, with its rated payload, using the fuel in its tank and its cans normally carried as part of the ground vehicle equipment.

l Area equipped for practice in shooting at targets. In this meaning, also called target range.

range marker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A single calibration blip fed onto the time base of a radial display. The rotation of the time base shows the single blips as a circle on the plan position indicator scope. It may be used to measure range.

range markers. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Two upright markers which may be lighted at night, placed so that when aligned, the direction indicated assists in piloting. They may be used in amphibious operations to aid in beaching landing ships or craft.

range spread. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The technique used to place the mean point of impact of two or more units 100 meters apart on the gun-target line.

Rangers. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Rapidly deployable airborne light infantry organized and trained to conduct highly complex joint direct action operations in coordination with or in support of other special operations units of all services. Rangers also can execute direct action operations in support of conventional nonspecial operations missions conducted by a combatant commander and can operate as conventional light infantry when properly augmented with other elements of combined arms.

ranging. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of establishing target distance. Types of ranging include echo, intermittent, manual, navigational, explosive echo, optical, radar, etc. See also spot.

rank order. 1[TR 350-70] The relative standing of an individual on a given trait with reference to other members of the group. Example: When all members of a group of 10 are arranged in order from lowest to highest, the number I may be assigned to the one who stands highest, 10 to the lowest. 2The assignment of ranks to students. This could refer to groups, such as the top 10%, or simply listing each student from the highest to lowest. Rank ordering is appropriate when there is a need to select the fastest, the most accurate, or the best producer.

raster. The closely spaced parallel lines produced on a display device. An image is formed by modulating the intensity of the individual pixels. A binary representation, a raster form, of the pixels can be used to digitally represent an image.

rate cost. [DSMC] A mathematical way of explaining and measuring the impact of curves changing production rates on a program's total cost.

rate of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The number of rounds fired per weapon per minute.

rate of march. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The average number of miles or kilometers to be traveled in a given period of time, including all ordered halts. It is expressed in miles or kilometers in the hour. See also pace.

rated load. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The designed safe operating load for the equipment under prescribed conditions.

ratification. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The declaration by which a nation formally accepts with or without reservation the content of a standardization agreement. See also implementation; reservation; subscription.

rating errors. Errors of standards, ratio, and logic.

rating factor. [DSMC] That percentage of skill, effort, and method displayed by an operator during the period of the study with 100 percent representing normal skill and effort.

rating scale. [TR 350-70] A measurement device in which a student must choose a response from a range of choices arranged in a continuum such as from low to high or good to bad.

ratio print. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A print the scale of which has been changed from that of the negative by photographic enlargement or reduction.

ration dense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Foods which, through processing, have been reduced in volume and quantity to a small compact package without appreciable loss of food value, quality, or acceptance, with a high yield in relation to space occupied, such as dehydrates and concentrates.

rationalization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any action that increases the effectiveness of allied forces through more efficient or effective use of defense resources committed to the alliance. Rationalization includes consolidation, reassignment of national priorities to higher alliance needs, standardization, specialization, mutual support or improved interoperability, and greater cooperation. Rationalization applies to both weapons/materiel resources and non-weapons military matters.

rationalization, standardization, and interoperability (RSI). RSI is an action that increases effectiveness of alliance forces through more efficient or effective use of committed defense resources.

ratline. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An organized effort for moving personnel and/or material by clandestine means across a denied area or border.

raw materials. [DSMC] Includes raw and processed material in a form or state that required further processing.

raw score. A score obtained on a test as determined by the performance itself, to which no correction or modification of any kind has been applied other than the possible addition or subtraction of a constant score.

raw video. Video that has not yet been edited.

reaction time. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The elapsed time between the initiation of an action and the required response.

l The time required between the receipt of an order directing an operation and the arrival of the initial element of the force concerned in the designated area.

readiness. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The ability of US military forces to fight and meet the demands of the National military strategy. Readiness is the synthesis of two distinct but interrelated levels:

l Unit readiness. The ability to provide capabilities required by the combatant commanders to execute their assigned missions. This is derived from the ability of each unit to deliver the outputs for which it was designed.

l Joint readiness. The combatant commander's ability to integrate and synchronize ready combat and support forces to execute his or her assigned missions. See also military capability; National military strategy.

2[DSMC] State of preparedness of forces or weapon system or systems to meet a mission or to warfight. Based on adequate and trained personnel, material condition, supplies/reserves of support system and ammunition, numbers of units available, etc. See military capability.

readiness condition. See operational readiness.

readiness drivers. [DSMC] Those system characteristics which have the largest effect on operational characteristics.

readiness planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operational planning required for peacetime operations. Its objective is the maintenance of high states of readiness and the deterrence of potential enemies. It includes planning activities that influence day-to-day operations and the peacetime posture of forces. As such, its focus is on general capabilities and readiness rather than the specifics of a particular crisis, either actual or potential. The assignment of geographic responsibilities to combatant commanders, establishment of readiness standards and levels, development of peacetime deployment patterns, coordination of reconnaissance and surveillance assets and capabilities, and planning of joint exercises are examples of readiness planning. No formal joint planning system exists for readiness planning such as exists for contingency and execution planning.

reading grade level (RGL) (individual). [TR 350-70] A number representing a person's ability to read and comprehend. This number is equated to the school grade level at which a student should be capable of reading and comprehending written matter. For example, a reading grade level of "7" is representative of an individual being able to read and comprehend subject matter written at the seventh grade level. A sample of the individual's vocabulary is used to assess reading grade level. The assignment of a school grade level to the complexity of reading materials. Formulas used to calculate reading grade level are usually based on length of words and sentences.

ready. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The term used to indicate that a weapon(s) is loaded, aimed, and prepared to fire.

ready CAP. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fighter aircraft in condition of standby.

ready for training (RFT). [DSMC] The first attainment of the sustained capability to train military units adequately to operate and maintain a weapon system effectively for operational capability. See fielding date.

ready for use (RFU). When a new acquisition is available for use either operationally or in a support function.

ready position. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In helicopter operations, a designated place where a helicopter load of troops and/or equipment waits for pick-up.

Ready Reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Selected Reserve and Individual Ready Reserve liable for active duty as prescribed by law. (10 U.S.C. 268, 672, and 673.)

Ready Reserve Force (RRF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A force composed of ships acquired by the Maritime Administration (MARAD) with Navy funding and newer ships acquired by the MARAD for the National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF). Although part of the NDRF, ships of the Ready Reserve Force are maintained in a higher state of readiness and can be made available without mobilization or Congressionally declared state of emergency. See also National Defense Reserve Fleet.

ready-to-load date (RLD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The day, relative to C-day, in a time-phased force and deployment data when the unit, non-unit equipment, and forces are prepared to depart for their origin on organic transportation or are prepared to begin loading on U.S. Transportation Command-provided transportation.

real estate. In video technology, the space available on a videodisk or tape.

real precession. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Precession resulting from an applied torque such as friction and dynamic imbalance.

real property. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Lands, buildings, structures, utilities systems, improvements, and appurtenances thereto. Includes equipment attached to and made part of buildings and structures (such as heating systems) but not movable equipment (such as plant equipment).

real time. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed only by the time required for electronic communication. This implies that there are no noticeable delays. See also near real time. 2[DSMC]

l Software — essence of real time is the synchronism of processes with the outside world.

l An immediate response to an outside stimulus. Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed only by the time required for electronic communication. This implies that there are no noticeable delays. See also near real time.

real wander. See real precession.

realism. The extent to which an operator's experience in a training device corresponds to experiences as they would actually occur in/on the operational system/equipment under a given set of conditions.

realistic test environment. [DSMC] The conditions under which the system is expected to be operated and maintained, including the natural weather and climatic conditions, terrain effects, battlefield disturbances, and enemy threat conditions.

realization factor. [DSMC] The ratio of actual performance time to standard performance time, usually expressed as a decimal number.

reallocation authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The authority given to NATO commanders and normally negotiated in peacetime, to reallocate in an emergency in war national logistic resources controlled by the combat forces under their command, and made available by nations, in order to influence the battle logistically. Also called reallocation of resources.

reapportionment. [DSMC] A revision by the Office of Management and Budget of a previous apportionment of budgetary resources for an appropriation or fund account. A revision would ordinarily cover the same period, projects, or activity covered in the original apportionment.

rear area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) For any particular command, the area extending forward from its rear boundary to the rear of the area of responsibility of the next lower level of command. This area is provided primarily for the performance of combat service support functions. See also Army service area.

rear area operations center/rear tactical operations center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command and control facility that serves as an area/subarea commander's planning, coordinating, monitoring, advising, and directing agency for area security operations.

rear echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Elements of a force which are not required in the objective area.

rear guard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Security detachment that protects the rear of a column from hostile forces. During a withdrawal, it delays the enemy by armed resistance, destroying bridges, and blocking roads.

rear operations. Operations that assist in providing freedom of action and continuity of operations, logistics, and battle command. Their primary purposes are to sustain the current close and deep fights and to posture the force for further operations.

rear screen. Translucent screen onto which images are projected from the rear and photographed or viewed from the front.

rearming. rearming. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An operation that replenishes the prescribed stores of ammunition, bombs, and other armament items for an aircraft, naval ship, tank, or armored vehicle, including replacement of defective ordnance equipment, in order to make it ready for combat service.

l Resetting the fuse on a bomb, or on an artillery, mortar, or rocket projectile, so that it will detonate at the desired time.

reasonable price. [DSMC] A business decision reached jointly by a buyer and seller, a product of judgment influenced by bargaining strength and economic realities dictated by the marketplace.

rebuild. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The restoration of an item to a standard as nearly as possible to its original condition in appearance, performance, and life expectancy. See also overhaul; repair.

receipt. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A transmission made by a receiving station to indicate that a message has been satisfactorily received.

receipt into the supply system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That point in time when the first item or first quantity of the item of the contract has been received at or is en route to point of first delivery after inspection and acceptance. See also procurement lead time.

receiving ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ship in a replenishment unit that receives the rig(s).

reception. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l All ground arrangements connected with the delivery and disposition of air or sea drops. Includes selection and preparation of site, signals for warning and approach, facilitation of secure departure of agents, speedy collection of delivered articles, and their prompt removal to storage places having maximum security. When a group is involved, it may be called a reception committee.

l Arrangements to welcome and provide secure quarters or transportation for defectors, escapees, evaders, or incoming agents.

receptivity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vulnerability of a target audience to particular psychological operations media.

reclama. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A request to duly constituted authority to reconsider its decision or its proposed action.

RECLAMA. [DSMC] A formal appeal to the service comptroller or the Secretary of Defense's (SECDEF) tentative budget decision on the service budget estimates.

reclassification training. [TR 350-70] A soldier may be reclassified into a new job due to organizational restructure, mission or new/revised systems, etc. Reclassification training is training provided to those individuals which qualifies them to perform in a newly assigned job (MOS, AOC, etc.).

recognition. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The determination by any means of the individuality of persons, or of objects such as aircraft, ships, or tanks, or of phenomena such as communications-electronics patterns.

l In ground combat operations, the determination that an object is similar within a category of something already known; e.g., tank, truck, man.

recognition signal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any prearranged signal by which individuals or units may identify each other.

recoilless rifle (heavy). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A weapon capable of being fired from either a ground mount or from a vehicle, and capable of destroying tanks.

recompression chamber. See hyperbaric chamber.

reconciliation. [DSMC] Directives to standing committees contained in congressional budget resolutions calling for certain dollar savings and a deadline for reporting legislation to achieve the savings. Omnibus reconciliation bill incorporating these changes is introduced and acted on in both Houses.

reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area.

reconnaissance by fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of reconnaissance in which fire is placed on a suspected enemy position to cause the enemy to disclose a presence by movement or return of fire.

reconnaissance exploitation report (RECCEXREP). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A standard message format used to report the results of a tactical air reconnaissance mission. Whenever possible the report should include the interpretation of sensor imagery.

reconnaissance in force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An offensive operation designed to discover and/or test the enemy's strength or to obtain other information.

reconnaissance patrol. See patrol.

reconnaissance photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Photography taken to obtain information on the results of bombing, or on enemy movements, concentrations, activities, and forces. The primary purposes do not include making maps, charts, or mosaics.

reconstitution. 1At the strategic level, those functions and activities required to restore the Army’s capability to respond to any mission across the full range of possible operations. Involves maintaining technology, doctrine, training, experienced military personnel, and innovation necessary to retain the competitive edge in decisive areas of potential military competition. 2At the operational and tactical levels, reconstitution consists of extraordinary actions that commanders plan and implement to restore units to a desired level of combat effectiveness commensurate with mission requirements and available resources. Involves forming, training, and fielding new fighting units. This includes initially drawing on cadre-type units and laid-up military assets; mobilizing previously trained or new manpower; and activating the industrial base on a large scale.

reconstitution site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A location selected by the surviving command authority as the site at which a damaged or destroyed headquarters can be reformed from survivors of the attack and/or personnel from other sources, predesignated as replacements.

reconstitution units. Forces in addition to those in the Active and Reserve Component base force; forces are created to deter an emerging global threat from competing militarily with the United States and, should such deterrence fail, to provide a global warfighting capability. Reconstitution forces may be composed of regeneration assets, industrial/technology base assets, and manpower assets.

record. [TP 25-71] Records include all books, papers, maps, photographs, machine-readable materials, and other documentary materials, regardless of physical form or characteristics, made or received by an office in connection with the transaction of official business and preserved or appropriate for preservation by that office as evidence of the organizations functions, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities of that office or because of the value of data in the record.

record as target. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the order used to denote that the target is to be recorded for future engagement or reference.

record category. [TP 25-71] A level in a file plan; e.g., group, subgroup, series, file.

record category status code. [TP 25-71] Code assigned to the values of this data element are used for event-driven disposition.

record identifier. [TP 25-71] A sequentially-assigned, system-generated, unique number used to identify a particular record.

record information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All forms (e.g., narrative, graphic, data, computer memory) of information registered in either temporary or permanent form so that it can be retrieved, reproduced, or preserved.

record location. [TP 25-71] A pointer to the record. Examples: an operating system path-file name, the location of a file cabinet, the location of a magnetic tape rack.

record profile. [TP 25-71] Information (metadata) about a record that is used by the records management application to file and retrieve the record. It includes information fields such as to, from, date, subject, document type, format, location, record number, version number, file category, and originating organization. The data fields may also be used by the records management application as search criteria.

record repository. [TP 25-71] A direct access device on which the electronic records and profiles are stored.

record series. [TP 25-71] File units or documents arranged according to a filing system or kept together because they relate to a particular subject or function, result from the same activity, have a particular physical form, or for some relationship arising from their creation, receipt or use.

record status action code. [TP 25-71] Code that indicates the action to be taken when a disposition date occurs (e.g., transfer or destroy).

recorded. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the response used to indicate that the action taken to "record as target" has been completed.

records management. [TP 25-71] The planning, controlling, directing, organizing, training, promoting, and other managerial activities involving the life cycle of records, including creation, maintenance (use, storage, retrieval) and disposition, regardless of media.

records management application (RMA). [TP 25-71] Software used by an organization to manage its records. Its primary management functions are: classifying and locating records, storing and retrieving records, and disposing of records.

records manager. [TP 25-71] An individual responsible for the management of the records of an organization, IAW statutory and regulatory guidelines.

recoupment. This is the estimated cost savings from prior year programs used to finance current programs.

recoverable item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item which normally is not consumed in use and is subject to return for repair or disposal. See also reparable item.

recovery. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In air operations, that phase of a mission which involves the return of an aircraft to a base.

l In naval mine warfare, salvage of a mine as nearly intact as possible to permit further investigation for intelligence and/or evaluation purposes. See also salvage operation.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious reconnaissance, the physical extraction of landed forces or their link-up with friendly forces. 3[JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, the return of evaders to friendly control, either with or without assistance, as the result of planning, operations, and individual actions on the part of recovery planners, conventional/unconventional recovery forces, and/or the evaders themselves.

See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery force

recovery activation signal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, a precoordinated signal from an evader that indicates his presence in an area to a receiving or observing source that indicates "I am here, start the recovery planning.". See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations; signal.

recovery airfield. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any airfield, military or civil, at which aircraft might land post-H-hour. It is not expected that combat missions would be conducted from a recovery airfield. See also airfield.

recovery and reconstitution. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those actions taken by one nation prior to, during, and following an attack by an enemy nation to minimize the effects of the attack, rehabilitate the national economy, provide for the welfare of the populace, and maximize the combat potential of remaining forces and supporting activities.

recovery controller. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The air controller responsible for the correct execution of recovering aircraft to the appropriate terminal control agency.

recovery force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, an organization consisting of personnel and equipment with a mission of seeking out evaders, contacting them, and returning them to friendly control. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations.

recovery operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations conducted to search for, locate, identify, rescue, and return personnel, sensitive equipment, or items critical to national security.

recovery procedures. See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

recovery site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and escape usage, an area from which an evader or an escaper can be evacuated.

recovery vehicle, medium. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A full-tracked vehicle designed for crew rescue and recovery of tanks and other vehicles under battlefield conditions. Designated as M88A1.

recovery zone (RZ). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated geographic area from which special operations forces can be extracted by air, boat, or other means.

rectification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In photogrammetry, the process of projecting a tilted or oblique photograph on to a horizontal reference plane.

rectified airspeed. Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument installation error. See airspeed.

rectifier. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device for converting alternating current into direct current. See also inverter.

recuperation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See recovery and reconstitution.

recurring demand. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A request by an authorized requisitioner to satisfy a materiel requirement for consumption or stock replenishment that is anticipated to recur periodically. Demands for which the probability of future occurrence is unknown will be considered as recurring. Recurring demands will be considered by the supporting supply system in order to procure, store, and distribute materiel to meet similar demands in the future.

recurring effort. [DSMC] An effort repeated during a contract's duration.

recycling. The process by which students are afforded additional opportunities to complete a training course (or cycle) either through repetition of training previously not completed satisfactorily or makeup of extensive training that was missed because of medical or other absences.

red force. Potential threat forces.

red teaming. [TP 71-9] Red teaming is an independent vulnerability assessment activity which targets information or information-based systems and their associated information support infrastructure for the purpose of assessing system vulnerabilities, conducts risk management in analyzing those vulnerabilities, implements appropriate fixes, and thereby increases the Commander's ability to conduct combat operations.

red-lining. A process used to record recommended change actions prior to [U.S.] Government approval.

redeployment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The transfer of a unit, an individual, or supplies deployed in one area to another area, or to another location within the area, or to the zone of interior for the purpose of further employment.

redeployment airfield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airfield not occupied in its entirety in peacetime, but available immediately upon outbreak of war for use and occupation by units redeployed from their peacetime locations. It must have substantially the same standard of operational facilities as a main airfield. See also airfield; alternative airfield; departure airfield; main airfield.

redesignated site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A surviving facility that may be redesignated as the command center to carry on the functions of an incapacitated alternate headquarters and/or facility.

Redeye. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A lightweight manportable, shoulder-fired air defense artillery weapon for low altitude air defense of forward combat area troops. Designated as FIM-43.

redistribution. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The act of effecting transfer in control, utilization, or location of material between units or activities within or among the military services or between the military services and other Federal agencies.

reduced charge. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The smaller of the two propelling charges available for naval guns.

l Charge employing a reduced amount of propellant to fire a gun at short ranges as compared to a normal charge.

See also normal charge.

reduced lighting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The reduction in brightness of ground vehicle lights by either reducing power or by screening in such a way that any visible light is limited in output. See also normal lighting.

reduced operational status (ROS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Applies to the Military Sealift Command ships withdrawn from full operational status (FOS) because of decreased operational requirements. A ship in reduced operational status is crewed in accordance with shipboard maintenance and possible future operational requirements with crew size predetermined contractually. The condition of readiness in terms of calendar days required to attain full operational status is designated by the numeral following the acronym ROS (i.e., ROS-5). See also Military Sealift Command.

reduction. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The creation of lanes through a minefield or obstacle to allow passage of the attacking ground force.

reduction (photographic). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The production of a negative, diapositive, or print at a scale smaller than the original.

redundancy. [DSMC] Repetition of parts or subsystems to assure operation if original (primary) part or subsystem fails.

redundant training. [TR 350-70] Training that occurs when training of a task is repeated at subsequent skill levels.

reefer. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A refrigerator.

l A motor vehicle, railroad freight car, ship, aircraft, or other conveyance, so constructed and insulated as to protect commodities from either heat or cold.

reenactment. A reconstruction of something that has really happened, possibly using the same people and places, but quite likely edited.

reentry phase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile or space vehicle where there is a significant interaction of the vehicle and the Earth's atmosphere. See also boost phase; midcourse phase; terminal phase.

reentry vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That part of a space vehicle designed to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere in the terminal portion of its trajectory. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle.

refer-to box. See reference box.

reference box. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The identification box placed in the margin of a map or chart which contains the series designation, sheet number and edition number in a readily identified form. Also called refer to box. See also information box.

reference datum. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) As used in the loading of aircraft, an imaginary vertical plane at or near the nose of the aircraft from which all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes. Diagrams of each aircraft show this reference datum as balance station zero.

reference diversion point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) One of a number of positions selected by the routing authority on both sides of the route of a convoy or independent to facilitate diversion at sea.

reference point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A prominent, easily located point in the terrain.

reference version. [TR 5-11] The most recent version of a modeling and simulation which has been released for community use by, and under configuration management of, the modeling and simulation users group executive committee.

reference-dependent task. [TR 350-70] A summary written for those tasks which require the trained soldier to refer to one or more publications while performing all or part of a task in operational conditions.

reference-independent task. [TR 350-70] A summary written for those tasks which require the trained soldier to perform the task in operational conditions from memory, without reference to any publications.

reflected shock wave. [JP 1-02] (DoD) When a shock wave traveling in a medium strikes the interface between this medium and a denser medium, part of the energy of the shock wave induces a shock wave in the denser medium and the remainder of the energy results in the formation of a reflected shock wave that travels back through the less dense medium. See also shock wave.

reflection. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Energy diverted back from the interface of two media. The reflection may be specular (i.e., direct) or diffuse according to the nature of the contact surfaces.

reflex force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) As applied to Air Force units, that part of the alert force maintained overseas or at zone of interior forward bases by scheduled rotations.

reflex sight. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An optical or computing sight that reflects a reticle image (or images) onto a combining glass for superimposition on the target.

refraction. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process by which the direction of a wave is changed when moving into shallow water at an angle to the bathymetric contours. The crest of the wave advancing in shallower water moves more slowly than the crest still advancing in deeper water, causing the wave crest to bend toward alignment with the underwater contours.

refresher training. [TR 350-70] Used to reinforce previous training and/or sustain/regain previously acquired skills and knowledge. It –

l Is –

l Related to course-specific training objectives.

l Performed under prescribed conditions and must meet prescribed performance standards.

l Usually takes place in the unit to sustain or retrain a previously required proficiency level; may be trained to prepare an individual for institutional training, i.e., meet prerequisite training requirements.

l May take place in a course during/outside of POI time.

refuge area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A coastal area considered safe from enemy attack to which merchant ships may be ordered to proceed when the shipping movement policy is implemented. See also safe anchorage.

refugee. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A civilian who, by reason of real or imagined danger, has left home to seek safety elsewhere. See also displaced person; evacuee; expellee.

REGENCY NET. Unclassified code name for USEUCOM HF/SSB communications system

regenerative design. A lesson style that allows for a different set of questions to be presented for each student or for each time a student enters a lesson.

regimental landing team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task organization for landing comprised of an infantry regiment reinforced by those elements which are required for initiation of its combat function ashore.

regional coordinating element (RCE). [TR 350-70] The TRADOC office in the Continental U.S. (CONUS) sub-geographical region that facilitates the coordination for Army training instructors, students, training devices, equipment, and facilities for Reserve Component (RC) individual soldier training.

regional joint intelligence training facility (RJITF). A command-designated facility which is dedicated to joint general intelligence training.

register. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, the correct position of one component of a composite map image in relation to the other components, at each stage of production.

register marks. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, designated marks, such as small crosses, circles, or other patterns applied to original copy prior to reproduction to facilitate registration of plates and to indicate the relative positions of successive impressions.

registration. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The adjustment of fire to determine firing data corrections.

registration fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire delivered to obtain accurate data for subsequent effective engagement of targets. See also fire.

registration point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Terrain feature or other designated point on which fire is adjusted for the purpose of obtaining corrections to firing data.

regrade. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To determine that certain classified information requires, in the interests of national defense, a higher or a lower degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure than currently provided, coupled with a changing of the classification designation to reflect such higher or lower degree.

regroup airfield. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any airfield, military or civil, at which post-H-hour reassembling of aircraft is planned for the express purpose of rearming, recocking, and resumption of armed alert, overseas deployment, or conducting further combat missions. See also airfield.

regular drill. See unit training assembly.

regulated item. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any item whose issue to a user is subject to control by an appropriate authority for reasons that may include cost, scarcity, technical or hazardous nature, or operational significance. Also called controlled item. See also critical supplies and materiel.

regulating station. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command agency established to control all movements of personnel and supplies into or out of a given area.

Regulus. Ship-launched long-range cruise missile. Regulus I and II were otherwise totally different. The Regulus missile was also carried by the two Grayback class submarines. No longer in service.

rehabilitation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The processing, usually in a relatively quiet area, of units or individuals recently withdrawn from combat or arduous duty, during which units recondition equipment and are rested, furnished special facilities, filled up with replacements, issued replacement supplies and equipment, given training, and generally made ready for employment in future operations.

l The action performed in restoring an installation to authorized design standards.

reimbursable. [DSMC] An expenditure made for another agency, fund, or appropriation, or for a private individual, firm or corporation, which subsequently will be recovered.

reimbursements. [DSMC] Amounts received by an activity for the cost of material, work, or services furnished to others, for credit to an appropriation or other fund account.

reinforced task. See task reinforced.

reinforcement training. See refresher training.

reinforcement training unit. See voluntary training unit.

reinforcing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery usage, tactical mission in which one artillery unit augments the fire of another artillery unit.

reinforcing obstacles. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those obstacles specifically constructed, emplaced, or detonated through military effort and designed to strengthen existing terrain to disrupt, fix, turn, or block enemy movement. See also obstacle.

relateral tell. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The relay of information between facilities through the use of a third facility. This type of telling is appropriate between automated facilities in a degraded communications environment. See also track telling.

relative altitude. See vertical separation.

relative aperture. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ratio of the equivalent focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil of photographic lens expressed f:4.5, etc. Also called aperture stop; f-number; stop; or diaphragmstop.

relative bearing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The direction expressed as a horizontal angle normally measured clockwise from the forward point of the longitudinal axis of a vehicle, aircraft or ship to an object or body. See also bearing; grid bearing.

relative biological effectiveness. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ratio of the number of rads of gamma (or X) radiation of a certain energy which will produce a specified biological effect to the number of rads of another radiation required to produce the same effect is the relative biological effectiveness of the latter radiation.

release. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air armament, the intentional separation of a free-fall aircraft store, from its suspension equipment, for purposes of employment of the store.

release altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Altitude of an aircraft above the ground at the time of release of bombs, rockets, missiles, tow targets, etc.

release form. [TR 350-70] A form used to obtain written permission to use copyrighted materials or pictures taken of persons.

release point (road). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A well-defined point on a route at which the elements composing a column return under the authority of their respective commanders, each one of these elements continuing its movement towards its own appropriate destination.

releasing commander (nuclear weapons). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A commander who has been delegated authority to approve the use of nuclear weapons within prescribed limits. See also executing commander (nuclear weapons).

releasing officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A properly designated individual who may authorize the sending of a message for and in the name of the originator. See also originator.

reliability. 1[TR 350-70] The extent to which the test/test item gives consistent results each time it is used. Any time a test item is examined for validity, it must also be examined for reliability. 2A fundamental characteristic of materiel expressed as the probability that an item will perform its intended function for a specified interval under stated conditions. Durability is a special case of reliability. 3[DSMC] The ability of a system and its parts to perform its mission without failure, degradation, or demand on the support system. See mean time between failures (MTBF).

reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM). RAM requirements are those imposed on materiel systems to ensure that they are operationally ready for use when needed, will successfully perform assigned functions, and can be economically operated and maintained within the scope of logistics concepts and policies. RAM programs are applicable to materiel systems, test measurement and diagnostic equipment (TMDE), training devices, and facilities developed, produced, maintained, procured, or modified for Army use. Reliability is the duration or probability of failure-free performance under stated conditions. Availability is a measure of the degree to which an item is in operable and commitable state at the start of the mission. Maintainability is the ability of an item to be retained in or restored to specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each level of maintenance and repair. See individual definitions for reliability, availability, and maintainability.

reliability, equipment. The characteristic that a device, equipment, or system will operate effectively for a period of time without a failure or breakdown.

reliability, test. The extent to which the test/test item gives consistent results each time it is used. Any time a test item is examined for validity, it is also examined for reliability.

reliability and maintenance (R&M) accounting. [DSMC] That set of mathematical tasks which establish and allocate quantitative R&M requirements, and predict and measure quantitative R&M achievements.

reliability and maintenance (R&M) engineering. [DSMC] That set of design, development, and manufacturing tasks by which R&M are achieved.

reliability based logistics (RBL). [DSMC] Emphasizes the importance of designing reliability into systems and is an expansion of the process used to determine the support concept for a system, subsystem, and/or component. RBL addresses decisions such as consumable versus repairable, commercial versus organic repair, warranties, technology insertion, and form-fit-function interface specifications as methods for facilitating reliable designs.

reliability diagram. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, a diagram showing the dates and quality of the source material from which a map or chart has been compiled. See also information box.

reliability of source. See evaluation.

reliable records. [TP 25-71] Records that can be trusted due to their degree of completeness, the degree of control exercised on their creation and maintenance procedures, and/or the author's reliability.

relief. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Inequalities of evaluation and the configuration of land features on the surface of the Earth which may be represented on maps or charts by contours, hypsometric tints, shading, or spot elevations.

relief in place. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation in which, by direction of higher authority, all or part of a unit is replaced in an area by the incoming unit. The responsibilities of the replaced elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are transferred to the incoming unit. The incoming unit continues the operation as ordered.

religious ministry support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The entire spectrum of professional duties to include providing for or facilitating essential religious needs and practices, pastoral care, family support programs, religious education, volunteer and community activities, and programs performed to enhance morale and moral, ethical, and personal well being. Enlisted religious support personnel assist the chaplain in providing religious ministry support. See also command chaplain; command chaplain of the combatant command; lay leader or lay reader; religious ministry support plan; religious ministry support team; Service component command chaplain.

religious ministry support plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan that describes the way in which religious support personnel will provide religious support to all members of a joint force. When approved by the commander, it may be included as an annex to operation plans. See also command chaplain; command chaplain of the combatant command; lay leader or lay reader; religious ministry support; religious ministry support team; Service component command chaplain.

religious ministry support team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A team that is composed of a chaplain and an Army Chaplain Assistant or Navy Religious Program Specialist or Air Force Chaplain Service Support Personnel or Coast Guard yeoman. The team works together in designing, implementing, and executing the command religious program. See also command chaplain; command chaplain of the combatant command; lay leader or lay reader; religious ministry support; religious ministry support plan; Service component command chaplain.

relocatable building. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A building designed to be readily moved, erected, disassembled, stored, and reused. All types of buildings or building forms designed to provide relocatable capabilities are included in this definition. In classifying buildings as relocatable, the estimated funded and unfunded costs for average building disassembly, repackaging (including normal repair and refurbishment of components), and nonrecoverable building components, including typical foundations, may not exceed 20 percent of the building acquisition cost. Excluded from this definition are building types and forms that are provided as an integral part of a mobile equipment item and that are incidental portions of such equipment components, such as communications vans or trailers.

remain-behind equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Unit equipment left by deploying forces at their bases when they deploy.

remaining forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The total surviving United States forces at any given stage of combat operations.

remedial instruction. [TR 350-70] Special instruction designed and delivered to alleviate deficiencies in the achievement of some of the learning objectives of an instructional program.

remediation. Corrective training. A form of feedback that reteaches information for which the student has demonstrated a lack of understanding.

remediation design criteria. Previously determined paths developed by the designer and influenced by the user's input. The remediation is intended to reteach information the trainee has failed to understand. It may also be supplemental instruction to correct student nonunderstanding of course material or a student learning deficiency.

remote delivery. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, the delivery of mines to a target area by any means other than direct emplacement. The exact position of mines so laid may not be known.

remote operations. Events conducted away from the normal local area of operations.

remote site facilitator. [TR 350-70] The site facilitator manages students, assists the lead instructor as preplanned, and facilitates learning at the remote site. The site facilitator may be trained to function also as site coordinator.

remotely piloted vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An unmanned vehicle capable of being controlled from a distant location through a communication link. It is normally designed to be recoverable. See also drone.

remotivation step. A segment of a lesson conclusion during which the presenter reminds students why the information presented is important to the student as an individual so that student will have a desire to retain and use what they have learned.

render safe procedures. See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

rendezvous. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A pre-arranged meeting at a given time and location from which to begin an action or phase of an operation, or to which to return after an operation. See also join up.

l In land warfare, an easily found terrain location at which visitors to units, headquarters or facilities are met by personnel from the element to be visited.

See also contact point.

rendezvous area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an amphibious operation, the area in which the landing craft and amphibious vehicles rendezvous to form waves after being loaded, and prior to movement to the line of departure.

reorder cycle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The interval between successive reorder (procurement) actions.

reorder point. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l That point at which time a stock replenishment requisition would be submitted to maintain the predetermined or calculated stockage objective.

l The sum of the safety level of supply plus the level for order and shipping time equals the reorder point. See also level of supply.

repair. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The restoration of an item to serviceable condition through correction of a specific failure or unserviceable condition. See also overhaul; rebuild.

repair and restoration. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Repair, beyond emergency repair, of war-damaged facilities to restore operational capability in accordance with combatant command standards of construction, which includes repair and restoration of pavement surfaces. Normally, repairs to facilities will be made using materials similar to those of the original construction. For severely damaged facilities (i.e., essentially destroyed), restoration may require reconstruction.

repair cycle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The stages through which a reparable item passes from the time of its removal or replacement until it is reinstalled or placed in stock in a serviceable condition.

repair cycle aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Aircraft in the active inventory that are in or awaiting depot maintenance, including those in transit to or from depot maintenance.

repair parts. [DSMC] Consumable bits and pieces, that is, individual parts or non-repairable assemblies, required for the repair of spare parts or major end items.

repairability. [DSMC] The probability that a failed system will be restored to operable condition within a specified active repair time.

reparable item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item that can be reconditioned or economically repaired for reuse when it becomes unserviceable. See also recoverable item.

repatriate. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A person who returns to his or her country or citizenship, having left his or her native country, either against his or her will, or as one of a group who left for reason of politics, religion, or other pertinent reasons.

repatriation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Procedure where American citizens and their families (evacuees) are officially processed back into the United States subsequent to an evacuation. Evacuees are also provided various services to ensure their well-being and onward movement to their final destination. See also evacuation.

repeat. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, an order or request to fire again the same number of rounds with the same method of fire.

repeater-jammer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A receiver transmitter device which amplifies, multiplies and retransmits the signals received, for purposes of deception or jamming.

replacement demand. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A demand representing replacement of items consumed or worn out.

replacement factor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The estimated percentage of equipment or repair parts in use that will require replacement during a given period due to wearing out beyond repair, enemy action, abandonment, pilferage, and other causes except catastrophes.

replacement training unit (RTU). Any organization which accepts Undergraduate Flying Training (UFT) graduates and trains them in a major weapons system.

replacements. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Personnel required to take the place of others who depart a unit.

replanning. [DSMC] See internal replanning.

replenishment. [DSMC] The purchase of additional items following initial purchase, whether bought for support of additional end items, routine restockage, or other purposes.

replenishment at sea. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Those operations required to make a transfer of personnel and/or supplies when at sea.

replenishment spare parts. [DSMC] Items and equipment, both repairable and consumable, purchased by inventory control points, required to replenish stocks for use in the maintenance, overhaul, and repair of equipment, such as ships, tanks, guns, aircraft, engines, etc.

replication. [TR 350-70] Reproduction of electronic camera-ready copies (CRCs) on a tangible, material distribution medium, e.g, CD-ROM.

reply. An answer to a challenge. See also challenge; countersign; password.

reported unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A unit designation that has been mentioned in an agent report, captured document, or interrogation report, but for which available information is insufficient to include the unit in accepted order of battle holdings.

reporting post. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An element of the control and reporting system used to extend the radar coverage of the control and reporting center. It does not undertake the control of aircraft.

reporting time interval. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In surveillance, the time interval between the detection of an event and the receipt of a report by the user.

l In communications, the time for transmission of data or a report from the originating terminal to the end receiver.

See also near real time.

representative downwind direction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) During the forecast period, the mean surface downwind direction in the hazard area towards which the cloud travels.

representative downwind speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The mean surface downwind speed in the hazard area during the forecast period.

representative fraction. The scale of a map, chart, or photograph expressed as a fraction or ratio. See also scale.

reproducible copy. See camera-ready copy.

reprogramming. [DSMC] The transfer of funds between program element or line items within an appropriation for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of appropriation. Reprogramming is generally accomplished pursuant to consultation with, and approval by, appropriate congressional committees, if above thresholds prescribed for different appropriations, i.e. procurement, military construction, operations and maintenance, military personnel and research, development, test, and evaluation.

request for information. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Any specific time-sensitive ad hoc requirement for intelligence information or products to support an ongoing crisis or operation not necessarily related to standing requirements or scheduled intelligence production. A request for information can be initiated to respond to operational requirements and will be validated in accordance with the theater command's procedures.

l The National Security Agency/Central Security Service uses this term to state ad hoc signals intelligence requirements.

See also information; intelligence.

request for proposal (RFP). 1[AMC] A request for industry to submit a written proposal to support the development and production of a system. The materiel developer publishes a description of a proposed system/training device in the Commerce Business Daily (CBD). It may include specifications, quantities, time and place of delivery, method of shipment, packaging and instruction manual requirements, materiel to be furnished, and data requirements (both support and administrative). An RFP invites the private sector to submit proposals and bids. If one is chosen a contract will be awarded. 2[TR 350-70] RFPs state the identified requirement in performance terms. RFPs also state the intended use, data life-cycle maintenance requirements, necessary interfaces, and training environment for each required training product. Well-written training RFPs:

l Specify the performance requirements for the training product clearly so that the Government and the offerers can estimate the probable cost and the offerer can determine the levels of expertise, personnel, and other resources needed to accomplish the requirements,

l Cite verification requirement the Government will impose on offerer.

l Include proposal evaluation criteria. Offerers are free to propose any method of meeting the performance requirements as long as the proposed product meets the performance criteria stated in the RFP.

3[DSMC] A solicitation used in negotiated acquisition to communicate government requirements to prospective contractor and to solicit proposals.

request for quotation (RFQ). [DSMC] A solicitation used in negotiated acquisition to communicate government requirements to prospective contractors and to solicit a quotation. A response to an RFQ is not an offer, however, it is informational in character.

request for technical proposal. [DSMC] Solicitation document used in two-step sealed bid. Normally in letter form, it asks only for technical information — price and cost breakdowns are forbidden.

request modify. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a request by any person, other than the person authorized to make modifications to a fire plan, for a modification.

required capabilities. [TP 71-9] Operational abilities needed to perform the range of future military operations as described in capstone, operational, functional, and branch concepts. Capabilities may be explicitly stated in warfighting concepts or derived through analyses of one or more war-fighting concepts or facets of military operations. Capabilities are attained through changes to or development of new doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and/or soldier support.

required delivery date (RDD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A date, relative to C-day, when a unit must arrive at its destination and complete offloading to properly support the concept of operations.

required operational capabilities (ROC). Statements prepared by mission and force function sponsors which detail the capabilities required of equipment, systems, organizations, and personnel in various operational situations. The level of detail sets forth which systems will be ready at varying degrees of readiness. Obsolete, see operational requirements document (ORD).

required operational characteristics. [DSMC] System parameters that are primary indicators of the system's capability to be employed to perform the required mission functions, and to be supported.

required supply rate (ammunition). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In Army usage, the amount of ammunition expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired by weapons, and in terms of other units of measure per day for bulk allotment and other items, estimated to be required to sustain operations of any designated force without restriction for a specified period. Tactical commanders use this rate to state their requirements for ammunition to support planned tactical operations at specified intervals. The required supply rate is submitted through command channels. It is consolidated at each echelon and is considered by each commander in subsequently determining the controlled supply rate within the command.

required technical characteristics. [DSMC] System parameters selected as primary indicators of achievement of engineering goals. These need not be direct measures of, but should always relate to the system's capability to perform the required mission functions, and to be supported.

requirement. 1[DSMC] The need or demand for personnel, equipment, facilities, other resources, or services, by specified quantities for specific periods of time or at a specified time. 2[DSMC] For use in budgeting, item requirements should be screened as to individual priority and approved in the light of total available budget resources.

requirement (TD workload). [TR 350-70] Training development work that should be completed as determined by MACOM/DA taskers or by proponent-developed training strategies and proponent-conducted needs analysis.

requirements. [TP 71-9] Modifications to current Army or joint DTLOMS structure to achieve a desired future operational capabilities. See military requirement.

requirements capability. [TP 71-9] This capability provides a Joint Operation Planning and Execution System user the ability to identify, update, review, and delete data on forces and sustainment required to support an operation plan or course of action.

requirements creep. [DSMC] The tendency of the user (or developer) to add to the original mission responsibilities and requirements of a system while it is still in development.

requirements determination. The process of deciding what is essential to support a strategy, campaign, or operation.

Requirements Determination and Acquisition Process. [TR 350-70] Outlines the life cycle of the Army acquisition system from materiel concept investigation, through development and acquisition, until ultimate phase out and disposal. Materiel acquisition may initiate training requirements.

Requirements Management System (RMS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system for the management of theater and national imagery collection requirements. Provides automated tools for users in support of submission, review, and validation of imagery nominations as requirements to be tasked on national or DoD imagery collection, production, and exploitation resources. See also imagery; management.

Requirements Review Committee (RRC). The RRC is a HQ TRADOC committee responsible for the final review of requirements documents for the purpose of recommending disposition (approval/ disapproval/ return to originator) to the approval authority.

requirements scrub. [DSMC] A review of user/government comments received in response to the announcement of an operational requirement. The scrub is used to validate and prioritize suggested or requested system functions and capabilities before release to industry.

requirements validation authority. [DSMC] The chiefs of the Services are validation and approval authorities for non-major programs; the Joint Requirements Oversight Council validates and approves user requirements for major defense acquisition programs.

requisition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l An authoritative demand or request especially for personnel, supplies, or services authorized but not made available without specific request. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l To demand or require services from an invaded or conquered nation.

requisitioning objective. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum quantities of materiel to be maintained on hand and on order to sustain current operations. It will consist of the sum of stocks represented by the operating level, safety level, and the order and shipping time or procurement lead time, as appropriate. See also level of supply.

rescue combat air patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An aircraft patrol provided over a combat search and rescue objective area for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft. Its primary mission is to protect the search and rescue task forces during recovery operations. See also combat air patrol.

rescue coordination center (RCC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A primary search and rescue facility suitably staffed by supervisory personnel and equipped for coordinating and controlling search and rescue and/or combat search and rescue operations. The facility is operated unilaterally by personnel of a single Service or component. For Navy component operations, this facility may be called a rescue coordination team. Also called RCT for Navy component. See also combat search and rescue; joint search and rescue center; search and rescue.

rescue ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In shipping control, a ship of a convoy stationed at the rear of a convoy column to rescue survivors.

research. 1Scientific study and experimentation directed toward increasing knowledge and understanding in those fields directly related to explicitly stated long-term national security needs. It uses 6.1 RDTE funds. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) All effort directed toward increased knowledge of natural phenomena and environment and toward the solution of problems in all fields of science. This includes basic and applied research. 3[DSMC] Systematic inquiry into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, etc. to investigate. 4[DSMC] Means of developing new technology for potential use in defense systems.

research (basic). [DSMC] Scientific study and experimentation directed towards increasing knowledge and understanding in fields directly related to explicitly stated long-term national security needs.

Research, Development, and Acquisition (RDA) Domain. [TR 5-11] One of the three domains for Army modeling and simulation applications. Includes all modeling and simulation used for design, development, and acquisition of weapons systems and equipment. modeling and simulation in the RDA domain are used for scientific inquiry to discover or revise facts and theories of phenomena, followed by transformation of these discoveries into physical representations. RDA also includes test and evaluation (T&E) where modeling and simulation are used to augment and possibly reduce the scope of real-world T&E.

Research, Development and Acquisition TEMO (RDA). [TR 350-70] 1of 3 Army M&S (models and simulations) domains. RDA includes all M&S used for design, development, and acquisition of weapons systems and equipment. M&S in the RDA domain are used for scientific inquiry to discover or revise facts and theories of phenomena, followed by transformation of these discoveries into physical representations. RDA also includes test and evaluation (T&E) where M&S is used to augment and possibly reduce the scope of real-world T&E.

research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE).1A funding term for developmental money available for two fiscal years. 2An appropriation category that includes funds allocated to the future years defense program major force program 6. 3[DSMC] Activities for the development of a new system that include basic and applied research, advanced technology development, demonstration and validation, engineering development, developmental and operational testing and the evaluation of test results. Includes activities to expand the performance of fielded systems.

research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE) activities. These are all efforts funded from the RDTE appropriation regardless of program category or element.

research, development, test, and evaluation (RDTE) program categories. [DSMC] Consists of the 7 divisions of the RDTE appropriation:

l Basic Research (6.1).

l Applied Research (6.2).

l Advanced Technology Development (6.3a).

l Demonstration and Validation (DEM/VAL) (6.3b).

l Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) (6.4).

l RDTE Management Support (6.5).

l Operational Systems Development.

research and development (R&D) costs. [DSMC] Those program costs primarily associated with R&D efforts including the development of a new or improved capability to the point where it is approved for operational use. They are costs funded under research, development, test, and evaluation appropriations.

Research and Technology Work Unit Summary (DD Form 1498). This form is used to provide technical and management data for ongoing research and technology.

rescission. [DSMC] An action by the President canceling budget authority previously appropriated but not yet obligated or spent. If both Houses of Congress do not approve the proposed rescission within 45 days, the President must obligate the budget authority (BA) as intended by the Congress.

rescission bill. [DSMC] A bill or joint resolution that provides for cancellation, in full or in part, of budgetary resources previously granted by the Congress. Under Section 1012 of the Impoundment Control Act of 1974, unless the Congress approves a rescission bill within 45 days of continuous session after receipt of the proposal, the budgetary resources must be made available for obligation.

reseau. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A grid system of a standard size in the image plane of a photographic system used for mensuration purposes.

reservation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The stated qualification by a nation that describes the part of a standardization agreement that it will not implement or will implement only with limitations. See also implementation; ratification; subscription.

reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Portion of a body of troops which is kept to the rear, or withheld from action at the beginning of an engagement, available for a decisive movement.

l Members of the Military Services who are not in active service but who are subject to call to active duty.

l Portion of an appropriation or contract authorization held or set aside for future operations or contingencies and in respect to which administrative authorization to incur commitments or obligations has been withheld.

See also general reserve; operational reserve; reserve supplies.

reserve aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those aircraft which have been accumulated in excess of immediate needs for active aircraft and are retained in the inventory against possible future needs. See also aircraft.

Reserve Component category. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The category that identifies an individual's status in a Reserve Component. The three Reserve Component categories are Ready Reserve, Standby Reserve, and Retired Reserve. Each reservist is identified by a specific Reserve Component category designation.

Reserve Component Course Configuration (RC3) Program. [TR 350-70] A program that provides RC resident exportable training courses designed for use by RC training institutions as formal instruction. The program includes enlisted, warrant, and commissioned officer training. RC training institutions function as extensions of the TRADOC proponent school. RC training institutions include the Army National Guard (ARNG) academies, Reserve Forces (RF) schools, Reserve Forces intelligence (RFI) schools, and regional training sites - intelligence. In addition, the program provides –

l Sustainment and transition courses for presentation in regional training sites-maintenance (RTS-M).

l Institutional quality resident training programs and supporting materials for Reserve Forces schools conducting annual training at TRADOC school locations.

Reserve Components (RC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reserve Components of the Armed Forces of the United States are:

l The Army National Guard of the United States.

l The Army Reserve.

l The Naval Reserve.

l The Marine Corps Reserve.

l The Air National Guard of the United States.

l The Air Force Reserve.

l The Coast Guard Reserve.

See also components; reserve.

reserve supplies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Supplies accumulated in excess of immediate needs for the purpose of ensuring continuity of an adequate supply. Also called reserves. See also battle reserves; beach reserves; contingency retention stock; economic retention stock; individual reserves; initial reserves; unit reserves.

reserved demolition target. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A target for demolition, the destruction of which must be controlled at a specific level of command because it plays a vital part in the tactical or strategic plan, or because of the importance of the structure itself, or because the demolition may be executed in the face of the enemy. See also demolition target.

reserved obstacles. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those demolition obstacles that are deemed critical to the plan for which the authority to detonate is reserved by the designating commander. See also obstacle.

reserved route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In road traffic, a specific route allocated exclusively to an authority or formation. See also route.

resident school. [TR 350-70] A training location, other than the individual's assigned unit, where the soldier is a full-time student. Resident schools include noncommissioned officer academies, service schools, training centers, and Total Army School System (TASS) schools (battalions), an extension of TRADOC proponent schools.

resident training. [TR 350-70] Training presented, managed, and controlled by an instructor, facilitator, small group leader, or otherwise designated trainer.

resident training course. [TR 350-70] Training presented by trained instructors, conducted at a training location where the student is a full time student. The training may be presented by conventional methods such as conference, by advanced technology such as computers, by distributed training methods, or a combination of methods.

residual contamination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Contamination which remains after steps have been taken to remove it. These steps may consist of nothing more than allowing the contamination to decay normally.

residual forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Unexpended portions of the remaining United States forces that have an immediate combat potential for continued military operations, and that have been deliberately withheld from utilization.

residual hazards. Hazards that are not eliminated by design.

residual radiation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Nuclear radiation caused by fallout, artificial dispersion of radioactive material, or irradiation which results from a nuclear explosion and persists longer than one minute after burst. See also contamination; induced radiation; initial radiation.

residual radioactivity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Nuclear radiation that results from radioactive sources and which persists for longer than one minute. Sources of residual radioactivity created by nuclear explosions include fission fragments and radioactive matter created primarily by neutron activation, but also by gamma and other radiation activation. Other possible sources of residual radioactivity include radioactive material created and dispersed by means other than nuclear explosion. See also contamination; induced radiation; initial radiation.

residual value. [DSMC] The scrap value of equipment at the end of the economic life system.

resistance movement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

resolution. 1A measure of picture clarity, sharpness, or fineness of detail. It is directly related to the number of visible scanning lines per frame, in video, or the number of pixels (picture elements or discrete element dots) per unit of area, in non-video applications. The higher the number of scanning lines or the pixel density, the higher the resolution. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A measurement of the smallest detail which can be distinguished by a sensor system under specific conditions.

resource. [DSMC] Any person, tool, equipment, or material used to complete an activity or task.

resource allocation process (RAP). [DSMC] Includes the planning, programming, and budgeting system, the Congressional budget enactment process, the apportionment of appropriated funds, and budget execution.

resource and unit monitoring. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Worldwide Military Command and Control System application systems that support approved requirements relating to resource and unit monitoring, readiness assessment, situation assessment, and operations by integrating data from functional areas such as operations, logistics, personnel, and medical.

resource leveling. [DSMC] A process whereby resources are sorted out among tasks and activities to identify and avoid conflicts between scheduling and availability.

resource management. [TR 350-70] The control of the identification, acquisition, and use of training development and training resources to obtain maximum and timely training efficiency.

resource manager. [DSMC] The head of a staff element responsible for the management of a specified appropriation or its subdivision, revolving fund, or for the management of the overall manpower authorization. May bear the title comptroller;appropriation, budgetprogram, or budget activity manager.

resource requirements list. An overall list that identifies the equipment, facilities, funds, personnel, time, texts, references, films, graphics, and other instructional media materials required to support the curriculum.

resources. 1The equipment, facilities, funds, personnel, time, texts, references, films, graphics, and other instructional media materials required to support the training program. Also called trainingresources. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) The forces, materiel, and other assets or capabilities apportioned or allocated to the commander of a unified or specified command.

responding. A level of affective domain in which students act or comply by performing an act.

response. [TR 350-70] Any activity which in induced by a stimulus. In instruction, it designates a wide variety of behavior which may involve a single word, selection among alternatives (multiple choice), the solution of a complex problem, the manipulation of buttons or keys, etc.

response bias. Tendency to favor one response over others.

response force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile force with appropriate fire support designated, usually by the area commander, to deal with Level II threats in the rear area.

response time. The time between the end of the user input and the start of the output (e.g., seeing data begin to appear on the screen).

response-paced. Interactive courseware that prompts the student to comprehension of learning points at the optimum comprehension speed.

responsibility. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The obligation to carry forward an assigned task to a successful conclusion. With responsibility goes authority to direct and take the necessary action to ensure success.

l The obligation for the proper custody, care, and safekeeping of property or funds entrusted to the possession or supervision of an individual.

See also accountability.

responsor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An electronic device used to receive an electronic challenge and display a reply thereto.

rest. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery, a command that indicates that the unit(s) or gun(s) to which it is addressed shall not follow up fire orders during the time that the order is in force.

rest and recuperation (R&R). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The withdrawal of individuals from combat or duty in a combat area for short periods of rest and recuperation. See also rehabilitation.

restart at . . . [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery, a term used to restart a fire plan after dwell at . . . , check firing, or cease loading has been ordered.

restitution. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of determining the true planimetric position of objects whose images appear on photographs.

restitution factor. See correlation factor.

restraint. Limitations placed on the command that prohibit a command from doing something.

restraint factor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air transport, a factor, normally expressed in multiples of the force of gravity, which determines the required strength of lashings and tie-downs to secure a particular load.

restraint of loads. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of binding, lashing, and wedging items into one unit or into its transporter in a manner that will ensure immobility during transit.

restricted air cargo. See cargo.

restricted area. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An area (land, sea, or air) in which there are special restrictive measures employed to prevent or minimize interference between friendly forces.

l An area under military jurisdiction in which special security measures are employed to prevent unauthorized entry.

See also air surface zone; controlled firing area; restricted areas (air).

restricted areas (air). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Designated areas established by appropriate authority over which flight of aircraft is restricted. They are shown on aeronautical charts and published in notices to airmen, and publications of aids to air navigation. See also restricted area.

restricted dangerous air cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Cargo which does not belong to the highly dangerous category but which is hazardous and requires, for transport by cargo or passenger aircraft, extra precautions in packing and handling.

restricted data. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All data (information) concerning:

l Design, manufacture, or use of atomic weapons.

l The production of special nuclear material.

l The use of special nuclear material in the production of energy, but shall not include data declassified or removed from the restricted data category pursuant to Section 142 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Section 11w, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.)

See also formerly restricted data.

restricted operations area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Airspace of defined dimensions, designated by the airspace control authority, in response to specific operational situations/requirements within which the operation of one or more airspace users is restricted.

restrictive fire area (RFA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions will not be delivered without coordination with the establishing headquarters. See also area; fires.

restrictive fire line (RFL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line established between converging friendly surface forces that prohibits fires or their effects across that line. See also fires; line.

restrictive fire plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A safety measure for friendly aircraft which establishes airspace that is reasonably safe from friendly surface delivered non-nuclear fires.

resume. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept usage a code meaning, "Resume last patrol ordered."

resupply. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The act of replenishing stocks in order to maintain required levels of supply.

retain. [JP 1-02] (DoD) When used in the context of deliberate planning, the directed command will keep the referenced operation plan, operation plan in concept format, or concept summary and any associated Joint Operation Planning System or Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing files in an inactive library or status. The plan and its associated files will not be maintained unless directed by follow-on guidance. See also archive; maintain.

retained personnel (RP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Enemy personnel who come within any of the categories below are eligible to be certified as retained personnel.a. Medical personnel exclusively engaged in the: (1) Search for collection, transport, or treatment of the wounded or sick. (2) Prevention of disease. (3) Staff administration of medical units and establishments exclusively. b. Chaplains attached to enemy armed forces. c. Staff of national Red Cross societies and other voluntary aid societies duly recognized and authorized by their governments. The staffs of such societies must be subject to military laws and regulations. See also personnel.

retard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A request from a spotter to indicate that the illuminating projectile burst is desired later in relation to the subsequent bursts of high explosive projectiles.

retention period. [TP 25-71] The length of time that records are to be kept prior to disposal or transfer to the National Archives.

reticle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mark such as a cross or a system of lines lying in the image plane of a viewing apparatus. It may be used singly as a reference mark on certain types of monocular instruments or as one of a pair to form a floating mark as in certain types of stereoscopes. See also graticule.

Retired Reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All Reserve members who receive retirement pay on the basis of their active duty and/or Reserve service; those members who are otherwise eligible for retirement pay but have not reached age 60 and who have not elected discharge and are not voluntary members of the Ready or Standby Reserve. See also active duty; Ready Reserve; Standby Reserve.

retirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation in which a force out of contact moves away from the enemy.

retirement route. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The track or series of tracks along which helicopters move from a specific landing site or landing zone. See also helicopter approach route; helicopter lane.

retrofit (retroactive fit). [DSMC] A modification of a configuration item to incorporate changes made in later production items. See backfitting.

retrofit action. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Action taken to modify inservice equipment.

retrograde cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Cargo evacuated from a theater of operations.

retrograde movement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any movement of a command to the rear, or away from the enemy. It may be forced by the enemy or may be made voluntarily. Such movements may be classified as withdrawal, retirement, or delaying action.

retrograde operation. A maneuver to the rear or away from the enemy to improve a situation or prevent a worse situation from occurring. See retrograde movement.

retrograde personnel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel evacuated from a theater of operations who may include medical patients, noncombatants, and civilians.

return load. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Personnel and/or cargo to be transported by a returning carrier.

return to base (RTB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Proceed to the point indicated by the displayed information. This point is being used to return the aircraft to a place at which the aircraft can land. Command heading, speed, and altitude may be used, if desired.

returned to military control (RMC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The status of a person whose casualty status of duty status – whereabouts unknown or missing has been changed due to the person's return or recovery by U.S. military authority. See also casualty status; duty status – whereabouts unknown; missing.

revision plan. A detailed outline of the procedures to be taken to modify the structure or content of a course.

revolutionary. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual attempting to effect a social or political change through the use of extreme measures. See also antiterrorism.

revolving fund. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A fund established to finance a cycle of operations to which reimbursements and collections are returned for reuse in a manner such as will maintain the principal of the fund, e.g., working capital funds, industrial funds, and loan funds.

reward sequence. Scheduling the more pleasant activity to follow the less pleasant activity; can be used to provide a reward for completion.

rework. [DSMC] Any corrections of defective work — either before, during, or after inspection.

right (left) bank. See left (right) bank.

right (or left). See left (or right).

rights in technical data (TD). [DSMC] The right for the government to acquire technical data. If the government has funded or will fund a part of or the entire development of the item, component or process, then the government is entitled to unlimited rights in the TD. However, if the above is developed by a contractor or subcontractor exclusively at private expense, the government is entitled to limited rights. Such data must be unpublished and identified as limited rights data. See limited rights, Government purpose license rights, and unlimited rights.)

riot control agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chemical that produces temporary irritating or disabling effects when in contact with the eyes or when inhaled.

riot control operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of riot control agents and/or special tactics, formations and equipment in the control of violent disorders.

rising mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine having positive buoyancy which is released from a sinker by a ship influence or by a timing device. The mine may fire by contact, hydrostatic pressure or other means.

risk. 1A hazard, danger, or peril; exposure to loss or injury; the degree of probability of loss. See degree of risk (nuclear). 2A measure of the extent to which a recommended countermeasure has been historically effective in eliminating a vulnerability, given a certain level of susceptibility and threat. 3[TR 350-70] Risk is characterized by the probability and severity of a potential loss that may result from hazards due to the presence of an enemy, an adversary, or some other hazardous condition. (FM 100-14). See degree of risk (nuclear). See also hazard; risk management. 4[DSMC] A measure of the inability to achieve program objectives within defined cost and schedule constraints. Risk is associated with all aspects of the program, e.g., threat, technology, design processes, work breakdown structure elements, etc. It has two components:

l The probability of failing to achieve a particular outcome.

l The consequences of failing to achieve that outcome.

risk analysis. [DSMC] A detailed examination of each identified program risk which refines the description of the risk, isolates the cause, and determines the impact of the program risk in terms of its probability of occurrence, its consequences, and its relationship to other risk areas or processes.

risk areas. [DSMC] The program areas which are the primary sources of program risk. Risk areas include, but are not necessarily limited to, threat and requirements, technology, design and engineering, manufacturing, support, cost, and schedule.

risk assessment. 1[TR 350-70] The identification and assessment of hazards (first 2 steps of risk management process), (FM 101-5-1) It is the process used to identify potential hazard(s) associated with training, set values on the risk elements, compare risks against training benefits, and eliminate unnecessary risks. It is an expression of potential loss in terms of hazard severity, accident probability, and exposure to hazard. 2[DSMC] The process of identifying program risks within risk areas and critical technical processes, analyzing them for their consequences and probabilities of occurrence, and prioritizing them for handling.

risk assessment code. [TR 350-70] A code, representing the risk assessment output, assigned to training products such as lessons and mission training plan.

risk assumption. [DSMC] A risk handling option in which selected program risks are accepted and monitored by the management team.

risk avoidance. [DSMC] A risk handling option which eliminates risk by eliminating or modifying the concept, requirements, specifications, or practices that create the unacceptable risk.

risk control. [DSMC] A risk handling option which monitors a known risk and then takes specific actions to minimize the likelihood of the risk occurring and/or reduce the severity of the consequences.

risk documentation. [DSMC] The recording, maintaining, and reporting of all risk assessment results, risk handling analysis, and risk monitoring results.

risk estimate distance (RED). Safe distance from friendly forces to use weapons.

risk handling. [DSMC] A process that identifies, evaluates, selects, and implements risk handling options that reduce risk to acceptable levels with the best cost-benefit ratio.

risk identification. [DSMC] A process to examine each program area and critical technical process to identify the associated risks.

risk management (RM). 1[TR 350-70] Risk management, as it applies to training development, is –

l The process used to identify task and training risks, set values on risk elements, compare risks against training benefits, and eliminate unnecessary risks.

l An expression of potential loss in terms of hazard severity, probability, and risk level.

l Tightly tied to force protection.

l A useful tool to help make decisions about hazards causing the risks.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A process by which decision makers reduce or offset risk. See also management; risk. 3All actions taken to identify, assess, and eliminate or reduce risk to an acceptable level in selected areas (e.g., cost, schedule, technical, producibility, etc.); and the total program. 4[DSMC] All plans and actions taken to identify, assess, mitigate, and continuously track, control, and document program risks.

risk management plan. [DSMC] A document which records the results of the risk planning process.

risk monitoring. [DSMC] A process that systematically tracks and evaluates the performance of risk items against established metrics throughout the acquisition process and develops further risk reduction handling options as appropriate.

risk planning. [DSMC] The process of developing an organized, comprehensive, and iterative approach to identifying, assessing, mitigating, and continuously tracking, controlling, and documenting risk which are tailored for each program and compatible with the DoD acquisition management.

risk rating scheme. [DSMC] A logical, controlled, documented, and verifiable method of assigning risk levels to a system, system element, or critical acquisition process which is based on the probability of occurrence and the consequence of failing to achieve the desired outcome.

risk transfer. [DSMC]

l A risk handling option which reallocates system requirements or design specifications between different system elements in order to reduce overall system risk, system element risk, or process risk. 2[DSMC] A risk handling option which shares selected program risks between the government and the prime system contractors by means of various contractual arrangements.

l A risk handling option which shares select program risks between government agencies involved in the acquisition process by means of memorandums of understanding or similar agreements.

riverine area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An inland or coastal area comprising both land and water, characterized by limited land lines of communication, with extensive water surface and/or inland waterways that provide natural routes for surface transportation and communications.

riverine operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations conducted by forces organized to cope with and exploit the unique characteristics of a riverine area, to locate and destroy hostile forces, and/or to achieve, or maintain control of the riverine area. Joint riverine operations combine land, naval, and air operations, as appropriate, and are suited to the nature of the specific riverine area in which operations are to be conducted.

Rivet Amber. Boeing RC-135E, ELINT aircraft

Rivet Ball. Boeing RC-135S, ELINT aircraft.

Rivet Brass. Boeing RC-135, TELINT aircraft.

Rivet Card. Boeing RC-135M, SIGINT aircraft.

Rivet Joint. Boeing RC-135V and RC-135W, SIGINT aircraft.

Rivet Quick. Boeing RC-135M, SIGINT aircraft.

Rivet Rider. Psychological warfare version of the C-130 Hercules. EC-103E

road block. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A barrier or obstacle (usually covered by fire) used to block, or limit the movement of, hostile vehicles along a route.

road capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum traffic flow obtainable on a given roadway, using all available lanes, usually expressed in vehicles per hour or vehicles per day.

road clearance time. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total time a column requires to travel over and clear a section of the road.

road hazard sign. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sign used to indicate traffic hazards. military hazard signs should be used in a communications zone area only in accordance with existing agreements with national authorities.

road net. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The system of roads available within a particular locality or area.

road space. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The length of roadway allocated to, and/or actually occupied by, a column on a route, expressed in miles or kilometers.

robust design. [DSMC] The design of a system such that its performance is insensitive to variations in manufacturing tolerances, or its operational environment (including maintenance, transportation, and storage), or to component drift due to aging.

rocket propulsion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reaction propulsion wherein both the fuel and the oxidizer, generating the hot gases expended through a nozzle, are carried as part of the rocket engine. Specifically, rocket propulsion differs from jet propulsion in that jet propulsion utilizes atmospheric air as an oxidizer whereas rocket propulsion utilizes nitric acid or a similar compound as an oxidizer. See also jet propulsion.

roentgen. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit of exposure dose of gamma (or X-) radiation. In field dosimetry, one roentgen is essentially equal to one rad.

roentgen equivalent mammal (REM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) One roentgen equivalent mammal is the quantity of ionizing radiation of any type which, when absorbed by man or other mammal, produces a physiological effect equivalent to that produced by the absorption of 1 roentgen of X-ray or gamma radiation.

role number. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In the medical field, the classification of treatment facilities according to their different capabilities.

roll back. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of progressive destruction and/or neutralization of the opposing defenses, starting at the periphery and working inward, to permit deeper penetration of succeeding defense positions.

roll-in-point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The point at which aircraft enter the final leg of the attack, e.g., dive, glide.

roll-on/roll-off discharge facility (RRDF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Provides a means of disembarking vehicles from a roll-on/roll-off ship to lighterage. The roll-on/roll-off discharge facility consists of six causeway sections, nonpowered assembled into a platform that is two sections long and three sections wide. When use of landing craft, utility, as lighters, is being considered, a seventh "sea end" causeway section, on-powered, fitted with a rhino horn, is required. The roll-on/roll-off discharge facility assembly includes fendering, lighting, and a ramp for vehicle movement from ship to the platform. See also facility; lighterage.

roll-up. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process for orderly dismantling of facilities no longer required in support of operations and available for transfer to other areas.

rollaway costs. [DSMC] See flyaway costs.

romper. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A ship which has moved more than 10 nautical miles ahead of its convoy, and is unable to rejoin it. See also straggler.

rope. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An element of chaff consisting of a long roll of metallic foil or wire which is designed for broad, low-frequency responses. See also chaff.

rotor governing mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A control mode in which helicopter rotor speed is maintained automatically.

rough terrain container handler (RTCH). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A piece of materials handling equipment used to pick up and move containers. See also materials handling equipment.

roundout. See flare.

rounds complete. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the term used to report that the number of rounds specified in fire for effect have been fired. See also shot.

route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The prescribed course to be traveled from a specific point of origin to a specific destination. See also axial route; controlled route; dispatch route; lateral route; reserved route; signed route; supervised route.

route capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The maximum traffic flow of vehicles in one direction at the most restricted point on the route.

l The maximum number of metric tons which can be moved in one direction over a particular route in one hour. It is the product of the maximum traffic flow and the average payload of the vehicles using the route.

See also railway line capacity.

route classification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Classification assigned to a route using factors of minimum width, worst route type, least bridge, raft or culvert military load classification, and obstructions to traffic flow. See also military load classification.

route lanes. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A series of parallel tracks for the routing of independently sailed ships.

routine message. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A category of precedence to be used for all types of messages that justify transmission by rapid means unless of sufficient urgency to require a higher precedence. See also precedence.

routine supplies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those items delivered as a result of normal requisitioning procedures to replace expended supplies or to build up reserve stocks. See also follow-up supplies; supplies.

routing indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A group of letters assigned to indicate:

l The geographic location of a station.

l A fixed headquarters of a command, activity, or unit at a geographic location.

l The general location of a tape relay or tributary station to facilitate the routing of traffic over the tape relay networks.

row marker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, a natural, artificial, or specially installed marker, located at the start and finish of a mine row where mines are laid by individual rows.

rule-based system. A system in which knowledge is stored as simple if-then or condition-action statements.

rules of engagement (ROE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Directives issued by competent military authority which delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. See also law of war.

run. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l That part of a flight of one photographic reconnaissance aircraft during which photographs are taken.

l The transit of a sweeper-sweep combination or of a mine-hunter operating its equipment through a lap. This term may also be applied to a transit of any formation of sweepers.

running fix. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The intersection of two or more position lines, not obtained simultaneously, adjusted to a common time.

runway. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defined rectangular area of an airfield, prepared for the landing and takeoff run of aircraft along its length.

runway visual range. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The maximum distance in the direction of takeoff or landing at which the runway, or specified lights or markers delineating it, can be seen from a position above a specified point on its center line at a height corresponding to the average eye level of pilots at touch-down.

rupture zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The region immediately adjacent to the crater boundary in which the stresses produced by the explosion have exceeded the ultimate strength of the medium. It is characterized by the appearance of numerous radial cracks of various sizes. See also plastic zone.

RUR-5A. See antisubmarine rocket.

ruse. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In military deception, a trick of war designed to deceive the adversary, usually involving the deliberate exposure of false information to the adversary's intelligence collection system.