Index Military Definitions

labor productivity. [DSMC] The rate of output of a worker or group of workers per unit of time, usually compared to an established standard or expected rate of output.

labor standards. [DSMC] A compilation by time study of standard time for each element of a given type of work.

labor surplus area concern. [DSMC] A concern that, together with its first-tier subcontractors, will perform substantially in labor surplus areas. Performance is deemed to occur substantially in labor surplus areas if the costs incurred under the contract on account of manufacturing, production, or performance of appropriate services in labor surplus areas exceed 50 percent of the contract price.

Land Based Test Site (LBTS). [DSMC] A facility duplicating/ simulating as many conditions as possible of a system's planned operational installation and utilization. (Navy)

Lance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile, storable, liquid propellant, surface-to-surface guided missile, with nuclear and non-nuclear capability; designed to support the Army corps with long-range fires. Designated as XMGM-52.

land arm mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mode of operation in which automatic sequence is used to engage and disengage appropriate modes of an aircraft automatic flight control system in order to execute the various flight phases in the terminal area necessary for completing an automatic approach and landing.

land control operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of ground forces, supported by naval and air forces, as appropriate, to achieve military objectives in vital land areas. Such operations include destruction of opposing ground forces, securing key terrain, protection of vital land lines of communication, and establishment of local military superiority in areas of land operations. See also sea control operations.

land effect. See coastal refraction.

land mine warfare. See mine warfare.

land projection operations. See land, sea, or aerospace projection operations.

land search. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The search of terrain by Earth-bound personnel.

Land Warfare University. [TP 525-5] A comprehensive and rigorous Army education system for training and leader development; it encompasses all TRADOC education and training programs, institutions and systems; it is not only an Army-sponsored university but is also multiservice and multinational, supporting a wide variety of joint and international education programs; includes individual, unit, and institutional education and training.

land, sea, or aerospace projection operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of land, sea, or air forces, or appropriate combinations thereof, to project United States military power into areas controlled or threatened by enemy forces. Operations may include penetration of such areas by amphibious, airborne, or land-transported means, as well as air combat operations by land-based and/or carrier air.

landing aid. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any illuminating light, radio beacon, radar device, communicating device, or any system of such devices for aiding aircraft in an approach and landing.

landing approach. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The continuously changing position of an aircraft in space directed toward effecting a landing on a predetermined area.

landing area. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The part of the objective area within which are conducted the landing operations of an amphibious force. It includes the beach, the approaches to the beach, the transport areas, the fire support areas, the air occupied by close supporting aircraft, and the land included in the advance inland to the initial objective.

l (Airborne) The general area used for landing troops and materiel either by airdrop or air landing. This area includes one or more drop zones or landing strips.

l Any specially prepared or selected surface of land, water, or deck designated or used for takeoff and landing of aircraft.

See also airfield.

landing attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An attack against enemy defenses by troops landed from ships, aircraft, boats, or amphibious vehicles. See also assault.

landing beach. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That portion of a shoreline usually required for the landing of a battalion landing team. However, it may also be that portion of a shoreline constituting a tactical locality (such as the shore of a bay) over which a force larger or smaller than a battalion landing team may be landed.

landing craft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A craft employed in amphibious operations, specifically designed for carrying troops and equipment and for beaching, unloading, and retracting. Also used for logistic cargo resupply operations.

landing craft and amphibious vehicle assignment table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A table showing the assignment of personnel and materiel to each landing craft and amphibious vehicle and the assignment of the landing craft and amphibious vehicles to waves for the ship-to-shore movement.

landing craft availability table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tabulation of the type and number of landing craft that will be available from each ship of the transport group. The table is the basis for the assignment of landing craft to the boat groups for the ship-to-shore movement.

landing diagram. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A graphic means of illustrating the plan for the ship-to-shore movement.

landing force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A task organization of troop units, aviation and ground, assigned to an amphibious assault. It is the highest troop echelon in the amphibious operation. See also amphibious force.

landing force supplies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those supplies remaining in assault shipping after initial combat supplies and floating dumps have been unloaded. They are landed selectively in accordance with the requirements of the landing force until the situation ashore permits the inception of general unloading.

landing force support party. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The forward echelon of the combat service support element formed to facilitate the ship-to-shore movement. It may contain a surface assault support element (shore party) and a helicopter assault support element (helicopter support). The landing force support party is brought into existence by a formal activation order issued by the commander, landing force.

landing group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, a subordinate task organization of the landing force capable of conducting landing operations, under a single tactical command, against a position or group of positions.

landing mat. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A prefabricated, portable mat so designed that any number of planks (sections) may be rapidly fastened together to form surfacing for emergency runways, landing beaches, etc.

landing plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually prepared naval and landing force documents that, taken together, present in detail all instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement.

l In airlift operations, the sequence, method of delivery, and place of arrival of troops and materiel.

landing point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A point within a landing site where one helicopter or vertical takeoff and landing aircraft can land. See also airfield.

landing roll. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The movement of an aircraft from touch-down through deceleration to taxi speed or full stop.

landing schedule. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an amphibious operation, a schedule which shows the beach, hour, and priorities of landing of assault units, and which coordinates the movements of landing craft from the transports to the beach in order to execute the scheme of maneuver ashore.

landing sequence table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A document that incorporates the detailed plans for ship-to-shore movement of non-scheduled units.

landing ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An assault ship which is designed for long sea voyages and for rapid unloading over and on to a beach.

landing ship dock. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A ship designed to transport and launch loaded amphibious craft and/or amphibian vehicles with their crews and embarked personnel and/or equipment and to render limited docking and repair services to small ships and craft.

landing signal officer (LSO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Officer responsible for the visual control of aircraft in the terminal phase of the approach immediately prior to landing. See also terminal phase.

landing signalman enlisted (LSE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Enlisted man responsible for ensuring that helicopters, on signal, are safely started, engaged, launched, recovered, and shut down.

landing site. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A site within a landing zone containing one or more landing points. See also airfield.

l In amphibious operations, a continuous segment of coastline over which troops, equipment and supplies can be landed by surface means.

landing threshold. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The beginning of that portion of a runway usable for landing.

landing vehicle, tracked, engineer, model 1 (LVTE-1). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A lightly armored amphibious vehicle designed for minefield and obstacle clearance in amphibious assaults and operations inland. Equipped with line charges for projection in advance of the vehicle and bulldozer-type blade with scarifier teeth.

landing zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any specified zone used for the landing of aircraft. See also airfield.

landing zone control. See pathfinder drop zone control.

landing zone control party. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Personnel specially trained and equipped to establish and operate communications devices from the ground for traffic control of aircraft/ helicopters for a specific landing zone.

landmark. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A feature, either natural or artificial, that can be accurately determined on the ground from a grid reference.

lane marker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, sign used to mark a minefield lane. Lane markers, at the entrance to and exit from the lane, may be referenced to a landmark or intermediate marker. See also marker; minefield lane.

lane training. [TR 350-70] A technique for training primarily company team-level and smaller units on one or more critical tasks.

lane training exercise (LTX). [TR 350-70] The execution phase of the lane training process. It is an exercise used to train company-size and smaller units on one or more collective tasks (and prerequisite soldier and leader individual tasks and battle drills) supporting a unit’s mission essential task list; however, it usually focuses on one primary task. An LTX consists of assembly area, rehearsal, lane execution, after-action review, and retraining activities which culminate the lane training process. An LTX is an situational training exercise conducted using lane training principles and techniques. See exercise.

lap. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, that section or strip of an area assigned to a single sweeper or formation of sweepers for a run through the area.

lap course. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the true course desired to be made good during a run along a lap.

lap track. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the center line of a lap; ideally, the track to be followed by the sweep or detecting gear.

lap turn. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the maneuver a mine-sweeper carries out during the period between the completion of one run and the commencement of the run immediately following.

lap width. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the swept path of the ship or formation divided by the percentage coverage being swept to.

lapsed funds. [DSMC] See expired appropriation.

large spread. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A report by an observer or a spotter to the ship to indicate that the distance between the bursts of a salvo is excessive.

large-lot storage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A quantity of material which will require four or more pallet columns stored to maximum height. Usually accepted as stock stored in carload or greater quantities. See also storage.

large-scale map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map having a scale of 1:75,000 or larger. See also map.

laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any device that can produce or amplify optical radiation primarily by the process of controlled stimulated emission. A laser may emit electromagnetic radiation from the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum through the infrared portion.

laser designator. A device that emits a beam of laser energy which is used to mark a specific place or object.

laser footprint. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The projection of the laser beam and buffer zone on the ground or target area. The laser footprint may be part of the laser surface danger zone if that footprint lies within the nominal visual hazard distance of the laser. See also buffer zone; laser.

laser guidance unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device which incorporates a laser seeker to provide guidance commands to the control system of a missile, projectile or bomb.

laser illuminator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device for enhancing the illumination in a zone of action by irradiating with a laser beam.

laser intelligence (LASINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from laser systems; a subcategory of electro-optical intelligence. See also electro-optical intelligence; intelligence.

laser linescan system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An active airborne imagery recording system which uses a laser as the primary source of illumination to scan the ground beneath the flight path, adding successive across-track lines to the record as the vehicle advances. See also infrared linescan system.

laser pulse duration. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The time during which the laser output pulse power remains continuously above half its maximum value.

laser rangefinder. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device which uses laser energy for determining the distance from the device to a place or object.

laser seeker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device based on a direction sensitive receiver which detects the energy reflected from a laser designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to the receiver. See also laser-guided weapon.

laser spot. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The area on a surface illuminated by a laser. See also laser; spot.

laser spot tracker (LST). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A device which locks on to the reflected energy from a laser-marked/designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to itself. See also laser; spot.

laser target designating system. JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which is used to direct (aim or point) laser energy at a target. The system consists of the laser designator or laser target marker with its display and control components necessary to acquire the target and direct the beam of laser energy thereon.

laser target designator (LTD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A device that emits a beam of laser energy which is used to mark a specific place or object. See also laser; target.

laser target marker. See laser designator.

laser target marking system. See laser target designating system.

laser tracker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device which locks on to the reflected energy from a laser marked/designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to itself.

laser-guided weapon (LGW). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A weapon which uses a seeker to detect laser energy reflected from a laser marked/designated target and through signal processing provides guidance commands to a control system which guides the weapon to the point from which the laser energy is being reflected. See also laser.

laser-target/gun-target angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The angle between the laser-to-target line and the laser-guided weapon/gun-target line at the point where they cross the target. See also laser; laser-guided weapon; target.

laser-target line. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An imaginary straight line from the laser designator to the target with respect to magnetic north. See also laser; laser target designator; target.

lashing. See tie down;restraint of loads.

lashing point. See tie down point.

late. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a report made to the observer or spotter, whenever there is a delay in reporting shot by coupling a time in seconds with the report.

late time. See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment)

lateral gain. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The amount of new ground covered laterally by successive photographic runs over an area.

lateral route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A route generally parallel to the forward edge of the battle area, which crosses, or feeds into, axial routes. See also route.

lateral spread. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A technique used to place the mean point of impact of two or more units 100 meters apart on a line perpendicular to the gun-target line.

lateral tell. See track telling.

latest arrival date(LAD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A day, relative to C-day, that is specified by a planner as the latest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can arrive and complete unloading at the port of debarkation and support the concept of operations. See also earliest arrival date.

latitude band. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any latitudinal strip, designated by accepted units of linear or angular measurement, which circumscribes the Earth. Also called latitudinal band.

lattice. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A network of intersecting positional lines printed on a map or chart from which a fix may be obtained.

launch. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The transition from static repose to dynamic flight of a missile.

launch pad. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A concrete or other hard surface area on which a missile launcher is positioned.

launch time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time at which an aircraft or missile is scheduled to be airborne. See also airborne order.

launch under attack(LUA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Execution by National Command Authorities of Single Integrated Operational Plan forces subsequent to tactical warning of strategic nuclear attack against the United States and prior to first impact.

launcher. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A structural device designed to support and hold a missile in position for firing.

laundering. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, the process of transforming drug money into a more manageable form while concealing its illicit origin. Foreign bank accounts and dummy corporations are used as shelters. See also counterdrug operations.

law enforcement agency (LEA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any of a number of agencies (outside the Department of Defense) chartered and empowered to enforce laws in the following jurisdictions: The United States, a state (or political subdivision) of the United States, a territory or possession (or political subdivision) of the United States, or to enforce US laws within the borders of a host nation.

law of armed conflict. See law of war.

law of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That part of international law that regulates the conduct of armed hostilities. Also called the law of armed conflict. See also rules of engagement.

lay. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Direct or adjust the aim of a weapon.

l Setting of a weapon for a given range, or for a given direction, or both.

l To drop one or more aerial bombs or aerial mines onto the surface from an aircraft.

l To spread a smoke screen on the ground from an aircraft.

l To calculate or project a course.

l To lay on:

l to execute a bomber strike;

l to set up a mission.

lay leader or lay reader. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A volunteer (lay leader in Army and Air Force; lay reader in Navy and Marine Corps) appointed by the commanding officer and supervised and trained by the command chaplain to serve for a period of time to meet the needs of a particular religious faith group when their military chaplains are not available. The lay leader or lay reader may conduct services, but may not exercise any other activities usually reserved for the ordained clergy. See also command chaplain; command chaplain of the combatant command; religious ministry support; religious ministry support plan; religious ministry support team; Service component command chaplain.

lay reference number. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a number allocated to an individual mine by the minefield planning authority to provide a simple means of referring to it.

laydown bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A very low level bombing technique wherein delay fuses and/or devices are used to allow the attacker to escape the effects of the bomb.

layer. A group of related functions that make up one level of an architecture.

layer depth. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The depth from the surface of the sea to the point above the first major negative thermocline at which sound velocity is maximum.

layer tint. See hypsometric tinting.

layered architecture. A software structure in which components are grouped in a hierarchical arrangement in such a way that each layer provides functions and services to adjacent layers.

lazy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Equipment indicated at standby."

lead agency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Designated among US Government agencies to coordinate the interagency oversight of the day-to-day conduct of an ongoing operation. The lead agency is to chair the interagency working group established to coordinate policy related to a particular operation. The lead agency determines the agenda, ensures cohesion among the agencies and is responsible for implementing decisions.

lead agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Individual services, combatant commands, or Joint Staff directorates may be assigned as lead agents for developing and maintaining joint doctrine, joint tactics, techniques, and procedures (JTTP) publications, or joint administrative publications. The lead agent is responsible for developing, coordinating, reviewing, and maintaining an assigned doctrine, JTTP, or joint administrative publication. See also coordinating review authority; joint administrative publication; joint doctrine; joint publication; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures; joint test publication; primary review authority.

lead aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The airborne aircraft designated to exercise command of other aircraft within the flight.

l An aircraft in the van of two or more aircraft.

lead collision course. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A vector which, if maintained by an interceptor aircraft, will result in collision between the interceptor's fixed armament and the target.

lead Component/Service. [DSMC] The DoD component responsible for management of a system acquisition involving two or more DoD components in a joint program.

lead pursuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An interceptor vector designed to maintain a course of flight at a predetermined point ahead of a target.

lead service. The lead service is the DoD service designated by the Secretary of Defense to be responsible for management of a system acquisition involving two or more DoD services in a joint program.

lead site. [TR 350-70] The lead site is the one from which the VTT instructor initiates broadcast.

lead-off question. A question initiated by the presenter that is usually directed to a group of students at the beginning of a lesson or main point and designed to generate discussion.

leader development. 1A continuous, progressive, and sequential process through which leaders acquire the skills, knowledge, and behavior necessary to maintain a trained and ready Army in peacetime to deter war. 2[TR 350-70] The process of preparing military and civilian leaders, through a progressive and sequential system of institutional training, operational assignments, and self development , to assume positions and exploit the full potential of current and future doctrine. (AR 600-100)

leader task. [TR 350-70] An individual task performed by a leader that is integral to successful performance of a collective task.

leader-follower concept. [DSMC] A government contractual relationship for the delivery of an end item through a prime or subcontract relationship or to provide assistance to another company.

l Prime contract awarded to established source (leader) who is obligated to subcontract to and assist another source (follower).

l A contract is awarded requiring the leader to assist the follower who has the prime contract for production.

l Prime contract awarded to the follower for production; follower is obligated to subcontract with a designated leader for assistance. (The leader may be producing under another contract.)

leadership. [TR 350-70] The process of influencing others to accomplish the mission by providing purpose, direction, and motivation. Effective leadership transforms human potential into effective performance. (AR 600-100)

Leap Second. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A second of time that is added to or removed from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of UT1 (see Universal Time). Leap Seconds are normally introduced at the end of June or December if required. The decision to introduce a Leap Second is announced by the International Time Bureau (Bureau International de l'Heure, or BIH) approximately eight to ten weeks in advance. See also Coordinated Universal Time.

leapfrog. Form of movement in which like supporting elements are moved successively through or by one another along the axis of movement of supported forces.

learner. See student. Also called trainee.

learner characteristics. [TR 350-70] The traits possessed by learners that could affect their ability to learn, such as reading level, and which are included in the target population description.

learner control. See student control.

learner-controlled instruction. See student controlled instruction.

learning. [TR 350-70] A change in the behavior of the learner as a result of experience. The behavior can be physical and overt, intellectual, or attitudinal.

learning activities. Events intended to promote trainee learning.

learning activity. The specific behaviors a student performs during a particular episode of learning. See learning step.

learning analysis. A procedure to identify task subelements and their related skills and knowledge that must be learned before a person can achieve mastery of the training task itself.

learning approach. [TR 350-70] The training/education methods of instruction and techniques of delivery selected to best approach/reach the way students learn skills and knowledge.

learning category. A division of learning behavior. All learning may be classified into four learning categories: mental skill, physical skill, information, or attitude.

learning center. [TR 350-70] A facility primarily dedicated as a delivery point for individualized or small group multimedia based instruction. Learning centers contain the equipment and training materials needed for training or education. See also learning resource center.

learning decay. [TR 350-70] A decrease over a period of time of learned skills not practiced frequently. Decay can be slowed by sustainment training. See decay rate.

learning difficulty. [TR 350-70] A statistical rating collected in a job analysis survey. It is a measurement of the time, effort, and assistance required to achieve performance proficiency.

learning event. The immediate outcome of a learning activity.

learning guidelines. Statements which specify the learning events and activities appropriate to specific instruction. Learning guidelines combine to form learning subcategories.

learning hierarchy. 1[DoD] A graphic display of the relationships among learning tasks in which some tasks must be mastered before others can be learned. 2[TR 350-70] The relationships among objectives in which some objectives must be mastered before others can be learned. We can describe these as independent, dependent, and interdependent training objectives. See learning step.

learning objective (LO). [TR 350-70] A precise three-part statement describing what the student is to be capable of accomplishing in terms of the expected student performance under specific conditions to accepted standards. Learning objectives clearly and concisely describe student performance required to demonstrate competency in the material being taught. LOs focus the training development on what needs to be trained and focuses student learning on what needs to be learned. Both terminal and enabling objectives are learning objectives. See criterion-referenced instruction. Also called behavioral objective and training objective.

learning organization. [TR 350-70] An organization in which there is the continuous testing of experience and the transformation of that experience into performance and supporting skills/knowledge; this learning is accessible to the whole organization, and relevant to its core purpose.

learning process. [TR 350-70] A series of activities or events designed to enable a student to perform a task or supporting skill.

learning resource center. Library containing instructional materials and areas for viewing and study. See also learning center.

learning station. A physical location such as a study carrel, which contains special materials and equipment for use by a student to learn.

learning step. [TR 350-70] A student activity that leads toward achievement of a learning objective. Learning steps are determined when the objective is broken down into its component parts. Often an explicit hierarchical relationship consisting of terminal learning objective, enabling learning objective, and learning step is maintained. Learning steps are identified and delineated in the lesson, training support package, or Army Correspondence Course Program outline during the design phase. It should be performance oriented. See learning activity.

learning subcategory. A division of a learning category.

learning task analysis. Procedures used in the domain of intellectual skills to identify prerequisite tasks that must be learned before a person can learn a given task.

learning/improvement curve. [DSMC] A mathematical way to explain and measure the rate of change of cost (in hours or dollars) as a function of quantity.

leaver. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A merchant ship which breaks off from a convoy to proceed to a different destination and becomes independent. Also called convoy leaver. See also leaver convoy; leaver section.

leaver convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A convoy which has broken off from the main convoy and is proceeding to a different destination. See also leaver; leaver section.

leaver section. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A group of ships forming part of the main convoy which will subsequently break off to become levers or a leaver convoy. See also leaver; leaver convoy.

lecture. See formal lecture and informal lecture.

lecture guide (LG). A data sheet and an outline of major sections, key topics, learning objectives and discussion points that are referenced to the instructional media being used.

left (or right). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Terms used to establish the relative position of a body of troops. The person using the terms left or right is assumed to be facing in the direction of the enemy regardless of whether the troops are advancing towards or withdrawing from the enemy.

l Correction used in adjusting fire to indicate that a lateral shift of the mean point of impact perpendicular to the reference line or spotting line is desired.

left (right) bank. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That bank of a stream or river on the left (right) of the observer when he is facing in the direction of flow or downstream.

legacy. [TR 350-70] Refers to data, numbers, lessons, etc. that currently exist.

legacy system. 1A system whose critical functionality will be subsumed by a migration system or a system that duplicates the functions of a migration system and is scheduled to be terminated. 2[TR 5-11] A simulation or model developed in the past which is still in use that was not implemented using today’s modeling and simulation standards.

legal and possible objective. The objectives must not be contrary to law or regulation. The objective must also be capable of being performed within the state of the art.

legibility. The clarity of an image.

legislative affairs/liaison (LA/LL). [DSMC] The interaction between DoD (the Office of the Secretary of Defense, services, and agencies) and the Congress that includes responses to requests for information, preparation of reports, appearances at hearings, etc. Usually coordinated by and conducted through service or agency legislative liaison offices.

Legislative Branch. [DSMC] Defense acquisition interests in the Legislative Branch (the Congress) include the defense committees such as the Senate Armed Services Committee, the House National Security Committee, Senate and House Appropriations Committees, the Senate and House Budget Committees, other committees having legislative oversight of defense activities, congressional staff, individual Members of the Congress, the Congress as a body, the Congressional Budget Office, and the General Accounting Office.

lesson. 1[TRADOC] The basic building block of all training. The level at which training is designed in detail. The lesson is structured to facilitate learning. A lesson normally includes telling or showing the soldiers what to do and how to do it, provides an opportunity for the soldiers to practice, and provides the soldiers feedback concerning their performance. A lesson may be instructor-presented, small group instruction (SGI), or self-paced as in a correspondence course or computer-based lesson.

l An instructor-presented lesson or SGI is documented as a lesson plan.

l A self-paced lesson must be of sufficient detail that the student can learn the material to the established learning objective standard on his/her own.

l An extension training lesson is a self-paced instructional program developed, reproduced, and packaged for distribution to soldiers in the field. These lessons consist of a terminal learning objective, instructional test, practice, and immediate feedback to the soldier.

See lesson outline and lesson plan.

2[DoD] A segment of instruction that contains an objective, information (to be imparted to the student), and an evaluation instrument (test). See also course, instructional unit, and module.

lesson design strategy. A methodology for how courseware will be produced and how it will look as an end product. A description of the decision making processes and methods in designing and implementing the presentation of material and testing student mastery of subject matter.

lesson format guide. An organized outline of a single lesson that serves as a blueprint for the development of all lessons within a course.

lesson outline. [TR 350-70] An organized outline of training material. It identified the terminal learning objective(s), enabling learning objective(s) (optional), learning steps/activities, methods of instruction, media, references, instructor-to-student ratios, resources required, facilities required, safety factors, environmental considerations, and risk factors. The lesson outline is completed from training analysis data during the design phase of the training development process. See lesson and lesson plan.

lesson plan. [TR 350-70] The detailed blueprint for presenting training by an instructor or small group leader (SGL). It prevents training from becoming haphazard and provides for training standardization. It is built on the lesson outline and includes all the details required for the presentation. It must be of sufficient detail that a new instructor can teach the lesson with no documentation of training. See lesson outline and lesson.

lesson summary. A segment of an instruction during which the presenter reiterates key points of lesson content (knowledge level) or reviews and expands on key material and develops relationships that lead to generalizations (comprehension level).

lessons learned. [DSMC] Capitalizing on past errors in judgment, material failures, wrong timing, or other mistakes ultimately to improve a situation or system.

letdown bombing. A very low level bombing technique wherein delay fuses and/or devices are used to allow the attacker to escape the effects of the bomb.

lethality. 1[DSMC] The probability that weapon effects will destroy the target or render it neutral. 2[DoD] The ability of a munition (or laser, high power microwave, etc.) to cause damage that will cause the loss or a degradation in the ability of a target system to complete its designated mission(s).

letter contract. [DSMC] See undefinitized contractual action.

letter of assist. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A contractual document issued by the United Nations (UN) to a government authorizing it to provide goods or services to a peacekeeping operation; the UN agrees either to purchase the goods or services or authorizes the government to supply them subject to reimbursement by the UN.

letters of allowance. [DSMC] Initiated by the Office of Management and Budget to DoD containing the President's determinations of what the Defense budget should contain.

level. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a word meaning, "Contact designated is at your angels."

level of accuracy. A value normally expressed in percentage terms which relates to the percentage of the data found to be correct.

level of detail. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Within the current joint planning and execution systems, movement characteristics are described at five distinct levels of detail. These levels are:

l level I– aggregated level. Expressed as total number of passengers and total short tons, total measurement tons, total square feet and/or total hundreds of barrels by unit line number (ULN), cargo increment number (CIN), and personnel increment number (PIN).

l level II– summary level. Expressed as total number of passengers by ULN and PIN and short tons, measurement tons (including barrels), total square feet of bulk, oversize, outsize, and non-air-transportable cargo by ULN and CIN.

l level IIIdetail by cargo category. Expressed as total number of passengers by ULN and PIN and short tons, and/or measurement tons (including barrels), total square feet of cargo as identified by the ULN or CIN three-position cargo category code.

l level IV– detail by cargo volume. Expressed as number of passengers and individual dimensional data (expressed in length, width, and height in number of inches) of cargo by equipment type by ULN.

l level V– detail by priority of shipment. Expressed as total number of passengers by service specialty code in deployment sequence by ULN individual weight (in pounds) and dimensional data (expressed in length, width, and height in inches) of equipment in deployment sequence by ULN.

level of effort (LOE). [DSMC] Effort of a general or supportive nature which does not produce definite end products or results, i.e., contract for man-hours.

level of effort-oriented items. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Items for which requirements computations are based on such factors as equipment and personnel density and time and rate of use. See also combination mission/level of effort-oriented items; mission-oriented items.

level of learning. The degree to which a student is expected to develop knowledge or understanding of a subject, learn facts, internalize a set of values, or display proficiency in a psychomotor skill.

level of repair/analysis (LOR/A). [DSMC] See optimum repair level analysis.

level of supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The quantity of supplies or materiel authorized or directed to be held in anticipation of future demands. See also operating level of supply; order and shipping time; procurement lead time; requisitioning objective; safety level of supply; stockage objective.

level-of-effort munitions. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In stockpile planning, munitions stocked on the basis of expected daily expenditure rate, the number of combat days, and the attrition rate assumed, to counter targets the number of which is unknown. See also threat-oriented munitions.

leveled time. [DSMC] The average time adjusted to account for the difference in operator performance, such as skill, effort, and conditions.

levels of interactivity. A two-way communication in which stimuli/response is direct and continual. Interactivity describes the degree of student involvement/ interactivity in the instructional activity. There are four levels of interactivity, they are:

l level 1 – passive. The student acts solely as a receiver of information.

l level 2 – limited participation. The student makes simple responses to instructional cues.

l level 3 – complex participation. The student makes a variety of responses using varied techniques in response to instructional cues.

l level 4 – real-time participation. The student is directly involved in a life-like set of complex cues and responses.

leverage. [DSMC] The power to act or influence to attain goals or gains. Also, an amplification.

leveraging. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In information operations, the effective use of information, information systems, and technology to increase the means and synergy in accomplishing information operations strategy. See also information; information operations; information system; operation.

liaison. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military forces to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action.

liaison contact. The act of visiting or otherwise contacting a liaison source.

liaison officer. A counterintelligence special agent assigned the mission of conducting counterintelligence liaison.

liaison source. An individual with whom liaison is conducted. This term applies regardless of whether the individual furnishes assistance or is contacted on a protocol basis.

liberated territory. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any area, domestic, neutral, or friendly, which, having been occupied by an enemy, is retaken by friendly forces.

licensed production. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) A direct commercial arrangement between a U.S. company and a foreign government, international organization, or foreign company, providing for the transfer of production information which enables the foreign government, international organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of U.S. defense equipment. A typical license production arrangement would include the functions of production engineering, controlling, quality assurance and determining of resource requirements. It may or may not include design engineering information and critical materials production and design information. A licensed production arrangement is accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license agreement per the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR). 2[DSMC] Overseas production of a U.S. origin defense article based on transfer of technical information under commercial arrangements between a U.S. manufacturer and a foreign government or producer. U.S. Government involvement is limited to issuance of an export license.

life cycle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The total phases through which an item passes from the time it is initially developed until the time it is either consumed in use or disposed of as being excess to all known materiel requirements.

life cycle (weapon system). [DSMC] All phases of the system's life including research, development, test and evaluation, production, deployment (inventory), operations and support, and disposal.

life cycle of records. [TP 25-71] The life cycle of records incorporates three stages: creation, maintenance and use, and disposition.

life units. [DSMC] A measure of use duration applicable to the item (such as operating hours, cycles, distance, rounds fired, and attempts to operate).

life-cycle cost (LCC). The LCC is an approach to costing that considers all costs incurred during the projected life of the system, subsystem, or components being evaluated. LCC includes cost to develop, procure, operate, maintain, and, where applicable, dispose of the system over its useful life.

life cycle cost activities. There are five life cycle cost activities: development, production, military construction, fielding, and sustainment. The first four are limited to the appropriations of research and development test and evaluation (RDTE), procurement, military construction (MILCON), and Operations and Maintenance, Army (OMA) appropriations. The last (sustainment) contains procurement, Military Personnel, Army (MPA), and OMA appropriations.

life cycle cost categories. There are three life cycle cost categories: research and development, investment, and operating and support.

life cycle management (LCM). [DSMC] A management process, applied throughout the life of a system, that bases all programmatic decisions on the anticipated mission-related and economic benefits derived over the life of the system.

life cycle management model (LCMM). A management process, applied throughout the life of a system, that bases all programmatic decisions on the anticipated mission-related and economic benefits derived over the life of the system. Materiel acquisition may initiate training requirements.

Life Cycle System Management Model (LCSMM). The model of the process which outlines the Army acquisition system life cycle. The process begins with the materiel concept and ends with the final phase-out or disposal. The LCSMM is a flowchart, a sequence of events, and a means of monitoring the acquisition of a new or improved materiel system. It reflects acquisition policy, provides a management tool outlining procedures and events, provides an outline for checking completeness of activities, and provides a master planning chart. The LCSMM consists of four phases, listed below. Decision points are at Milestone I, II, and III:

l Milestone 0 – Concept Exploration and Definition.

l Milestone I – Program Definition and Risk Reduction.

l Milestone II – Engineering and Manufacturing Development.

l Milestone III – Production, Fielding/Deployment and Operational Support.

life cycle of records. [TP 25-71] The life cycle of records incorporates three stages: creation, maintenance and use, and disposition.

life cycle phases. The Army Streamlined Acquisition Process (ASAP) consists of three phases — proof of principle, development prove out, and production-deployment. The DoD traditional life cycle consists of four phases — concept exploration, demonstration-validation, full-scale development, and production-deployment.

life support equipment. Equipment designed to sustain aircrew members and passengers throughout the flight environment, optimizing their mission effectiveness and affording a means of safe and reliable escape, descent, survival, and recovery in emergency situations.

life-cycle maintenance capability. The ability to update, modify, and otherwise change training materials and/or equipment after delivery.

Life-Cycle Model (LCM). The LCM outlines the Army acquisition system from materiel concept investigation, through development and acquisition, until ultimate phase out and disposal. Materiel acquisition may initiate training requirements.

lifeguard submarine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A submarine employed for rescue in an area which cannot be adequately covered by air or surface rescue facilities because of enemy opposition, distance from friendly bases, or other reasons. It is stationed near the objective and sometimes along the route to be flown by the strike aircraft.

light artillery. See field artillery.

light damage. See nuclear damage.

light filter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An optical element such as a sheet of glass, gelatin, or plastic dyed in a specific manner to absorb selectively light of certain colors.

light line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A designated line forward of which vehicles are required to use blackout lights at night.

lightening. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The operation (normally carried out at anchor) of transferring crude oil cargo from a large tanker to a smaller tanker, so reducing the draft of the larger tanker to enable it to enter port.

lighterage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A small craft designed to transport cargo or personnel from ship to shore. Lighterage includes amphibians, landing craft, discharge lighters, causeways, and barges.

Lightning Bug. Ryan 147B reconnaissance drone.

lightweight amphibious container handler. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A USMC piece of equipment usually maneuvered by a bulldozer and used to retrieve 20-foot equivalent containers from landing craft in the surf and place them on flatbed truck trailers. See also container.

limit of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The boundary marking off the area on which gunfire can be delivered.

l Safe angular limits for firing at aerial targets.

limited access route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A one way route with one or more restrictions which preclude its use by the full range of military traffic. See also double flow route; single flow route.

limited denied war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. No substitute recommended.

limited production. This is the initial low rate of production of a system in limited quantity to be used in operational test and evaluation for verification of production engineering and design maturity, and to establish a production base prior to a decision to proceed with production.

limited production type item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item under development, commercially available or available from other Government agencies, for which an urgent operational requirement exists and for which no other existing item is substitutable. Such an item appears to fulfill an approved materiel requirement or other military department-approved requirements, and to be promising enough operationally to warrant initiating procurement and/or production for service issue prior to completion of development and/or test or adoption as a standard item.

limited rights. [DSMC] Rights to use, duplicate, or disclose technical data (TD) in whole or in part, by or for the government, with the express written permission of the party furnishing the TD to be released or disclosed outside the government

limited standard item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item of supply determined by standardization action as authorized for procurement only to support in-service military materiel requirements.

limited war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Armed conflict short of general war, exclusive of incidents, involving the overt engagement of the military forces of two or more nations.

limited-access plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The limited-access plan (like the close-hold plan) is an operation plan that has access restricted to individual Worldwide Military Command and Control System user Ids and terminal Ids. Unlike the closehold plan, the limited-access plan can be distributed to more than one Joint Operation Planning and Execution System site. See also close-hold plan.

limiting factor. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment. Illustrative examples are transportation network deficiencies, lack of in-place facilities, malpositioned forces or materiel, extreme climatic conditions, distance, transit or overflight rights, political conditions, etc.

line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, used by a spotter or an observer to indicate that a burst(s) occurred on the spotting line.

line authority. DoD officials in the direct chain of authority from the Secretary of Defense to the program manager.

line driver. A signal converter that conditions a digital signal to ensure reliable transmission over an extended distance.

line item (budget). [DSMC] A specific program end item with its own identity (e.g., B-1B Bomber).

line item number (LIN). A LIN is a six-character alphanumeric identifier of the generic nomenclature of nonexpendable, type classified expendable, and durable items of equipment. LINs are used during their life cycle authorization for supply management.

line monitor. The monitor that shows only the line-out pictures that are to be used in the final edited production. Also called master monitor.

line of balance (LOB). [DSMC] A graphic display of scheduled units versus actual units produced over a given set of critical schedule control points on a particular day.

line of communications (LOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A route, either land, water, and/or air, which connects an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and military forces move. See also base of operations; route.

line of demarcation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line defining the boundary of a buffer zone or area of limitation. A line of demarcation may also be used to define the forward limits of disputing or belligerent forces after each phase of disengagement or withdrawal has been completed. See also buffer zone; disengagement; peace operations.

line of departure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements.

l In amphibious warfare, a suitably marked offshore coordinating line to assist assault craft to land on designated beaches at scheduled times.

line of operation. A directional orientation that connects the force with its base of operations and its objective.

line of position. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a reference line which originates at a target and extends outward at a predetermined angle.

line overlap. See overlap (sense 1).

line production. [DSMC] A method of plant layout in which the machines and other equipment required, regardless of the operations they perform, are arranged in the order in which they are used in the process (lay-out by product).

line replaceable unit (LRU). [DSMC] An essential support item removed and replaced at field level to restore an end item to an operationally ready condition. (Also called weapon replacement assembly and module replaceable unit.)

line search. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Reconnaissance along a specific line of communications, such as a road, railway or waterway, to detect fleeting targets and activities in general.

line standard. The video production standard that describes the number of scan lines used by a given television system to make up one screen.

line stock. [DSMC] Parts or components (screws, washers, solder, common resistors, etc.) which are physically identifiable with the product, but which are of very low value, and therefore do not warrant the usual item-by-item costing techniques.

line-route map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map or overlay for signal communications operations that shows the actual routes and types of construction of wire circuits in the field. It also gives the locations of switchboards and telegraph stations. See also map.

linear. Sequential in nature.

linear lesson design. A type of lesson design in which a student is presented with sequential material.

linear program. A program, either motion or text, that plays sequentially (such as a videotape) rather than branching.

linear programming. [TR 350-70] A programming method in which set sequences of frames require a response from the student at each step. The steps are so designed that errors will be minimal for even the slower students in the target population.

linear scale. See graphic scale; scale.

linear video. More than one sequenced video frame, normally involving motion.

liner. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Fly at speed giving maximum cruising range."

lines of communication (LOC). All the routes (land, water, and air) that connect an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and military forces move.

lines of operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Lines which define the directional orientation of the force in time and space in relation to the enemy. They connect the force with its base of operations and its objectives.

link. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In communications, a general term used to indicate the existence of communications facilities between two points.

l A maritime route, other than a coastal or transit route, which links any two or more routes.

link encryption. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The application of online cryptooperation to a link of a communications system so that all information passing over the link is encrypted in its entirety.

link trainer. Mechanical training device which simulates the cockpit of an aircraft.

link-lift vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The conveyance, together with its operating personnel, used to satisfy a movement requirement between nodes.

link-route segments. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Route segments that connect nodes wherein link-lift vehicles perform the movement function.

linkage. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service term used to describe the machine readable information used to encode resource location and identification information of electronic and other objects and to perform access (i.e., URI) to the resources. Examples include uniform resource locators (URLs) and uniform resource names (URNs).

liquid explosive. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Explosive which is fluid at normal temperatures.

liquid propellant. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any liquid combustible fed to the combustion chamber of a rocket engine.

list of targets. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tabulation of confirmed or suspect targets maintained by any echelon for informational and fire support planning purposes. See also target list.

listening watch. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A continuous receiver watch established for the reception of traffic addressed to, or of interest to, the unit maintaining the watch, with complete log optional.

litter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A basket or frame utilized for the transport of injured persons.

litter patient. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A patient requiring litter accommodations while in transit.

live action. An image on film or video of something happening in the real world, as it was seen and heard with the camera and sound equipment.

live fire exercise (LFX). [TR 350-70] Exercise that is resource-intensive; player units maneuver and employ organic and supporting weapons systems using full-service ammunition. LFXs integrate all combat arms, CS, and CSS elements. The extensive range and resource requirements usually limit them to platoon and company team levels. Consequently, their principal focus is unit and weapons integration at company team level. LFXs provide realistic training on collective and soldier skills. (FM 25-101) See exercise.

live fire test. [DoD] A test within the OSD approved LFT&E strategy that involves the firing of actual munitions at target components, target sub-systems, target sub-assemblies or system-level targets (which may or not be configured for combat) to examine personnel casualty, vulnerability and/or lethality issues. This testing alone may not satisfy ; see full-up, system-level test

live fire test and evaluation (LFTE). [DSMC] A test process that is defined in Title 10 U.S.C.2366, that must be conducted on a covered system, major munition program, missile program, or product improvement to a covered system, major munition program, or missile program before it can proceed beyond low rate initial production. A covered system is any vehicle, weapon platform, or conventional weapon system that includes features designed to provide some degree of protection to the user in combat and that is an acquisition category (ACAT) I or ACAT II program.

live fire test and evaluation (LFTE) plan. [DSMC] See detailed live fire test and evaluation plan.

live fire test and evaluation report. [DSMC] Report prepared by the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation on survivability and lethality testing. Submitted to the Congress for covered systems prior to the decision to proceed beyond low rate initial production. (For component reports, see detailed live fire test and evaluation report.)

live M&S (models and simulations) (modeling and simulation). [TR 350-70] A representation of military operations using live forces and instrumented weapon systems interacting on training, test, and exercise ranges which simulate experiences during actual operational conditions. Example: National Training Center (NTC), Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), and/or Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC) rotation.

live training. [TR 350-70] Training executed in field conditions using tactical equipment, enhanced by training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS) and tactical engagement simulation (TES) to simulate combat conditions.

living specification. [DSMC] A specification in which requirements concentrate on form, fit, and function. These requirements are formatted to accommodate readily the insertion of new technology products and advanced manufacturing processes. The specification promotes continuous quality improvement through a responsive feedback system without benefit of a major revision or update.

load. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total weight of passengers and/or freight carried on board a ship, aircraft, train, road vehicle, or other means of conveyance. See also airlift capability; airlift requirement; allowable load.

load control group. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Personnel who are concerned with organization and control of loading within the pick-up zone.

load signal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, a visual signal displayed in a covert manner to indicate the presence of an individual or object at a given location. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations; signal.

load spreader. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Material used to distribute the weight of a load over a given floor area to avoid exceeding designed stress.

loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of putting personnel, materiel, and supplies on board ships, aircraft, trains, road vehicles, or other means of conveyance. See also embarkation.

loading (ordnance). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation that installs airborne weapons and stores on or in an aircraft and may include fuzing of bombs and stray voltage checks. See also loading; ordnance.

loading chart (aircraft). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any one of a series of charts carried in an aircraft which shows the proper location for loads to be transported and which pertains to checklists, balance records, and clearances for weight and balance.

loading plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All of the individually prepared documents which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for the arrangement of personnel, and the loading of equipment for one or more units or other special grouping of personnel or material moving by highway, water, rail, or air transportation. See also ocean manifest.

loading point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A point where one aircraft can be loaded or unloaded.

loading site. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area containing a number of loading points.

loading time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In airlift operations, a specified time, established jointly by the airlift and airborne commanders concerned, when aircraft and loads are available and loading is to begin.

loadmaster. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Air Force technician qualified to plan loads, to operate auxiliary materials handling equipment, and to supervise loading and unloading of aircraft.

local area network (LAN). [TR 350-70] A LAN is the fundamental building block for the computer network. It is used to interconnect hosts within a small geographic area and provide high bandwidths with low delays. It is the user connection to the computer and the means by which data is loaded to or downloaded from the network. The user is connected to the computer network via the PC, which is connected to the LAN, the on-off ramp for data.

local mean time. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The time interval elapsed since the mean sun's transit of the observer's antimeridian.

local procurement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of obtaining personnel, services, supplies, and equipment from local or indigenous sources.

local purchase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The function of acquiring a decentralized item of supply from sources outside the Department of Defense. An authorized purchase of materials, supplies, and services by an installation for its own use.

local subject index. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that consists of a group of descriptive terms used to aid users in locating resources of potential interest, but the terms are not drawn from a formally registered controlled vocabulary source.

local war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See limited war.

localizer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A directional radio beacon which provides to an aircraft an indication of its lateral position relative to a predetermined final approach course. See also beacon; instrument landing system.

localizer mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In a flight control system, a control mode in which an aircraft is automatically positioned to, and held at, the center of the localizer course.

lock on. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Signifies that a tracking or target-seeking system is continuously and automatically tracking a target in one or more coordinates (e.g., range, bearing, elevation).

lock-step instruction. [TR 350-70] A mode of instruction in which all soldiers receive the same instruction in fixed time periods. Soldiers move through the instruction as a group. See group lock-step instruction.

lodgment area. See airhead; beachhead.

loft bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of bombing in which the delivery plane approaches the target at a very low altitude, makes a definite pull-up at a given point, releases the bomb at a predetermined point during the pull-up, and tosses the bomb onto the target. See also over-the-shoulder bombing; toss bombing.

logair. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Long-term contract airlift service within continental United States for the movement of cargo in support of the logistics systems of the military services (primarily the Army and Air Force) and Department of Defense agencies. See also quicktrans.

logistic assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An evaluation of:

l The logistic support required to support particular military operations in a theater of operations, country, or area.

l The actual and/or potential logistics support available for the conduct of military operations either within the theater, country, or area, or located elsewhere.

logistic estimate of the situation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An appraisal resulting from an orderly examination of the logistic factors influencing contemplated courses of action to provide conclusions concerning the degree and manner of that influence. See also estimate.

logistic implications test. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An analysis of the major logistic aspects of a joint strategic war plan and the consideration of the logistic implications resultant therefrom as they may limit the acceptability of the plan. The logistic analysis and consideration are conducted concurrently with the development of the strategic plan. The objective is to establish whether the logistic requirements generated by the plan are in balance with availabilities, and to set forth those logistic implications that should be weighed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in their consideration of the plan. See also feasibility test.

logistic interoperability. [DSMC] A form of interoperability in which the service to be exchanged is assemblies, components, spares, or repair parts. Logistic interoperability will often be achieved by making such assemblies components, spares, or repair parts interchangeable, but can sometimes be a capability less than interchangeability when a degradation of performance or some limitations are operationally acceptable.

logistic routes. See lines of communication.

logistic support. Logistic support encompasses the logistic services, materiel, and transportation required to support the continental United States-based and world-wide deployed forces.

logistic support (medical). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Medical care, treatment, hospitalization, evacuation, furnishing of medical services, supplies, materiel, and adjuncts thereto.

logistic support analysis (LSA). 1LSA is a technique used by integrated logistic support management for a continuous dialogue between designers and logisticians. LSA provides a system to identify, define, analyze, quantify, and process logistics support requirements for materiel acquisition programs. It is the selective application of scientific and engineering efforts during the acquisition process, as part of the system’s engineering, to assist in: causing support considerations to influence design; defining support requirements related optimally to design and to each other; and acquiring and providing the required support during the operational phase at minimal cost. 2[TRADOC] An analysis of manpower requirements, operator and maintenance quality and skills, personnel training requirements, and training materials requirements.

logistic support analysis record (LSAR). An LSAR is a file of logistic support information, in standardized format, on acquisition programs for specific new or modified systems and equipment. It serves the acquisition process by providing logistical data derived during all phases of the process to support logistic support analysis processes.

logistic support (LS) elements. [DSMC] A traditional group of items, that taken together constitute logistics support. These include: maintenance planning; manpower and personnel; supply support; support equipment; technical data; training and training support; computer resources support; facilities; packaging, handling, storage, and transportation; and, design interface.

logistician. [TP 71] A command or agency responsible for the independent logistic surveillance and evaluation of material acquisition programs. The logistician is appointed by ODCSLOG.

logistics. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of forces. In its most comprehensive sense, those aspects of military operations which deal with:

l Design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel.

l Movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel.

l Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities; and d. acquisition or furnishing of services.

logistics and readiness capabilities. [DSMC] Parameters described in terms of mission requirements considering both wartime and peacetime logistics operations to include measures for mission capable rate, operational availability and frequency, and duration of preventive or scheduled maintenance actions. Also included are combat support requirements such as battle damage repair capability, mobility requirements, expected maintenance levels, and surge and mobilization objectives and capabilities.

logistics annex. This is a brief description o the logistics considerations essential to program planning and decisions at Milestones I and II.

logistics bases. A principal or supplementary base of support; a locality containing installations that provide logistics or other support.

logistics funding profile (LFP). [DSMC] That portion of the program budget necessary to execute the acquisitions logistics plan.

logistics management information (LMI). [DSMC] The documentation associated with supportability analysis efforts.

logistics marking and reading symbology. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system designed to improve the flow of cargo through the seaport of embarkation and debarkation using bar code technology. See also logistics.

logistics-over-the-shore operation area (LOA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) That geographic area required to successfully conduct a logistics over-the-shore operation. See also logistics-over-the-shore operations.

logistics-over-the-shore operations (LOTS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The loading and unloading of ships with or without the benefit of fixed port facilities, in friendly or nondefended territory, and, in time of war, during phases of theater development in which there is no opposition by the enemy. Or as a means of moving forces closer to tactical assembly areas dependent on threat force capabilities. See also logistics.

logistics preparation of the theater. Actions taken to optimize the means (force structure, resources, and strategic lift) of logistically supporting the commander’s plan.

logistics sourcing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The identification of the origin and determination of the availability of the time-phased force and deployment data non-unit logistics requirements.

logistics support (LS). [DSMC] The application of a comprehensive, integrated approach to the supply, repair, and maintenance of items necessary for the proper operation of a system in the force. See acquisition logistics support.

logistics support analysis. [TR 350-70] An analysis of manpower requirements, operator and maintenance quality and skills, personnel training requirements, and training materials requirements.

logistics support, supplies, and services. [DSMC] These terms refer to any or all of the following — food, billeting, transportation, petroleum, oils, lubricants, clothing, communications services, medical services, ammunition, base operations support (and construction incident to base operations support), storage services, use of facilities, training services, spare parts and components, repair and maintenance services, and port services.

logistics supportability. [DSMC] The degree of ease to which system design characteristics and planned logistics resources (including the logistics support (LS) elements) allow for the meeting of system availability and wartime usage requirements.

logistics-over-the-shore (LOTS) operations. The loading and unloading of ships without the benefit of fixed port facilities, in friendly or nondefended territory, and, in time of war, during phases of theater development in which there is no opposition by the enemy.

long range investment plans. [DSMC] Broad plans based on best estimates of future top-line fiscal resources which form the basis for making long range affordability assessments of acquisition programs.

long range research, development, and acquisition plan (LRRDAP). This plan displays research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE) and procurement funds in support of requirements identified by mission area analyses (MAAs) and summarized in the battlefield development plan. The LRRDAP programs over a 17-year period, displays RDTE programs that support procurements, is fully compatible with the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES), reflects a by-year prioritization, and is the starting point for research, development, and acquisition (RDA) fiscal program building. Two basic plans make up the Army Long-Range Plan. They are discussed below:

l The Army Long-Range Research, Development, and Acquisition (RDA) (LRRDA) Plan. This plan displays research and development in support of requirements identified by mission area analysis and summarized in the battlefield development plan. LRRDA portrays programs over a 15-year period, displays research, development, testing, and evaluation programs that support procurement, is fully compatible with the Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution System (PPBES), reflects a by-year prioritization, and is the starting point for RDA program building.

l The Army Materiel Command (AMC) Long-Range Research, Development, and Acquisition Plan (LRRDAP).This plan Consists of two parts as follows:

l The AMC Long-Range Science and Technology Plan. This plan defines technology in terms of deliverables to solve system deficiencies identified by mission area analyses. It provides a document identifies technology base efforts being conducted by major subordinate commands and laboratories, and provides management a baseline for decisions affecting technology base efforts. It serves as a means of communicating to the user those technologies that will improve mission performance in the 10 to 20 year future.

l The AMC LRRDAP. This plan specifies system development time lines and the relationship between the technical base and planned developments and acquisitions.

long-lead items/long-lead-time (LLT) materials. [DSMC] Those components of a system or piece of equipment for which the times to design and fabricate are the longest, and therefore, to which an early commitment of funds may be desirable in order to meet the earliest possible data of system completion. Might be ordered during engineering management development to arrive for production start.

long-range bomber aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A bomber designed for a tactical operating radius over 2,500 nautical miles at design gross weight and design bomb load.

long-range period. This is a period usually 11 to 20 years into the future.

long-range training strategies. See training strategy.

long-range transport aircraft. See transport aircraft.

longitudinal time code. Time code recorded as an audio signal, usually on linear track two or three of the video-tape.

Looking Glass. Boeing KC-135B, EC-135A, EC-135C and EC-135P, ABNCP aircraft.

look. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, a period during which a mine circuit is receptive of an influence

loop. The repeated execution of a series of instructions.

loran. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A long-range radio navigation position fixing system using the time difference of reception of pulse type transmissions from two or more fixed stations. This term is derived from the words long-range electronic navigation.

lost. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation used by a spotter or an observer to indicate that rounds fired by a gun or mortar were not observed.

lot. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Specifically, a quantity of material all of which was manufactured under identical conditions and assigned an identifying lot number. 2[DSMC] A specific quantity of material manufactured under identical conditions and assigned an identifying lot number for use, technical, manufacturing, production, and supply purposes.

lot acceptance. [DSMC] This test is based on a sampling procedure to ensure that the product retains its quality. No acceptance or installation should be permitted until this test for the lot has been successfully completed.

low. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A height between five hundred and two thousand feet.

low airburst. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The fallout safe height of burst for a nuclear weapon which maximizes damage to or casualties on surface targets. See also types of burst.

low altitude bombing system mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In a flight control system, a control mode in which the low altitude bombing maneuver of an aircraft is controlled automatically.

low altitude parachute extraction system (LAPES). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A low level self-contained system capable of delivering heavy loads into an area where air landing is not feasible from an optimum aircraft wheel altitude of 5 to 10 feet above ground level. One or more platforms may be dropped.

low angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, an order or request to obtain low angle fire.

low angle fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire delivered at angles of elevation below the elevation that corresponds to the maximum range of the gun and ammunition concerned.

low angle loft bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Type of loft bombing of free fall bombs wherein weapon release occurs at an angle less than 35 degrees above the horizontal. See also loft bombing.

low cost program. This is an acquisition program with an estimated research, development, test, and evaluation (RDTE) cost of less than $6 million, and a production cost of less than $12 million in any 1 year; or $50 million total RDTE, and procurement over any 5-year period.

low dollar value item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item which normally requires considerably less management effort than those in the other management intensity groupings.

low intensity conflict (LIC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Political-military confrontation between contending states or groups below conventional war and above the routine, peaceful competition among states. It frequently involves protracted struggles of competing principles and ideologies. Low intensity conflict ranges from subversion to the use of armed force. It is waged by a combination of means employing political, economic, informational, and military instruments. Low intensity conflicts are often localized, generally in the Third World, but contain regional and global security implications.

low level flight. See terrain flight.

low level transit route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A temporary corridor of defined dimensions established in the forward area to minimize the risk to friendly aircraft from friendly air defenses or surface forces.

low oblique. See oblique air photograph.

low velocity drop. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A drop procedure in which the drop velocity does not exceed 30 feet per second.

low visibility operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Sensitive operations wherein the political-military restrictions inherent in covert and clandestine operations are either not necessary or not feasible; actions are taken as required to limit exposure of those involved and/or their activities. Execution of these operations is undertaken with the knowledge that the action and/or sponsorship of the operation may preclude plausible denial by the initiating power.

low-altitude bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Horizontal bombing with the height of release between 900 and 8,000 feet.

low-altitude missile engagement zone. See weapon engagement zone.

low-rate initial production (LRIP). [DSMC] The minimum number of systems (other than ships and satellites) to provide production representative articles for operational test and evaluation, to establish an initial production base, and to permit an orderly increase in the production rate sufficient to lead to full-rate production upon successful completion of operational testing. For major defense acquisition programs, LRIP quantities in excess of 10 percent of the acquisition objective must be reported in the selected acquisition report. For ships and satellites LRIP is the minimum quantity and rate that preserves mobilization. Full-rate production is contingent upon successful completion of operational testing.

lumen. A measurement equivalent to the light emitted in a solid angle from a uniform point source of one candle intensity.

luminance. Brightness. A measure of relative brightness of different spectral stimuli. An analog measure of the distribution of brightness levels associated with monochrome.

lux. A measurement of illumination. The metric equivalent of foot-candle.