Index Military Definitions

a-b rolls. A technique by which audio and video information is played back from two videotape machines rolled sequentially, often for the purpose of dubbing the sequential information onto a third tape, usually a composite master. Required to achieve special effects or dissolves between scenes when editing.

ABCA countries. America, Britain, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand (associated through Australia).

abeam. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Bearing approximately 090 degrees or 270 degrees relative; at right angles to the longitudinal axis of a vehicle.

abeam replenishment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transfer at sea of personnel and/or supplies by rigs between two or more ships proceeding side by side.

ability. [TR 350-70] Power to perform an act, either innate or the result of learning and practice.

ability grouping. Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups on the basis of aptitude testing.

abort. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l To terminate a mission for any reason other than enemy action. It may occur at any point after the beginning of the mission and prior to its completion.

l To discontinue aircraft takeoff or missile launch.

abrasion. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In photography, a scratch or mark produced mechanically on an emulsion surface or film base.

absolute altimeter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of altimeter which measures vertical distance to the surface below, using radio, radar, sonic, laser, or capacitive technology.

absolute altitude. The height of an aircraft directly above the surface or terrain over which it is flying. See also altitude.

absolute dud. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nuclear weapon which, when launched at or emplaced on a target, fails to explode.

absolute height. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The height of an aircraft directly above the surface or terrain over which it is flying. See also altitude.

absolute standards
. A statement defining the exact level of performance required of a student as a demonstration that he/she has mastered the course objective(s). Criterion-referenced tests are usually based on the absolute standard.

absorbed dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The amount of energy imparted by nuclear (or ionizing) radiation to unit mass of absorbing material. The unit is the rad.

abstract. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that presents a narrative description of the information resource. This narrative should provide enough general information to allow the user to determine if the information resource has sufficient potential to warrant contacting the provider for further information.

academic review board. A board that evaluates a student's progress and recommends a course of action when the student has failed to achieve learning objectives or when the student is qualified to accelerate their training.

academic time/hours. [TR 350-70] The total length of time actually required to present training.

l Academic time includes –

l Conduct of training.

l Testing students.

l Conducting AAR

l An academic hour is 50 minutes

academic week [TR 350-70] Consists of the number of academic hours that must be trained during any given training week.

acceptability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operation plan review criterion. The determination whether the contemplated course of action is worth the cost in manpower, material, and time involved; is consistent with the law of war; and militarily and politically supportable. See also adequacy; completeness; feasibility; suitability.

acceptance. The act of an authorized representative of the government by which the government, for itself, or as agent of another, assumes ownership of existing identified supplies tendered, or approves specific services rendered, as partial or complete performance of the contract on the part of the contractor.

access constraints. [TP 25-71] This Government Information Locator Service data element is a grouping of subelements that together describe constraints or legal prerequisites for accessing the information resource or its component products or services. It includes General Access Constraints which subelement includes access constraints or legal prerequisites applied to assure the protection of privacy, and other special restrictions or limitations on obtaining the information resource.

access to classified information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of classified information. Persons have access to classified information if they are permitted to gain knowledge of the information or if they are in a place where they would be expected to gain such knowledge. Persons do not have access to classified information by being in a place where classified information is kept if security measures prevent them from gaining knowledge of the information.

accidental attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An unintended attack which occurs without deliberate national design as a direct result of a random event, such as a mechanical failure, a simple human error, or an unauthorized action by a subordinate.

accidental war. Not to be used. See accidental attack.

accompanying supplies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Unit supplies that deploy with forces.

accountability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. The person having this obligation may or may not have actual possession of the property, documents, or funds. Accountability is concerned primarily with records, while responsibility is concerned primarily with custody, care, and safekeeping. See also responsibility.

accounting line designator (ALD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A five-character code consisting of the target desired ground zero designator and the striking command suffix to indicate a specific nuclear strike by a specified weapon delivery system on a target objective to the operation plan.

accounts payable. Amounts owed on open accounts, e.g., materials and services received, wages earned, and fringe benefits unpaid.

accounts receivable. Amounts due from debtors on open accounts. Under appropriated funds, amounts due from debtors for reimbursements earned or for appropriation refunds due.

accreditation. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) In computer modeling and simulation, an official determination that a model or simulation is acceptable for a specific purpose. See also configuration management; independent review; validation; verification. 2[CJCSI 6212.01A] The process by which a C4I system is evaluated for meeting security requirements to maintain the security of both the information and the information systems. A designated accreditation authority (DAA) is named for each system. Co-DAAs will accredit C4I systems in certain cases involving interoperability or integration of multiple systems. 3[TR 5-11] The official determination that a model, simulation, or federation of modeling and simulation is acceptable for use for a specific purpose. 4[TR 350-70] The recognition afforded an educational institution when it has met accepted standards of quality applied by an accepted, professional accreditation agency.

accreditation agent. [TR 5-11] The organization designated by the application sponsor to conduct an accreditation assessment for a modeling and simulation application.

accreditation criteria. [TR 5-11] A set of standards that a particular model, simulation, or federation of modeling and simulation must meet to be accredited for a specific purpose.

accreditation proponent. [TR 5-11] The head of the agency designated to determine a modeling and simulation is acceptable for a generic class of applications.

accredited curriculum. [TR 350-70] Any formal military training curriculum that has been reviewed and approved by a competent accrediting agency to determine the extent to which the curriculum content can be converted to civilian academic credit.

accrual accounting. The basis of accounting whereby revenue is recognized when it is realized and expenses are recognized when incurred, without regard to time of receipt or payment of cash.

accuracy of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The precision of fire expressed by the closeness of a grouping of shots at and around the center of the target.

accuracy of information. See evaluation.

achievement grouping. Arrangement whereby students are assigned to groups according to their performance on pretests of units of the course.

achievement test. [TR 350-70] A test for measuring an individual's knowledge and skill accomplishments as a result of training. The achievement measures must be directly related to the training program objectives and performance standards required during training.

acknowledgment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A message from the addressee informing the originator that his or her communication has been received and is understood

aclinic line. See magnetic equator.

acoustic circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mine circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a target. See also mine.

acoustic intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic phenomena.

acoustic jamming. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The deliberate radiation or reradiation of mechanical or electroacoustic signals with the objectives of obliterating or obscuring signals which the enemy is attempting to receive and of deterring enemy weapon systems. See also barrage jamming; electronic warfare; spot jamming.

acoustic mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine with an acoustic circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a ship or sweep. See also mine.

acoustic minehunting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The use of a sonar to detect mines or mine-like objects which may be on or protruding from the seabed, or buried.

acoustic warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)Action involving the use of underwater acoustic energy to determine, exploit, reduce or prevent hostile use of the underwater acoustic spectrum and actions which retain friendly use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. There are three divisions within acoustic warfare:

l acoustic warfare support measures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions to search for, intercept, locate, record and analyze radiated acoustic energy in water for purpose of exploiting such radiations. The use of acoustic warfare support measures involves no intentional underwater acoustic emission and is generally not detectable by the enemy.

l acoustic warfare countermeasures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. Acoustic warfare counter-measures involve intentional underwater acoustic emissions for deception and jamming.

l acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to ensure friendly effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum despite the enemy's use of underwater acoustic warfare. Acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures involve anti-acoustic warfare support measures and anti-acoustic warfare countermeasures, and may not involve underwater acoustic emissions.

acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures. See acoustic warfare, sense 3. Acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures involve anti-acoustic warfare support measures and anti-acoustic warfare countermeasures, and may not involve underwater acoustic emissions.

acoustic warfare countermeasures. See acoustic warfare, sense 2.

acoustic warfare support measures. See acoustic warfare, sense 1.

acoustical surveillance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Employment of electronic devices, including sound-recording, receiving, or transmitting equipment, for the collection of information.

acquire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) .

l When applied to acquisition radars, the process of detecting the presence and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit identification.

l When applied to tracking radars, the process of positioning a radar beam so that a target is in that beam to permit the effective employment of weapons. See also target acquisition.

acquire (radar). See acquire

acquisition. 1Acquisition means the acquiring by contract with appropriated funds of supplies or services (including construction) by and for the use of the Federal Government through purchase or lease, whether the supplies or services are already in existence or must be created, developed, demonstrated, and evaluated. Acquisition begins at the point when agency needs are established and includes the description of requirements to satisfy agency needs, solicitation and selection of sources, award of contracts, contract financing, contract performance, contract administration, and those technical and management functions directly related to the process of fulfilling agency needs by contract. See collection (acquisition). 2[TR 350-70] The process used to acquire goods and services that begins when the need for a product or service is identified and continues until that need is met. See collection (acquisition). 3[DSMC] The conceptualization, initiation, design, development, test, contracting, production, deployment, logistic support (LS), modification, and disposal of weapons and other systems, supplies, or services (including construction) to satisfy DoD needs, intended for use in or in support of military missions.

acquisition categories. Categories established to facilitate decentralized decision making and execution and compliance with statutory requirements. The categories determine the level of review, decision, authority, and applicable procedures.

acquisition category (ACAT)

l ACAT I programs are Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs). An MDAP is defined as a program estimated by the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) (USD(A&T) ) to require eventual expenditure for research, development, test, and evaluation of more than $355 million (fiscal year (FY) 96 constant dollars) or procurement of more than $2.135 billion (FY96 constant dollars), or those designated by the USD(A&T) to be ACAT I. ACAT I programs have two sub-categories:

l ACAT ID for which the Milestone Decision Authority (MDA) is USD(A&T). The "D" refers to the Defense Acquisition Board (DAB), which advises the USD(A&T) at major decision points.

l ACAT IC for which the MDA is the DoD Component Head or, if delegated, the DoD Component Acquisition Executive (CAE). The "C" refers to Component.

l The USD(A&T) designates programs as ACAT ID or ACAT IC.

l ACAT IA programs are Major Automated Information Systems (MAISs). A MAIS is estimated by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (ASD(C3I)) to require program costs for any single year in excess of $30 million (FY96 constant dollars), total program in excess of $120 million (FY96 constant dollars), or total life cycle costs in excess of $360 million (FY96 constant dollars), or those designated by the ASD(C3I) to be ACAT IA. ACAT IA programs have two sub-categories:

l ACAT IAM for which the MDA is the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Chief Information Officer (CIO) (formerly the Senior IM Official, the ASD(C3I)). The "M" refers to Major Automated Information Systems Review Council (MAISRC).

l ACAT IAC for which the MDA is the DoD Component Chief Information Officer (CIO) (formerly the Senior IM Official). The "C" refers to Component.

l The ASD(C3I) designates programs as ACAT IAM or ACAT IAC.

l ACAT II programs are defined as those acquisition programs that do not meet the criteria for an ACAT I program, but do meet the criteria for a major system. A major system is defined as a program estimated by the DoD Component Head to require eventual expenditure for research, development, test, and evaluation of more than $75M in FY80 constant dollars (approximately $140M in FY96 constant dollars), or for procurement of more than $300M in FY80 constant dollars (approximately $645M in FY96 constant dollars), or those designated by the DoD Component Head to be ACAT II. The MDA is the DoD CAE.

l ACAT III programs are defined as those acquisition programs that do not meet the criteria for an ACAT I, an ACAT IA, or an ACAT II. The MDA is designated by the CAE and shall be at the lowest appropriate level. This category includes less-than-major AISs.

acquisition decision memorandum (ADM). A memorandum signed by the milestone decision authority that documents decisions made and the exit criteria established as the result of a milestone decision review or inprocess review.

Acquisition Deskbook. See Defense Acquisition Deskbook.

acquisition environment. Internal and external factors that impact on, and help shape, every defense acquisition program. Often these factors work at opposite extremes and contradict each other. These factors include political forces, policies, regulations, reactions to unanticipated requirements, and emergencies.

acquisition executive. [DoD 5000.1] The individual, within the Department and Components, charged with overall acquisition management responsibilities within his or her respective organizations. The Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology (A&T)) is the Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE) responsible for all acquisition matters within the Department of Defense. The component acquisition executives (CAEs) for each of the components are the Secretaries of the military departments or heads of agencies with power of redelegation. The CAEs, or designee, are responsible for all acquisition matters within their respective components.

acquisition life cycle. The life of an acquisition program consists of phases, each preceded by a milestone or other decision point, during which a system goes through research, development, test and evaluation, and production. Currently, the four phases are:

l Concept Exploration (CE) (Phase 0)

l Program Definition and Risk Reduction (PDRR) (Phase I)

l Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) (Phase II)

l Production, Fielding/Deployment, and Operational Support (PF/DOS) (Phase III).

acquisition logistics. [DSMC] Technical and management activities to ensure supportability implications are considered early and throughout the acquisition process to minimize support costs and to provide the user with the resources to sustain the system in the field.

acquisition logistics support. A disciplined approach to the activities necessary to ensure the effective and economical support of a system or item of equipment for its life cycle. The elements of acquisition logistics support are design influence, maintenance, manpower and personnel, supply support, support equipment (including test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment), training and training devices, technical data, computer resources support, packaging handling and storage, transportation and transportability, facilities, and standardization and interoperability. Also called integrated logistics support (ILS).

acquisition management. [DSMC] Management of all or any of the activities within the broad spectrum of acquisition, as defined above. Also includes training of the defense acquisition workforce, and activities in support of planning, programming, and budget system (PPBS) for defense acquisition systems/programs. For acquisition programs this term is synonymous with program management.

Acquisition Management Milestone System (AMMS). The Department of the Army standard integrated life cycle management milestone reporting system and central data repository for recording system status in the acquisition cycle through fielding.

[DoD] acquisition management systems and data requirements control list (AMSDL). A listing of source documents and data item descriptions (DIDs) which have been approved for repetitive contractual application in DoD acquisitions and those that have been canceled or superseded. The acquisition management systems and data requirements control list (AMSDL) is identified as DoD 5010.12-L.

acquisition management systems control (AMSC) number. A control number for Type I and Type II DIDs and source documents. See [DoD] acquisition management systems and data requirements control list (AMSDL).

acquisition managers. [DSMC] Persons responsible at different levels for some activity of developing, producing, and fielding a weapon system. Includes senior level managers responsible for ultimate decisions, program managers, and commodity or functional area managers.

acquisition phase. 1[DoD 5200.2-R] All the tasks and activities needed to bring the program to the next major milestone occur during an acquisition phase. Phases provide a logical means of progressively translating broadly stated mission needs into well-defined system-specific requirements and ultimately into operationally effective, suitable, and survivable systems. An example of an acquisition phase is Program Definition and Risk Reduction. 2[TP 71] Phases provide a logical means of progressively translating broadly stated mission needs into well-defined, system-specific requirements and ultimately, into operationally-effective, suitable, and survivable systems. All the tasks and activities needed to bring the program to the next MS occur during acquisition phases.

acquisition plan (AP). 1Derived from the acquisition strategy — a document that records program decisions; contains the user's requirements; provides appropriate analysis of technical options; and includes life cycle plans for development, testing, production, training, and logistic support of materiel items. 2[DSMC] A formal written document reflecting the specific actions necessary to execute the approach established in the approved acquisition strategy and guiding contractual implementation. (Refer to Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Subpart 7.1 and Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement Subpart 207.1 and Acquisition Strategy.)

acquisition planning. 1The support of requirements by bringing together disciplines necessary to determine, develop, or otherwise obtain and sustain systems/ equipment. Its goal is to ensure requisite quality, on time, and at a fair price. 2[DSMC] The process by which the efforts of all personnel responsible for an acquisition are coordinated and integrated through a comprehensive plan for fulfilling the agency need in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost. It is performed throughout the life cycle and includes developing an overall acquisition strategy for managing the acquisition and a written acquisition plan.

acquisition process. The process of planning, designing, producing, and distributing a weapon system/equipment for Army use.

acquisition program. [DoD 5200.2-R] A directed, funded effort that is designed to provide a new, improved, or continuing weapons system or automated information system (AIS) capability in response to a validated operational need. acquisition programs are divided into categories, which are established to facilitate decentralized decision-making and execution and compliance with statutory requirements.

acquisition program baseline (APB). [DSMC] A document that contains the most important cost, schedule, and performance parameters (both objectives and thresholds) for the program. It is approved by the Milestone Decision Authority (MDA), and signed by the program manager (PM) and his/her direct chain of supervision, e.g., for acquisition category (ACAT) ID programs it is signed by the PM, program executive officer (PEO), component acquisition executive (CAE), and defense acquisition executive (DAE).

acquisition reform. [DSMC] An ongoing series of initiatives sponsored by OSD (especially USD(A&T) and DUSD(AR)) to streamline and tailor the acquisition process. Initiatives include statutory and regulatory reform, CAIV, reform of specifications and standards policy, preference for commercial items, electronic data interchange and the use of the IPPD/IPT management philosophy for systems development and oversight.

acquisition reform day(s). [DSMC] An annual day or period set aside by the USD(A&T), usually in the spring, when the DoD acquisition workforce reviews the latest acquisition reform initiatives and policies in conjunction with presentations by senior OSD acquisition officials. The purpose of the stand-down is to ensure that the entire acquisition workforce is aware of new policy initiatives and has the necessary information to implement them.

acquisition reform stand-down day(s). [DSMC] See acquisition reform day(s).

acquisition risk. See risk.

acquisition strategy. 1The method utilized to design, develop, and display a system through its life cycle. It articulates the broad concepts and objectives which direct and control the overall development, production, and deployment of a materiel system. It evolves in parallel with the system’s maturation. Acquisition strategy must be stable enough to provide continuity, but dynamic enough to accommodate change. It is documented and approved as an annex to the decision coordinating paper (DCP) at Milestone I/II. 2[DSMC] A business and technical management approach designed to achieve program objectives within the resource constraints imposed. It is the framework for planning, directing, contracting for, and managing a program. It provides a master schedule for research, development, test, production, fielding, modification, postproduction management, and other activities essential for program success. Acquisition strategy is the basis for formulating functional plans and strategies (e.g., test and evaluation master plan (TEMP), acquisition plan (AP), competition, prototyping, etc.) See acquisition plan. 3[TP 71] The AS documents the appropriate planning process and provides a comprehensive approach for achieving goals established in material requirements. It serves as a principal long-range document, charting the course of a major acquisition program over its life-cycle.

acquisition strategy report. This report describes the acquisition approach, including streamlining, sources, competition, and contract types. It covers the period from the beginning of Phase I, Demonstration and Validation, through the end of production.

acquisition streamlining. 1A common sense approach that results in more efficient and effective use of resources to develop or produce quality products. This includes ensuring that only necessary and cost-effective requirements are included, at the most appropriate time in the acquisition cycle, in requests for proposal and resulting contracts for the design, development, and delivery of new products, or for modifications to existing products. 2[DSMC] Any effort that results in more efficient and effective use of resources to design, develop, or produce quality systems. This includes ensuring that only necessary and cost-effective requirements are included, at the most appropriate time in the acquisition cycle, in solicitations and resulting contracts for the design, development, and production of new systems, or for modifications to existing systems that involve redesign of systems or subsystems.

acquisition team. The acquisition team represents all organizations involved in the acquisition process (materiel developer, combat developer, testers, independent evaluators, logistician, doctrinaire, trainer, user, transporters, intelligence/ security representatives, and industry interface where sanctioned by legal review). The acquisition team is established early in the acquisition program, during development of the mission needs statement, with functional representatives to assist the materiel developer in planning the acquisition strategy. The acquisition team continues to function throughout the acquisition process until fielding is completed.

act. [DSMC] A bill or measure after it passes one or both Houses of Congress. Also denotes a law in place.

act of mercy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, assistance rendered to evaders by an individual or elements of the local population who sympathize or empathize with the evaders' cause or plight. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations.

action. An action occurs in terminal learning objectives and learning objectives. It describes the specific behavior the learner is to exhibit after training.

action agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In intelligence usage, one who has access to, and performs actions against, the target.

action deferred. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Tactical action on a specific track is being withheld for better tactical advantage. Weapons are available and commitment is pending.

action information center. See air defense control center; combat information center.

action officer. [DSMC] The person responsible for taking action on a project, for coordination of all staff activities, and assembling the action package for decision by higher authority.

action verb. [TR 350-70] Verb that conveys action/behaviors and reflects the type of performance that is to occur (i.e., place, cut, drive, open, hold). Action verbs must reflect behaviors that are measurable, observable, verifiable, and reliable.

activate. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l To put into existence by official order a unit, post, camp, station, base or shore activity which has previously been constituted and designated by name or number, or both, so that it can be organized to function in its assigned capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l To prepare for active service a naval ship or craft which has been in an inactive or reserve status. See also commission; constitute.

activation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Order to active duty (other than for training) in the Federal service. See also active duty; Federal service.

activation detector. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device used to determine neutron flux or density by virtue of the radioactivity induced in it as a result of neutron capture.

active air defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Direct defensive action taken to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action. It includes such measures as the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, weapons not used primarily in an air defense role, and electronic warfare. See also air defense.

active aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Aircraft currently and actively engaged in supporting the flying missions either through direct assignment to operational units or in the preparation for such assignment or reassignment through any of the logistic processes of supply, maintenance, and modification.

active communications satellite. See communications satellite.

active defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy. See also passive defense.

active duty (AD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Full-time duty in the active military service of the United States. This includes members of the Reserve Components serving on active duty or full-time training duty, but does not include full-time National Guard duty. See also active duty for training; inactive duty training.

active duty for special work. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tour of active duty for Reserve personnel authorized from military and reserve personnel appropriations for work on Active or Reserve Component programs. This includes annual screening, training camp operations, training ship operations, and unit conversion to new weapon systems when such duties are essential. Active duty for special work may also be authorized to support study groups, training sites and exercises, short-term projects, and doing administrative or support functions. By policy, active duty for special work tours are normally limited to 139 days or less in one fiscal year. Tours exceeding 180 days are accountable against active duty end strength.

active duty for training. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tour of active duty which is used for training members of the Reserve Components to provide trained units and qualified persons to fill the needs of the Armed Forces in time of war or national emergency and such other times as the national security requires. The member is under orders which provide for return to nonactive status when the period of active duty for training is completed. It includes annual training, special tours of active duty for training, school tours, and the initial duty for training performed by non-prior service enlistees.

Active Guard and Reserve (AGR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) National Guard and Reserve members who are on voluntary active duty providing full-time support to National Guard, Reserve, and Active Component organizations for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the Reserve Components.

active homing guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system of homing guidance wherein both the source for illuminating the target and the receiver for detecting the energy reflected from the target as the result of the illumination are carried within the missile. See also guidance.

active material. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Material, such as plutonium and certain isotopes of uranium, which is capable of supporting a fission chain reaction.

active mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine to be actuated by the reflection from a target of a signal emitted by the mine.

active public affairs policy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Open dissemination of information to inform the news media and public about an issue or activity. An active approach is characterized by announcing the event or addressing the issue through news media advisories, news releases, personal contacts, news conferences, or other forms of public presentation. Such a policy encourages and supports news media coverage. See also public affairs.

active repair time. [DSMC] That portion of down time during which one or more technicians are working on the system to effect a repair. This time includes preparation time, fault location time, fault correction time, and final check-out time for the system.

active status. Status of all Reserves except those on an inactive status list or in the Retired Reserve. Reservists in an active status may train for points and/or pay and may be considered for promotion.

active sealift forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Military Sealift Command active common-user sealift and the afloat prepositioning force, including the required cargo handling and delivery systems, and necessary operating personnel. See also afloat prepositioning force; common-user sealift; Military Sealift Command.

active status. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Status of all Reserves except those on an inactive status list or in the Retired Reserve. Reservists in an active status may train for points and/or pay and may be considered for promotion.

active video. The portion of the screen where video can appear. This is the portion of horizontal and vertical video not blanked by horizontal and vertical blanking.

active video lines. All video lines not occurring in the horizontal and vertical blanking intervals.

activity. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A unit, organization, or installation performing a function or mission, e.g., reception center, redistribution center, naval station, naval shipyard.

l A function or mission, e.g., recruiting, schooling. See also establishment.

activity step. One simple operation or movement that comprises part of a job. A job performance standard consists of a list of these operations or movements.

actual cost. [DSMC] A cost sustained in fact, on the basis of costs incurred, as distinguished from forecasted or estimated costs.

actual cost of work performed (ACWP). [DSMC] The costs actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing the work performed within a given time period.

actual dollars. [DSMC] Expenditures as recorded in prior time periods.

actual equipment trainer. An actual system or subsystem component modified to allow for training of personnel.

actual ground zero. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The point on the surface of the Earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of an actual nuclear detonation. See also desired ground zero; ground zero.

actual time. [DSMC] Time taken by a workman to complete a task or an element of a task.

actuate. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) To operate a mine firing mechanism by an influence or a series of influences in such a way that all the requirements of the mechanism for firing, or for registering a target count, are met.

actuator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mechanism that furnishes the force required to displace a control surface or other control element.

acute radiation dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Total ionizing radiation dose received at one time and over a period so short that biological recovery cannot occur.

Ada. A DoD programming language detailed in ANSI/MIL-STD 1815A.

adaptive branching technique. Any of several techniques used in scheduling to accommodate individual differences. It may permit the student to bypass material they already know or may provide them with additional instruction as needed.

additional skill identifier (ASI) or officer skill identifier (SI). 1[TR 350-70] Identification of specialized skills that are closely related to, and are in addition to, those required by military occupational specialty or areas of concentration (officers). Specialized skills administrative systems and subsystems, computer programming, procedures, installation management, identified by the ASI or officer SI include operation and maintenance of specific weapons systems and equipment, analytic methods, animal handling techniques, and other required skills that are too restricted in scope to comprise military occupation specialty or AOC (see DA PAM 611-21). 2[DoD] The identification of specialized skills that are closely related to, and are in addition to, those required by military occupational specialties (MOS).

additional training. Refresher, optional, or advanced training given to a student that results in the student regaining or improving their knowledge/proficiency.

additional training assemblies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Inactive duty training periods authorized for selected individuals to participate in specialized training or in support of training. These are in addition to the training periods an individual attends as a part of unit training.

additive operation project (AOP). A project that consists of equipment requirements besides the initial issue allowances in modified table of organizational equipment (MTOE), table of distribution and allowance (TDA), and common table of allowance (CTA). It automatically increases the Army acquisition objective (AAO) by the quantities cited in the project. It is an authorization for major commands to acquire materiel for theaters or CONUS stockage for the purpose of supporting specific operations, contingencies, or war plans for specific geographical areas and worldwide base development.

addressee. [TP 25-71] The name of the organization or individual to whom a record is addressed.

adequacy. Operation plan review criterion. The determination whether the scope and concept of a planned operation are sufficient to accomplish the task assigned. See also acceptability; completeness; feasibility; suitability.

adjunct programming. A method of combining the features of good existing instructional materials (e.g., films, textbooks) with special directions or questions to guide the learner.

adjunctive material. [TR 350-70] Material that supports a program of instruction and must be used by soldiers to learn the tasks being taught in the program of instruction (i.e., adjunctive material for a lesson on map reading may include a map, compass, and protractor).

adjust. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An order to the observer or spotter to initiate an adjustment on a designated target.

adjust fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In artillery and naval gunfire support:

l An order or request to initiate an adjustment of fire.

l A method of control transmitted in the call for fire by the observer or spotter to indicate that he will control the adjustment.

adjustment. See adjustment of fire.

adjustment of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Process used in artillery and naval gunfire to obtain correct bearing, range, and height of burst (if time fuses are used) when engaging a target by observed fire. See also spot.

adminisphere. The rarefied organizational layers beginning just above the rank and file. Decisions that fall from the adminisphere are often profoundly inappropriate or irrelevant to the problems they were designed to solve.

administration. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The management and execution of all military matters not included in strategy and tactics.

l Internal management of units.

administrative airlift service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The airlift service normally provided by specifically identifiable aircraft assigned to organizations or commands for internal administration.

administrative chain of command. The normal chain of command for administration. See also chain of command; operational chain of command.

administrative comments. [CJCSI 6212.01A] Administrative comments to correct what appears to be a typographical or grammatical errors.

administrative contracting officer (ACO). [DSMC] The government contracting officer who is responsible for government contracts administration.

administrative control (ADCON). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations. See also combatant command (command authority); command; control; operational control; tactical control

administrative criteria. In media selection, the options that courseware be developed locally or at some central location.

administrative drop. [TR 350-70] The removal of a student from a formal training program for reasons other than failure to meet minimal academic standards.

administrative escort. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A warship or merchant ship under naval control, carrying a convoy commodore and his staff, serving as a platform for simultaneous communication with an operational control authority and a coastal convoy.

administrative landing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An unopposed landing involving debarkation from vehicles which have been administratively loaded. See also administrative loading;administrative movement; logistics-over-the-shore operations

administrative lead time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The interval between initiation of procurement action and letting of contract or placing of order. See also procurement lead time.

administrative loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A loading system which gives primary consideration to achieving maximum utilization of troop and cargo space without regard to tactical considerations. Equipment and supplies must be unloaded and sorted before they can be used. See also loading. Also called commercial loading.

administrative map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map on which is graphically recorded information pertaining to administrative matters, such as supply and evacuation installations, personnel installations, medical facilities, collecting points for stragglers and enemy prisoners of war, train bivouacs, service and maintenance areas, main supply roads, traffic circulation, boundaries, and other details necessary to show the administrative situation. See also map.

administrative march. See administrative movement.

administrative movement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A movement in which troops and vehicles are arranged to expedite their movement and conserve time and energy when no enemy interference, except by air, is anticipated. Also called administrative march.

administrative order. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An order covering traffic, supplies, maintenance, evacuation, personnel, and other administrative details.

administrative shipping. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Support shipping that is capable of transporting troops and cargo from origin to destination, but which cannot be loaded or unloaded without non-organic personnel and/or equipment; e.g., stevedores, piers, barges, boats. See also administrative loading; administrative movement.

administrative time. [DSMC] The portion of down time not included under active repair time and logistics time.

advance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A request from a spotter to indicate the desire that the illuminating projectile burst earlier in relation to the subsequent bursts of high explosive projectiles.

advance buy funding. [DSMC] That part of the procurement funding for an end item that is separately identified in an earlier year as an advance procurement.

advance force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A temporary organization within the amphibious task force which precedes the main body to the objective area. Its function is to participate in preparing the objective for the main assault by conducting such operations as reconnaissance, seizure of supporting positions, minesweeping, preliminary bombardment, underwater demolitions, and air support.

advance funding. [DSMC] Budget authority provided in an appropriation act that allows funds to be committed to a specific purpose (obligated) and spent during that fiscal year even though the appropriation actually is for the next fiscal year. Advance funding generally is used to avoid requests for supplemental appropriations for entitlement programs late in a fiscal year, when the appropriations for the current fiscal year are too low.

advance guard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Detachment sent ahead of the main force to ensure its uninterrupted advance; to protect the main body against surprise; to facilitate the advance by removing obstacles, and repairing roads and bridges; and to cover the deployment of the main body if it is committed to action.

advance guard reserve. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Second of the two main parts of an advance guard, the other being the advance guard support. It protects the main force and is itself protected by the advance guard support. Small advance guards do not have reserves.

advance guard support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) First of the two main parts of an advance guard, the other being the advance guard reserve. It is made up of three smaller elements, in order from front to rear, the advance guard point, the advance party, and the support proper. The advance guard support protects the advance guard reserve.

advance procurement. [DSMC] Authority provided in an appropriations act to obligate and disburse during a fiscal year from the succeeding year's appropriation. The funds are added to the budget authority for the fiscal year and deducted from the budget authority of the succeeding fiscal year. Used in major acquisition programs to obtain components whose long lead-time require purchase early in order to reduce the overall procurement lead-time of the major end item. Advance procurement of long lead components is an exception to the DoD full funding policy.

advance to contact. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An offensive operation designed to gain or reestablish contact with the enemy. See also approach march.

advanced base. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A base located in or near a theater of operations whose primary mission is to support military operations.

advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD). [DSMC] A means of demonstrating mature technology to address critical military needs. ACTDs themselves are not acquisition programs, although they are designed to provide a residual, usable capability upon completion. Funding is programmed to support 2 years in the field. ACTDs are funded with 6.3a (advanced technology development) funds.

Advanced Concepts and Requirements (ACR) Domain. [TR 5-11] One of the three domains for Army modeling and simulation applications. ACR includes experiments with new concepts and advanced technologies to develop requirements in doctrine, training, leader development, organizations, materiel and soldiers which will better prepare the Army for future operations. ACR evaluates the impact of horizontal technology integration through simulation and experimentation using real soldiers in real units. [TR 350-70] One of three Army M&S (models and simulations) (modeling and simulation) domains. ACR includes experiments with new concepts and advanced technologies to develop requirements in doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldiers (DTLOMS) which will better prepare the Army for future operations. ACR evaluates the impacts of horizontal technology integration (HTI) through M&S (models and simulations) and experimentation using real soldiers in real units under actual battlespace field conditions.

Advanced Development (Research and Development Budget Activity 6.3). [TP 71] Includes all efforts which have moved into the development and integration of hardware and other technology products for field experiments and tests. The results of this type of effort are proof of technological feasibility and assessment of operability and producibility that could lead to the development of hardware for service use. It also includes advanced technology demonstrations that help expedite technology transition from the laboratory to operational use. Projects in this category have a direct relevance to identified military needs. Advanced Development may include concept exploration as described in DoDD 5000.1, but is non-system specific (Milestone 0).

advanced fleet anchorage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A secure anchorage for a large number of naval ships, mobile support units and auxiliaries located in or near a theater of operations. See emergency anchorage.

advanced landing field. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airfield, usually having minimum facilities, in or near an objective area. See also airfield.

advanced operations base (AOB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In special operations, a small temporary base established near or within a joint special operations area to command, control, and/or support training or tactical operations. Facilities are normally austere. The base may be ashore or afloat. If ashore, it may include an airfield or unimproved airstrip, a pier, or an anchorage. An advanced operations base is normally controlled and/or supported by a main operations base or a forward operations base. See also forward operations base; main operations base.

advanced rotocraft technology integration (ARTI). A research effort to evaluate systems for new combat helicopters.

Advanced Simulations Program. [TR 5-11] An Army program intended to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of Army modeling and simulation development and use through the creation and sustainment of a common synthetic operating environment based on advanced simulation technology to support users in multiple domains. This program is a result of a critical review and re-focusing of the DIS Program.

Advanced Strategic Air-Launched Missile (ASALM). A Mach 4 air-breathing missile. Canceled in 1980.

advanced technology demonstration (ATD). [DSMC] Projects within the 6.3a (advanced technology development) program which are intended to demonstrate technical feasibility and maturity, and reduce technical risks and uncertainties at the relatively low costs of informal processes.

advanced technology development (ATD) (6.3a). [DSMC] A funding category including all projects which have moved into the development of hardware for demonstration, proof of technology, and/or technological trade-off purposes. Both ATDs and ACTDs are funded with 6.3a funds.

adverse weather. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Weather in which military operations are generally restricted or impeded. See also marginal weather.

adverse weather aerial delivery system (AWADS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The precise delivery of personnel, equipment, and supplies during adverse weather, using a self-contained aircraft instrumentation system without artificial ground assistance, or the use of ground navigational aids.

adverse weather shutdown. Removal of power from training hardware due to power fluctuations caused by adverse weather.

advisory area. A designated area within a flight information region where air traffic advisory service is available.

advocates. 1[DSMC] The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and services' overseer whose job is to encourage, monitor, enforce, and report progress in attaining certain disciplines and goals. Advocates include competition, streamlining, specifications, and other topical issues. 2[DSMC] Persons or organizations actively supporting and selling an acquisition program.

Aegis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A totally integrated shipboard weapon system that combines computers, radars, and missiles to provide a defense umbrella for surface shipping. The system is capable of automatically detecting, tracking, and destroying airborne, seaborne, and land- launched weapons.

aerial picket. [JP 1-02] (DoD) See air picket.

aerial port. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air movement of personnel and materiel, and to serve as an authorized port for entrance into or departure from the country in which located.

aerial port control center (APCC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The agency responsible for the management and control of all aerial port resources and for the receipt and dissemination of all airlift requirements received from the airlift coordination cell as the joint force commander's agent.

aerial port squadron. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Air Force organization which operates and provides the functions assigned to aerial ports, including processing personnel and cargo, rigging for airdrop, packing parachutes, loading equipment, preparing air cargo and load plans, loading and securing aircraft, ejecting cargo for inflight delivery, and supervising units engaged in aircraft loading and unloading operations.

aerodynamic missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A missile which uses aerodynamic forces to maintain its flight path, generally employing propulsion guidance. See also ballistic missile; guided missile.

aeromedical evacuation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation.

aeromedical evacuation coordination center (AECC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A coordination center, within the joint air operations center's airlift coordination cell, which monitors all activities related to aeromedical evacuation (AE) operations execution. It manages the medical aspects of the AE mission and serves as the net control station for AE communications. It coordinates medical requirements with airlift capability, assigns medical missions to the appropriate AE elements, and monitors patient movement activities. See also aeromedical evacuation; aeromedical evacuation system; aeromedical evacuation unit.

aeromedical evacuation control officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer of the air transport force or air command controlling the flow of patients by air.

aeromedical evacuation system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system which provides:

l Control of patient movement by air transpor.;

l Specialized medical attendants and equipment for inflight medical care.

l Facilities on or in the vicinity of air strips/ bases for the limited medical care of intransit patients entering, en route via, or leaving the system.

l Communication with originating, destination, and enroute medical facilities concerning patient transportation.

See also aeromedical evacuation.

aeromedical evacuation unit
. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operational medical organization concerned primarily with the management and control of patients being transported via an aeromedical evacuation system or system echelon. See also forward aeromedical evacuation.

aeronautical chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specialized representation of mapped features of the Earth, or some part of it, produced to show selected terrain, cultural and hydrographic features, and supplemental information required for air navigation, pilotage, or for planning air operations.

aeronautical information overprint. JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Additional information which is printed or stamped on a map or chart for the specific purpose of air navigation.

aeronautical plotting chart. JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chart designed for the graphical processes of navigation.

aerospace. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of, or pertaining to, Earth's envelope of atmosphere and the space above it; two separate entities considered as a single realm for activity in launching, guidance, and control of vehicles that will travel in both entities.

aerospace control operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of air forces, supported by ground and naval forces, as appropriate, to achieve military objectives in vital aerospace areas. Such operations include destruction of enemy aerospace and surface-to-air forces, interdiction of enemy aerospace operations, protection of vital air lines of communication, and the establishment of local military superiority in areas of air operations.

aerospace defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l All defensive measures designed to destroy or nullify attacking enemy aircraft and missiles and also negate hostile space systems.

l An inclusive term encompassing air defense, ballistic missile defense, and space defense.

See also air defense; space defense.

aerospace projection operations. See land, sea, or aerospace projection operations.

affective domain. A classification of educational objectives that focus on the development of attitudes, beliefs, and values.

affective learning. A domain of learning that is concerned with the acquisition of desired perceptions by the student; that is, the order and discipline required within the military. That part of student learning objectives that require the acquisition of perceptions in the students, promoting (e.g., self-confidence, responsibility, respect, dependability, and personal relations).

affiliates. Associated business concerns or individuals if, directly or indirectly, (a) either one controls or can control the other or (b) a third party controls or can control both.

affiliation with the Department of Defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Persons, groups of persons, or organizations are considered to be affiliated with the Department of Defense if they are:

l Employed by, or contracting with, the Department of Defense or any activity under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense, whether on a full-time, part-time, or consultative basis.

l Members of the Armed Forces on active duty, National Guard members, or those in a reserve or retired status.

l Residing on, authorized access to, or conducting or operating any business or other function at any DoD installation or facility.

l Authorized access to defense information.

l Participating in other authorized DoD programs.

l Applying or being considered for any status described above.

affordability. Function of cost, priority, and availability of fiscal and manpower resources. A determination that the life-cycle cost of an acquisition program is in consonance with the long-range investment and force structure plans of the DoD or individual DoD components.

afloat prepositioning force (APF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Shipping maintained in full operational status to afloat preposition military equipment and supplies in support of combatant commanders' operation plans. The afloat prepositioning force consists of the three maritime prepositioning ships squadrons and the afloat prepositioning ships. See also afloat prepositioning ships; maritime prepositioning ships.

afloat prepositioning operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Prepositioning of ships, preloaded with equipment and supplies (including ammunition and petroleum) that provides for an alternative to land based programs. This concept provides for ships and onboard force support equipment and supplies positioned near potential crisis areas that can be delivered rapidly to joint airlifted forces in the operational area. Afloat prepositioning in forward areas enhances a force's capability to respond to a crisis resulting in faster reaction time. See also operation.

afloat prepositioning ships (APS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Forward deployed merchant ships loaded with tactical equipment and supplies to support the initial deployment of military forces. See also merchant ship.

afloat support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A form of logistic support outside the confines of a harbor in which fuel, ammunition, and supplies are provided for operating forces either underway or at anchor. See also floating base support.

after-action review (AAR). [TR 350-70] A professional discussion of an event, focused on performance standards, that enables soldiers to discover for themselves what happened, why it happened, and how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses. It is a tool leaders, trainers, and units can use to get maximum benefit from every mission or task.

afterburning. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The characteristic of some rocket motors to burn irregularly for some time after the main burning and thrust has ceased.

l The process of fuel injection and combustion in the exhaust jet of a turbojet engine (aft or to the rear of the turbine).

afterwinds. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Wind currents set up in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion directed toward the burst center, resulting from the updraft accompanying the rise of the fireball.

age of moon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The elapsed time, usually expressed in days, since the last new moon.

agency. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In intelligence usage, an organization or individual engaged in collecting and/or processing information. Also called collection agency. See also agent; intelligence cycle; source.

agency acquisition executive. See DoD component acquisition executive.

agency head. See head of the agency.

agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In intelligence usage, one who is authorized or instructed to obtain or to assist in obtaining information for intelligence or counterintelligence purposes.

agent authentication. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The technical support task of providing an agent with personal documents, accouterments, and equipment which have the appearance of authenticity as to claimed origin and which support and are consistent with the agent's cover story.

agent net. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An organization for clandestine purposes which operates under the direction of a principal agent.

Aggregates. [DSMC] The totals relating to the whole budget rather than a particular function, program, or line item. The seven budget aggregates are budget authority, outlays, revenues, deficit/surplus, level of public debt, new direct loan obligations, and new guaranteed loan commitments.

aggressor forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Forces engaged in aggressive military action.

l In the context of training exercises, the enemy created to add realism in training maneuvers and exercises. This method replaces the less realistic system of fictional red and blue armies.

agility. The ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy.

agonic line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A line drawn on a map or chart joining points of zero magnetic declination for a specified year date. See also magnetic declination.

agreed point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A predetermined point on the ground, identifiable from the air, and used when aircraft assist in fire adjustment.

air. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that a burst or group of bursts occurred before impact.

air alert. See airborne alert; air defense warning conditions; alert; ground alert.

air apportionment. See apportionment (air).

air attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l coordinated. A combination of two or more types of air attack (dive, glide, low-level) in one strike, using one or more types of aircraft.

l deferred. A procedure in which attack groups rendezvous as a single unit. It is used when attack groups are launched from more than one station with their departure on the mission being delayed pending further orders.

l divided. A method of delivering a coordinated air attack which consists of holding the units in close tactical concentration up to a point, then splitting them to attack an objective from different directions.

air cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Stores, equipment or vehicles, which do not form part of the aircraft, and are either part or all of its payload. See also cargo.

Air Carrier Initiative Program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Mutual assistance program with signatory commercial air carriers to assist in illegal drug detection and detection of internal conspiracies.

air cartographic camera. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A camera having the accuracy and other characteristics essential for air survey or cartographic photography. Also called mapping camera.

air cartographic photography. The taking and processing of air photographs for mapping and charting.

air command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A major subdivision of the Air Force; for operational purposes, it normally consists of two or more air forces. See also command.

air control. See air controller; air traffic control center; airway; area control center; combat zone; control and reporting center; control area; controlled airspace; control zone; tactical air control center; tactical air controller; terminal control area.

air controller. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An individual especially trained for and assigned the duty of the control (by use of radio, radar, or other means) of such aircraft as may be allotted to him for operation within his/her area. See also air traffic controller; air weapons controller; tactical air controller.

air corridor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and established for the purpose of preventing friendly aircraft from being fired on by friendly forces.

air cushion vehicle (ACV). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A vehicle capable of being operated so that its weight, including its payload, is wholly or significantly supported on a continuously generated cushion or bubble of air at higher than ambient pressure. (Note: NATO uses the term ground effect machine.)

air data computer. See central air data computer.

air defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the Earth's envelope of atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. See also active air defense; aerospace defense; passive air defense.

air defense action area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area and the airspace above it within which friendly aircraft or surface-to-air weapons are normally given precedence in operations except under specified conditions. See also air defense operations area.

air defense area. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l overseas. A specifically defined airspace for which air defense must be planned and provided.

l United States. Airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate agency within which the ready control of airborne vehicles is required in the interest of national security during an air defense emergency.

air defense artillery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Weapons and equipment for actively combating air targets from the ground.

air defense battle zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A volume of airspace surrounding an air defense fire unit or defended area, extending to a specified altitude and range, in which the fire unit commander will engage and destroy targets not identified as friendly under criteria established by higher headquarters.

air defense control center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The principal information, communications, and operations center from which all aircraft, antiaircraft operations, air defense artillery, guided missiles, and air warning functions of a specific area of air defense responsibility are supervised and coordinated. Also called air defense operations area. See also combat information center.

air defense direction center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An installation having the capability of performing air surveillance, interception, control, and direction of allocated air defense weapons within an assigned sector of responsibility. It may also have an identification capability.

air defense division. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A geographic subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense sector.

air defense early warning. See early warning.

air defense emergency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An emergency condition, declared by the Commander in Chief, North American Air Defense Command, that exists when attack upon the continental United States, Alaska, Canada, or United States installations in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place.

air defense ground environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The network of ground radar sites and command and control centers within a specific theater of operations which are used for the tactical control of air defense operations.

air defense identification zone (ADIZ). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Airspace of defined dimensions within which the ready identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. See also air defense operations area.

air defense operations area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area and the airspace above it within which procedures are established to minimize mutual interference between air defense and other operations; it may include designation of one or more of the following: air defense action area, air defense area; air defense identification zone, and/or firepower umbrella. See also air defense action area; air defense identification zone; firepower umbrella; positive identification and radar advisory zone.

air defense operations center. See air defense control center.

air defense operations team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A team of United States Air Force ground environment personnel assigned to certain allied air defense control and warning units/elements.

air defense readiness. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operational status requiring air defense forces to maintain higher than ordinary preparedness for a short period of time.

air defense region. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A geographical subdivision of an air defense area.

air defense sector. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A geographical subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense division.

air defense suppression. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air operations, actions taken to degrade fixed and mobile surface-based components of enemy air defense systems so that offensive air forces may effectively attack a target.

Air Defense Tactical Air Command (ADTAC). When ADC ceased to exist, its role and aircraft became part of TAC. Later ADTAC was renamed 1st Air Force.

air defense warning conditions. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A degree of air raid probability according to the following code. The term air defense division/sector referred to herein may include forces and units afloat and/or deployed to forward areas, as applicable.

l air defense warning yellow - Attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is probable. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are en route toward an air defense division/sector, or unknown aircraft and/or missiles suspected to be hostile are en route toward or are within an air defense division/sector.

l air defense warning red - Attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is imminent or is in progress. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are within an air defense division/sector or are in the immediate vicinity of an air defense division/sector with high probability of entering the division/sector.

l air defense warning white - Attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is improbable. May be called either before or after air defense warning yellow or red. The initial declaration of air defense emergency will automatically establish a condition of air defense warning other than white for purposes of security control of air traffic.

air delivery. See airdrop; air landed; air movement; air supply.

air delivery container. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A sling, bag, or roll, usually of canvas or webbing, designed to hold supplies and equipment for air delivery.

air delivery equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Special items of equipment, such as parachutes, air delivery containers, platforms, tie downs, and related items, used in air delivery of personnel, supplies, and equipment.

air direct delivery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The strategic air movement of cargo or personnel from an airlift point of embarkation to a point as close as practicable to the user's specified final destination, thereby minimizing transshipment requirements. Air direct delivery eliminates the traditional Air Force two step strategic and theater airlift transshipment mission mix.

air division. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A unit or its headquarters, on a level of command above wing level, composed of two or more combat wings, but sometimes adapted to other organizational structures.

air employment/allocation plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD)The means by which subordinate commanders advise the joint force commander of planned employment/allocation of organic or assigned assets, of any expected excess sorties, or of any additional air support requirements.

air facility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An installation from which air operations may be or are being conducted. See also facility.

air fire plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan for integrating and coordinating tactical air support of ground forces with other fire support.

Air Force component headquarters. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The field headquarters facility of the Air Force commander charged with the overall conduct of Air Force operations. It is composed of the command section and appropriate staff elements.

Air Force special operations base (AFSOB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) That base, airstrip, or other appropriate facility that provides physical support to Air Force special operations forces. The facility may be used solely to support Air Force special operations forces or may be a portion of a larger base supporting other operations. As a supporting facility, it is distinct from the forces operating from or being supported by it.

Air Force special operations component (AFSOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Air Force component of a joint force special operations component. See also Army special operations component; Navy special operations component.

Air Force special operations detachment (AFSOD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A squadron-size headquarters, which could be a composite organization composed of different Air Force special operations assets. The detachment is normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component, joint special operations task force, or joint task force, depending upon size and duration of the operation.

Air Force special operations element (AFSOE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An element-size Air Force special operations headquarters. It is normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component or detachment, depending upon size and duration of the operation.

Air Force special operations forces (AFSOF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those active and reserve component Air Force forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations.

Air Force specialty (AFS). A grouping of positions that require common qualifications. An AFS is identified by a title and a code.

air ground operations system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An Army/Air Force system providing the ground commander with the means for receiving, processing and forwarding the requests of subordinate ground commanders for air support missions and for the rapid dissemination of information and intelligence.

air intercept control common. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tactical air-to-ground radio frequency, monitored by all air intercept control facilities within an area, which is used as a backup for other discrete tactical control frequencies.

air intercept zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subdivided part of the destruction area in which it is planned to destroy or defeat the enemy airborne threat with interceptor aircraft. See also destruction area.

air interception. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To effect visual or electronic contact by a friendly aircraft with another aircraft. Normally, the air intercept is conducted in the following five phases:

l climb phase - Airborne to cruising altitude.

l maneuver phase - Receipt of initial vector to target until beginning transition to attack speed and altitude.

l transition phase - Increase or decrease of speed and altitude required for the attack.

l attack phase - Turn to attack heading, acquire target, complete attack, and turn to breakaway heading.

l recovery Phase - Breakaway to landing.

See also broadcast-controlled air interception; close-controlled air interception.

air interdiction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Air operations conducted to destroy, neutralize, or delay the enemy's military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces at such distance from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required.

air landed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Moved by air and disembarked, or unloaded, after the aircraft has landed or while a helicopter is hovering. See also air movement.

air landed operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation involving air movement in which personnel and supplies are air landed at a designated site for further deployment of units and personnel and further distribution of supplies.

air liaison officer (ALO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer (aviator/pilot) attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air operation matters.

air logistic support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Support by air landing or airdrop, including air supply, movement of personnel, evacuation of casualties and enemy prisoners of war, and recovery of equipment and vehicles.

air logistic support operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air operation, excluding an airborne operation, conducted within a theater to distribute and recover personnel, equipment and supplies.

air mission. See mission.

air mission intelligence report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A detailed report of the results of an air mission, including a complete intelligence account of the mission.

Air Mobility Command (AMC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Air Force Component Command of the U.S. Transportation Command.

air mobility element (AME). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The air mobility element is an extension of the Air Mobility Command Tanker Airlift Control Center deployed to a theater when requested by the geographic combatant commander. It coordinates strategic airlift operations with the theater airlift management system and collocates with the air operations center whenever possible. See also air operations center; Tanker Airlift Control Center.

air movement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Air transport of units, personnel, supplies and equipment including airdrops and air landings. See also airdrop; air landed; free drop; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

air movement column. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In airborne operations, the lead formation and the serials following, proceeding over the same flight path at the same altitude.

air movement table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A table prepared by a ground force commander in coordination with an air force commander. This form, issued as an annex to the operation order:

l Indicates the allocation of aircraft space to elements of the ground units to be airlifted.

l Designates the number and type of aircraft in each serial.

l Specifies the departure area, time of loading, and takeoff.

air observation. See air observer.

air observation post. See observation post.

air observer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An individual whose primary mission is to observe or take photographs from an aircraft in order to adjust artillery fire or obtain military information.

air observer adjustment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The correcting of gunfire from an aircraft. See also spot.

air offensive. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Sustained operations by strategic and/or tactical air weapon systems against hostile air forces or surface targets.

air operations center (AOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The principal air operations installation from which aircraft and air warning functions of combat air operations are directed, controlled, and executed. It is the senior agency of the Air Force Component Commander from which command and control of air operations are coordinated with other components and services.

air photographic reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The obtaining of information by air photography, divided into three types:

l Strategic photographic reconnaissance.

l Tactical photographic reconnaissance.

l Survey/cartographic photography-air photography taken for survey/cartographic purposes and to survey/ cartographic standards of accuracy. It may be strategic or tactical.

air picket. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airborne early warning aircraft positioned primarily to detect, report, and track approaching enemy aircraft or missiles and to control intercepts. See also airborne early warning and control. Also called aerial picket.

air plot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A continuous plot used in air navigation of a graphic representation of true headings steered and air distances flown.

l A continuous plot of the position of an airborne object represented graphically to show true headings steered and air distances flown.

l Within ships, a display that shows the positions and movements of an airborne object relative to the plotting ship.

air portable. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Denotes materiel which is suitable for transport by an aircraft loaded internally or externally, with no more than minor dismantling and reassembling within the capabilities of user units. This term must be qualified to show the extent of air portability. See also load.

air position. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The calculated position of an aircraft assuming no wind effect.

air priorities committee. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A committee set up to determine the priorities of passengers and cargo. See also Air Transport Allocations Board.

air raid reporting control ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A ship to which the air defense ship has delegated the duties of controlling air warning radar and air raid reporting.

air reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The acquisition of intelligence information by employing visual observation and/or sensors in air vehicles.

air reconnaissance liaison officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Army officer especially trained in air reconnaissance and imagery interpretation matters who is attached to a tactical air reconnaissance unit. This officer assists and advises the air commander and staff on matters concerning ground operations and informs the supported ground commander on the status of air reconnaissance requests.

air request net. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A high frequency, single sideband, nonsecure net monitored by all tactical air control parties (TACPs) and the air support operations center (ASOC) that allows immediate requests to be transmitted from a TACP at any Army echelon directly to the ASOC for rapid response.

air route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The navigable airspace between two points, identified to the extent necessary for the application of flight rules.

air route traffic control center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The principal facility exercising en route control of aircraft operating under instrument flight rules within its area of jurisdiction. Approximately 26 such centers cover the United States and its possessions. Each has a communication capability to adjacent centers.

air smuggling event. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, the departure of a suspected drug smuggling aircraft, an airdrop of drugs, or the arrival of a suspected drug smuggling aircraft.

air sovereignty. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nation's inherent right to exercise absolute control and authority over the airspace above its territory. See also air sovereignty mission.

air sovereignty mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The integrated tasks of surveillance and control, the execution of which enforces a nation's authority over its territorial airspace. See also air sovereignty.

air space warning area. See danger area.

air spot. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The correcting adjustment of gunfire based on air observation.

air staging unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit situated at an airfield and concerned with reception, handling, servicing, and preparation for departure of aircraft and control of personnel and cargo.

Air Standards Coordinating Committee (ASCC). Responsible for the allocation of codenames to aircraft of the potential enemy.

air station. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In photogrammetry, the point in space occupied by the camera lens at the moment of exposure.

air strike. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An attack on specific objectives by fighter, bomber, or attack aircraft on an offensive mission. May consist of several air organizations under a single command in the air.

air strike coordinator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The air representative of the force commander in a target area, who is responsible for directing all aircraft in the target area and coordinating their efforts to achieve the most effective use of air striking power.

air strip. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An unimproved surface which has been adapted for takeoff or landing of aircraft, usually having minimum facilities. See also airfield.

air superiority. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force.

air supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The delivery of cargo by airdrop or air landing.

air support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All forms of support given by air forces on land or sea. See also call mission; close air support; immediate air support; indirect air support; preplanned air support; tactical air support.

air support operations center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An agency of a tactical air control system collocated with a corps headquarters or an appropriate land force headquarters, which coordinates and directs close air support and other tactical air support. See also tactical air control center.

air support radar team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system that provides ground controlled precision flight path guidance and weapons release. See also armstrong.

air support request (AIRSUPREQ). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A means to request preplanned and immediate close air support, air interdiction, air reconnaissance, surveillance, escort, helicopter airlift, and other aircraft missions.

air supremacy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That degree of air superiority wherein the opposing air force is incapable of effective interference.

air surface zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A restricted area established for the purpose of preventing friendly surface vessels and aircraft from being fired upon by friendly forces and for permitting antisubmarine operations, unrestricted by the operation of friendly submarines. See also restricted area.

air surveillance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The systematic observation of air space by electronic, visual or other means, primarily for the purpose of identifying and determining the movements of aircraft and missiles, friendly and enemy, in the air space under observation. See also satellite and missile surveillance, surveillance.

air surveillance officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An individual responsible for coordinating and maintaining an accurate, current picture of the air situation within an assigned airspace area.

air survey camera. See air cartographic camera.

air survey photography. See air cartographic photography.

air target chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A display of pertinent air target intelligence on a specialized graphic base. It is designed primarily to support operations against designated air targets by various weapon systems.

Air Target Materials Program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A DoD program under the management control of the Defense Mapping Agency established for and limited to the production of medium- and large-scale map, chart, and geodetic products which support worldwide targeting requirements of the unified and specified commands, the military departments, and allied participants. It encompasses the determination of production and coverage requirements, standardization of products, establishment of production priorities and schedules, and the production, distribution, storage, and release/ exchange of products included under it.

air target mosaic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A large-scale mosaic providing photographic coverage of an area and permitting comprehensive portrayal of pertinent targets detail. These mosaics are used for intelligence study and in planning and briefing for air operations.

air terminal. A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transportation hub and accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the in-transit processing of traffic. The airfield may or may not be designated an aerial port.

air tasking order (ATO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method used to task and disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected sorties/capabilities/forces to targets and specific missions. Normally provides specific instructions to include call signs, targets, controlling agencies, etc., as well as general instructions.

air tasking order/confirmation (ATOCONF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A message used to task joint force components; to inform the requesting command and the tasking authority of the action being taken; and/or to provide additional information about the mission. The message is used only for preplanned missions and is transmitted on a daily basis, normally 12 hours prior to the start of the air tasking day or in accordance with established operation plans for the theater of operations.

air terminal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transportation hub and accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the intransit processing of traffic. The airfield may or may not be designated an aerial port.

air traffic control and landing systems (ATCALS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Department of Defense facilities, personnel, and equipment (fixed, mobile, and seaborne) with associated avionics to provide safe, orderly, and expeditious aerospace vehicle movements world-wide.

air traffic control center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit combining the functions of an area control center and a flight information center. See also area control center, flight information region.

air traffic control clearance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Authorization by an air-traffic control authority for an aircraft to proceed under specified conditions.

air traffic control facility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any of the component air-space control facilities primarily responsible for providing air traffic control services and, as required, limited tactical control services.

air traffic control service. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A service provided for the purpose of:

l Preventing collisions between aircraft and on the maneuvering area between aircraft and obstructions.

l Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

air traffic controller. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air controller especially trained for and assigned to the duty of airspace management and traffic control of airborne objects. See also air controller.

air traffic identification. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The use of electronic devices, operational procedures, visual observation, and/or flight plan correlation for the purpose of identifying and locating aircraft flying within the airspace control area.

air traffic section. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The link between the staging post and the local air priority committee. It is the key to the efficient handling of passengers and cargo at a staging post. It must include load control (including Customs and Immigrations facilities), freight, and mail sections.

Air Transport Allocations Board. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The joint agency responsible within the theater for the establishment of airlift priorities and for space allocation of available aircraft capabilities allotted to the theater. See also air priorities committee.

air transport group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task organization of transport aircraft units that provides air transport for landing force elements or provides logistic support.

air transport liaison officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An officer attached for air transport liaison duties to a headquarters or unit. See also ground liaison officer.

air transport liaison section. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sub-unit of the movement control organization deployed to airfields and responsible for the control of service movement at the airfield in connection with air movement operations and exercises.

air transport operations. See strategic air transport operations; tactical air transport operations.

air transportable unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit other than airborne, whose equipment is adapted for air movement. See also airborne; airborne operation.

air transported operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The movement by aircraft of troops and their equipment for an operation.

air weapons controller. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual especially trained for and assigned to the duty of employing and controlling air weapon systems against airborne and surface objects.

air-breathing missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A missile with an engine requiring the intake of air for combustion of its fuel, as in a ramjet or turbojet. To be contrasted with the rocket missile, which carries its own oxidizer and can operate beyond the atmosphere.

air-capable ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All ships other than aircraft carriers; aircraft carriers, nuclear; amphibious assault ships, landing platform helicopter; general purpose amphibious assault ships; or general purpose amphibious assault ships (with internal dock) from which aircraft can take off, be recovered, or routinely receive and transfer logistic support. See also aviation ship.

air-launched ballistic missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ballistic missile launched from an airborne vehicle.

Air-Surface Technology Evaluation and Integration (ASTEI) Program. The goal of this pro gram was to reduce radar cross-sections of equipment - the so-called Stealth technology.

air-to-air guided missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air-launched guided missile for use against air targets. See also guided missile.

air-to-surface guided missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air-launched guided missile for use against surface targets. See also guided missile.

air/naval gunfire liaison company (ANGLICO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An organization composed of Marine and Navy personnel specially qualified for shore control of naval gunfire and close air support.

airborne. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In relation to personnel, troops especially trained to effect, following transport by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchdown.

l In relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation. It also designates some aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission.

l When applied to materiel, items that form an integral part of the aircraft.

l The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained. A lighter-than-air aircraft is not considered to be airborne when it is attached to the ground, except that moored balloons are airborne whenever sent aloft.

See also air transportable unit.

airborne alert. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A state of aircraft readiness wherein combat-equipped aircraft are airborne and ready for immediate action. It is designed to reduce reaction time and to increase the survivability factor. See also combat air patrol; ground alert; fighter cover.

airborne assault. See assault phase.

airborne assault weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An unarmored, mobile, full-tracked gun providing a mobile antitank capability for airborne troops. Can be airdropped.

Airborne Battlefield Command And Control Center (ABCCC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A United States Air Force aircraft equipped with communications, data link, and display equipment; it may be employed as an airborne command post or a communications and intelligence relay facility.

airborne command post. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A suitably equipped aircraft used by the commander for the control of his or her forces.

airborne early warning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units.

airborne early warning and control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Air surveillance and control provided by airborne early warning aircraft which are equipped with search and height-finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems. See also air picket.

Airborne Early Warning/Ground Environment Integration System (AEGIS). Advanced anti-missile and antiaircraft system fitted to a number of USN ships. A totally integrated shipboard weapon system that combines computers, radars, and missiles to provide a defense umbrella for surface shipping. The system is capable of automatically detecting, tracking, and destroying airborne, sea-borne, and land-launched weapons.

airborne force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A force composed primarily of ground and air units organized, equipped, and trained for airborne operations. See also force.

airborne interception equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A fire control system, including radar equipment, installed in interceptor aircraft used to effect air interception.

airborne lift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The total capacities expressed in terms of personnel and cargo that are, or can be, carried by available aircraft in one trip.

airborne mission commander (AMC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The commander serves as an airborne extension of the executing component's rescue coordination center (RCC) and coordinates the combat search and rescue (CSAR) effort between the combat search and rescue task force (CSARTF) and the RCC (or joint search and rescue center) by monitoring the status of all CSARTF elements, requesting additional assets when needed, and ensuring the recovery and supporting forces arrive at their designated areas to accomplish the CSAR mission. The airborne mission commander (AMC) may be designated by the component RCC or higher authority. The AMC appoints, as necessary, an on-scene commander. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescue task force; rescue coordination center.

airborne operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation involving the air movement into an objective area of combat forces and their logistic support for execution of a tactical or a strategic mission. The means employed may be any combination of airborne units, air transportable units, and types of transport aircraft, depending on the mission and the overall situation. See also assault; assault phase.

airborne order. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command and authorization for flight when a predetermined time greater than five minutes is established for aircraft to become airborne.

airborne radio relay. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Airborne equipment used to relay radio transmission from selected originating transmitters.

airborne sensor operator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual trained to operate sensor equipment aboard aircraft and to perform limited interpretations of collected information produced in flight.

Airborne Tactical Data System (ATDS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An airborne early warning system capable of integration into the tactical data system environment. It provides an automated, operator-controlled capability for collecting, displaying, evaluating, and disseminating tactical information via tactical digital information links. It is part of the Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS). See also tactical digital information link.

airborne troops. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those ground units whose primary mission is to make assault landings from the air. See also troops.

airburst. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An explosion of a bomb or projectile above the surface as distinguished from an explosion on contact with the surface or after penetration. See also air; types of burst.

aircraft. See active aircraft; inactive aircraft inventory; nonprogram aircraft; program aircraft; supporting aircraft; unit aircraft.

aircraft arresting barrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device, not dependent on an aircraft hook, used to engage and absorb the forward momentum of an emergency landing or an aborted take-off. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting cable. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That part of an aircraft arresting gear which spans the runway surface or flight deck landing area and is engaged by the aircraft arresting system. Also called aircraft arresting wire.

aircraft arresting gear. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device used to engage hook-equipped aircraft to absorb the forward momentum of a routine or emergency landing or aborted takeoff. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting hook. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device fitted to an aircraft to engage arresting gear. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A series of components used to engage an aircraft and absorb the forward momentum of a routine or emergency landing or an aborted takeoff. See also aircraft arresting barrier; aircraft arresting gear; aircraft arresting hook.

aircraft arresting wire. See aircraft arresting cable. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arrestment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Controlled stopping of an aircraft by external means.

aircraft block speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD) True airspeed in knots under zero wind conditions adjusted in relation to length of sortie to compensate for takeoff, climbout, letdown, instrument approach, and landing.

aircraft captain. See aircraft commander.

aircraft commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The aircrew member designated by competent authority as being in command of an aircraft and responsible for its safe operation and accomplishment of the assigned mission.

aircraft control and warning system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system established to control and report the movement of aircraft. It consists of observation facilities (radar, passive electronic, visual, or other means), control center, and necessary communications.

aircraft cross-servicing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Services performed on an aircraft by an organization other than that to which the aircraft is assigned, according to an established operational aircraft cross-servicing requirement, and for which there may be a charge. Aircraft cross-servicing has been divided into two categories:

l Stage A - cross servicing is the servicing of aircraft on airfields/ships which enables flights to be made to another airfield/ship. The servicing includes refueling, replenishment of fluids and gases, drag chutes (if applicable), starting facilities, and ground handling.

l Stage B - cross-servicing is the servicing of aircraft on airfields/ships which enables the aircraft to be flown on an operational mission. The servicing includes all Stage A services plus the loading of weapons and/or film, including the processing and interpretation of any exposed film from the previous mission.

See also aircraft transient servicing.

aircraft loading table. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A data sheet used by the force unit commander containing information as to the load that actually goes into each aircraft.

aircraft maintenance facility (AMF). GRCS airfield support equipment.

aircraft mission equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Equipment that must be fitted to an aircraft to enable it to fulfill a particular mission or task. Also called aircraft role equipment.

aircraft modification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A change in the physical characteristics of aircraft, accomplished either by a change in production specifications or by alteration of items already produced.

aircraft monitoring and control. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That equipment installed in aircraft to permit monitoring and control of safing, arming, and fusing functions of nuclear weapons or nuclear weapon systems.

aircraft piracy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any seizure or exercise of control, by force or violence or threat of force or violence or by any other form of intimidation and with wrongful intent, of an aircraft within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States.

aircraft repair. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of restoring aircraft or aircraft material to a serviceable condition.

aircraft role equipment. See aircraft mission equipment.

aircraft scrambling. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Directing the immediate takeoff of aircraft from a ground alert condition of readiness.

aircraft store. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any device intended for internal or external carriage and mounted on aircraft suspension and release equipment, whether or not the item is intended to be separated in flight from the aircraft. Aircraft stores are classified in two categories as follows:

l expendable store. An aircraft store normally separated from the aircraft in flight such as a missile, rocket, bomb, nuclear weapon, mine, torpedo, pyrotechnic device, sonobuoy, signal underwater sound device, or other similar items.

l nonexpendable store. An aircraft store which is not normally separated from the aircraft in flight such as a tank (fuel and spray), line-source disseminator, pod (refueling, thrust augmentation, gun, electronic attack, data link, etc.), multiple rack, target, cargo drop container, drone or other similar items.

See also payload.

aircraft tiedown. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Securing aircraft when parked in the open to restrain movement due to the weather or condition of the parking area.

aircraft transient servicing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Services performed on an aircraft by an organization other than that to which the aircraft is assigned and for which there may be a financial charge. This activity is separate from the established aircraft cross-servicing program and requires that the transient aircrew supervise the correct application of ground crew procedures. See also aircraft cross-servicing.

aircraft utilization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Average numbers of hours during each 24-hour period that an aircraft is actually in flight.

aircraft vectoring. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The directional control of inflight aircraft through transmission of azimuth headings.

aircrew. Student or pilot, navigator, electronic warfare officer, weapons director, or any other member of an aircraft crew.

aircrew simulator. Usually an electromechanical device which imitates the flying environment for aircrew training.

airdrop. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The unloading of personnel or materiel from aircraft in flight. See also airdrop platform; air movement; free drop; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

airdrop platform. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A base on which vehicles, cargo, or equipment are loaded for airdrop or low-altitude extraction. See also airdrop.

airfield. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area prepared for the accommodation (including any buildings, installations, and equipment), landing and takeoff of aircraft. See also advanced landing field; alternative airfield; departure airfield; landing area; landing point; landing site; landing zone; main airfield; redeployment airfield; regroup airfield. Note: In all entries involving airfield or aerodrome, the US uses airfield, and NATO uses aerodrome. The terms are synonymous.)

airfield traffic. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All traffic on the maneuvering area of an airfield and all aircraft flying in the vicinity of an airfield.

airframe. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The structural components of an airplane, including the framework and skin of such parts as the fuselage, empennage, wings, landing gear (minus tires), and engine mounts.

l The framework, envelope, and cabin of an airship.

l The assembled principal structural components, less propulsion system, control, electronic equipment, and payload, of a missile.

airhead. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A designated area in a hostile or threatened territory which, when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and materiel and provides the maneuver space necessary for projected operations. Normally it is the area seized in the assault phase of an airborne operation.

l A designated location in an area of operations used as a base for supply and evacuation by air.

See also beachhead; bridgehead.

airlift capability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The total capacity expressed in terms of number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo that can be carried at any one time to a given destination by available airlift. See also airlift requirement; allowable load; payload.

airlift control center (ALCC). An operations center where the detailed planning, coordinating, and tasking for tactical airlift operations are accomplished. This is the focal point for communications and the source of control and direction for the tactical airlift forces.

airlift coordination cell (ALCC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A cell within the air operations center which plans, coordinates, manages, and executes theater airlift operations in the area of responsibility or joint operations area. Normally consists of an airlift plans branch, an airlift operations branch, and an airlift support branch. See also air operations center; area of responsibility; joint operations area.

airlift mission commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A commander designated when airlift aircraft are participating in airlift operations specified in the implementing directive. The airlift mission commander is usually designated by the commander of the deployed airlift unit, but may be selected by the Air Force component commander or joint force air component commander depending on the nature of the mission. See also joint force air component commander.

airlift requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total number of passengers and/ or weight/cubic displacement of cargo required to be carried by air for a specific task. See also airlift capability.

airlift service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The performance or procurement of air transportation and services incident thereto required for the movement of persons, cargo, mail, or other goods.

airmiss. See near miss.

airmobile forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ground combat, supporting, and air vehicle units required to conduct an airmobile operation.

airmobile operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation in which combat forces and their equipment move about the battlefield by aircraft to engage in ground combat.

airmobility. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A capability of airmobile forces which permits them to move by air while retaining the ability to engage in ground combat.

airport. See airfield.

airport surface detection equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Short-range radar displaying the airport surface. Aircraft and vehicular traffic operating on runways, taxiways, and ramps, moving or stationary, may be observed with a high degree of resolution.

airport surveillance radar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radar displaying range and azimuth that is normally employed in a terminal area as an aid to approach- and departure-control.

airport traffic area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Unless otherwise specifically designated, that airspace within a horizontal radius of five statute miles from the geographic center of any airport at which a control tower is operating, extending from the surface up to, but not including, an altitude of 3,000 feet above the elevation of the airport.

airspace control. See airspace control in the combat zone.

airspace control area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Airspace which is laterally defined by the boundaries of the area of operations. The airspace control area may be subdivided into airspace control sub-areas.

airspace control authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The commander designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area.

airspace control boundary. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The lateral limits of an airspace control area, airspace control sub-area, high density airspace control zone, or airspace restricted area.

airspace control center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The airspace control authority's primary airspace control facility, including assigned service component, host nation, and/or allied personnel and equipment.

airspace control facility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any of the several service component, host nation, or allied facilities that provide airspace control in the combat zone.

airspace control in the combat zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A process used to increase combat effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. Airspace control is provided in order to prevent fratricide, enhance air defense operations, and permit greater flexibility of operations. Airspace control does not infringe on the authority vested in commanders to approve, disapprove, or deny combat operations. Also called combat airspace control; airspace control.

airspace control order (ACO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace control measures. It is published either as part of the air tasking order or as a separate document.

airspace control plan (ACP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The document approved by the joint force commander that provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint force area of responsibility/joint operations area. See also airspace control system; area of responsibility; joint force commander; joint operations area.

airspace control sector. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subelement of the airspace control area, established to facilitate the control of the overall area. Airspace control sector boundaries normally coincide with air defense organization subdivision boundaries. Airspace control sectors are designated in accordance with procedures and guidance contained in the airspace control plan in consideration of service component, host nation, and allied airspace control capabilities and requirements. See also airspace control area.

airspace control system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An arrangement of those organizations, personnel, policies, procedures, and facilities required to perform airspace control functions.

airspace coordination area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A three-dimensional block of airspace in a target area, established by the appropriate ground commander, in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. The airspace coordination area may be formal or informal.

airspace management. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of airspace of defined dimensions.

airspace reservation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The airspace located above an area on the surface of the land or water, designated and set apart by Presidential Executive Order or by a state, commonwealth, or territory, over which the flight of aircraft is prohibited or restricted for the purpose of national defense or for other governmental purposes.

airspace restrictions. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Special restrictive measures applied to segments of airspace of defined dimensions.

airspeed. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The speed of an aircraft relative to its surrounding air mass. The unqualified term airspeed can mean any one of the following:

l calibrated airspeed - Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument installation error.

l equivalent airspeed - Calibrated airspeed corrected for compressibility error.

l indicated airspeed - The airspeed shown by an airspeed indicator.

l true airspeed - Equivalent airspeed corrected for error due to air density (altitude and temperature).

airspeed indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays the indicated airspeed of the aircraft derived from inputs of pilot and static pressures.

airway. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor marked with radio navigational aids. See also air control.

airways station. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ground communication installation established, manned, and equipped to communicate with aircraft in flight, as well as with other designated airways installations, for the purpose of expeditious and safe movements of aircraft. These stations may or may not be located on designated airways.

alert. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Readiness for action, defense or protection.

l A warning signal of a real or threatened danger, such as an air attack.

l The period of time during which troops stand by in response to an alarm.

l To forewarn; to prepare for action.

See also airborne alert.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A warning received by a unit or a headquarters which forewarns of an impending operational mission. See also air defense warning conditions; ground alert; warning order.

alert force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Specified forces maintained in a special degree of readiness.

alert order. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A crisis-action planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that provides essential guidance for planning and directs the initiation of execution planning for the selected course of action authorized by the Secretary of Defense.

l A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of execution planning after the directing authority approves a military course of action. An alert order does not authorize execution of the approved course of action.

See also course of action; crisis action planning; execution planning.

alerting service. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required.

algorithm. A rule or procedure for accomplishing a task or solving a problem.

all available. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command or request to obtain the fire of all artillery able to deliver effective fire on a given target.

all out war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See general war.

all-purpose hand-held weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A lightweight, hand-held, small arms weapon capable of projecting munitions required to engage both area- and point-type targets.

all-source intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Intelligence products and/or organizations and activities that incorporate all sources of information, including, most frequently, human resources intelligence, imagery intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, and open source data, in the production of finished intelligence.

l In intelligence collection, a phrase that indicates that in the satisfaction of intelligence requirements, all collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting systems and resources are identified for possible use and those most capable are tasked.

See also intelligence.

all-weather air defense fighter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A fighter aircraft with equipment and weapons which enable it to engage airborne targets in all weather conditions, day and night.

alliance. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) An alliance is the result of formal agreements (i.e., treaties) between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives which further the common interests of the members. See also coalition; multination. 2[TP 525-5] Alliances are technically combined organizations.

allocable cost. [DSMC] A cost is allocable to a government contract if it:

l Is incurred specifically for the contract.

l Benefits both the contract and other work, and can be distributed to them in reasonable proportion to the benefits received

l Is necessary to the overall operation of the business, although a direct relationship to any particular cost objective cannot be shown.

allocated baseline. [DSMC] The initially approved documentation describing a configuration item's (CI) functional and interface characteristics that are allocated from those of a higher level CI; interface requirements with other CIs; design restraints; and verification required to demonstrate the achievement of specified functional and interface characteristics. Allocated baseline consists of the development specifications that define functional requirements for each CI. (See development specification.)

allocated budget. [DSMC] See total allocated budget.

allocated configuration identification (ACI). [DSMC] Currently approved performance-oriented specifications governing the development of configuration items (CIs) that are a part of a higher level CI, in which each specification: defines the functional characteristics that are allocated from those of the higher level CI; establishes the tests required to demonstrate achievement of its allocated functional characteristics; delineates necessary interface requirements with other CIs; and establishes design constraints, if any, such as component/part standardization, use of inventory items, and logistic support (LS) requirements.

allocation. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) In a general sense, distribution of limited resources among competing requirements for employment. Specific allocations (e.g., air sorties, nuclear weapons, forces, and transportation) are described as allocation of air sorties, nuclear weapons, etc. See also allocation (air); allocation (nuclear); allocation (transportation); apportionment. 2[DSMC] An authorization, by a DoD component designated official, making funds available within a prescribed amount to an operating agency for the purpose of making allotments (i.e., the first subdivision of an apportionment).

allocation (air). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The translation of the apportionment into total numbers of sorties by aircraft type available for each operation/task. See also allocation.

allocation (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The apportionment of specific numbers and types of nuclear weapons to a commander for a stated time period as a planning factor for use in the development of war plans. (Additional authority is required for the actual deployment of allocated weapons to locations desired by the commander to support the war plans. Expenditures of these weapons are not authorized until released by proper authority.)

allocation (transportation). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Apportionment by designated authority of available transport capability to users.

allocation request (ALLOREQ). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A message used to provide an estimate of the total air effort, to identify any excess and joint force general support aircraft sorties, and to identify unfilled air requirements. This message is used only for preplanned missions and is transmitted on a daily basis, normally 24 hours prior to the start of the next air tasking day.

allotment. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The temporary change of assignment of tactical air forces between subordinate commands. The authority to allot is vested in the commander having combatant command (command authority). See also combatant command (command authority). 2[DSMC] An authorization by either the agency head or another authorized employee to incur obligations within a specific amount. Each agency makes allotments pursuant to specific procedures it establishes within the general requirements of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-34. The amount allotted cannot exceed the amount apportioned. See apportionment.

allowable cabin load (ACL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum payload which can be carried on an individual sortie.

allowable load. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total load that an aircraft can transport over a given distance, taking into account weight and volume. See also airlift capability; airlift requirement; load; payload.

allowable stacking weight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The amount of weight that can be stacked on corner posts of a container when subjected to 1.8 times the force of gravity.

allowance. [DSMC] A time increment included in the standard time for an operation to compensate the worker for production lost due to fatigue and normally expected interruptions, such as personal and unavoidable delays.

alpha-geometric. A videotext graphics format where shapes are defined by geometric elements such as points and lines.

alpha-mosaic graphics. A videotext graphics format where pictures are composed of small character-size blocks resulting in low resolution graphics.

alpha-photographic. A videotext graphics format where images appear similar to still photos and each point on the screen is separately addressable.

alphabet code. See phonetic alphabet.

alphanumeric. Refers to a combination of letters and numbers; for example, on a computer keyboard.

alternate airfield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airfield specified in the flight plan to which a flight may proceed when it is inadvisable to land at the intended airfield of landing. An alternate airfield may be the airfield of departure.

alternate character set. A set of user-defined characters that can be loaded in place of the standard characters provided.

alternate command authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One or more predesignated officers empowered by the commander through predelegation of authority to act under stipulated emergency conditions in the accomplishment of previously defined functions.

alternate command post. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any location designated by a commander to assume command post functions in the event the command post becomes inoperative. It may be partially or fully equipped and manned or it may be the command post of a subordinate unit.

alternate headquarters. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An existing headquarters of a component or subordinate command which is predesignated to assume the responsibilities and functions of another headquarters under prescribed emergency conditions.

alternate path. 1Refers to elements which have relationships in which the specific situation encountered determines the appropriate sequence. 2Another way of meeting the same objective.

alternative airfield. An airfield with minimal essential facilities for use as an emergency landing ground, or when main or redeployment airfields are out of action, or as required for tactical flexibility. See also airfield.

alternative systems review (ASR). [DSMC] A design review typically conducted toward the end of the Concept Exploration Phase that demonstrates the preferred concept is cost effective, affordable, operationally effective and suitable, and can be developed to provide a timely solution to a need at an acceptable level of risk.

altimeter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which measures vertical distance with respect to a reference level.

altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level. See also absolute altitude; critical altitude; density altitude; drop altitude; elevation; height; high altitude; minimum safe altitude; transition altitude; true altitude.

altitude acclimatization. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A slow physiological adaptation resulting from prolonged exposure to significantly reduced atmospheric pressure.

altitude chamber. See hyperbaric chamber.

altitude datum. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The arbitrary level from which vertical displacement is measured. The datum for height measurement is the terrain directly below the aircraft or some specified datum; for pressure altitude, the level at which the atmospheric pressure is 29.92 inches of mercury (1013.2; and for true altitude, mean sea level. See also altitude.

altitude delay. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Synchronization delay introduced between the time of transmission of the radar pulse and the start of the trace on the indicator, for the purpose of eliminating the altitude hole on the plan position indicator-type display.

altitude height. See altitude datum.

altitude hold. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In a flight control system, a control mode in which the barometric altitude existing at time of engagement is maintained automatically.

altitude hole. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The blank area at the origin of a radial display, on a radar tube presentation, the center of the periphery of which represents the point on the ground immediately below the aircraft. In side-looking airborne radar, this is known as the altitude slot.

altitude separation. See vertical separation.

altitude sickness. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The syndrome of depression, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and collapse, due to decreased atmospheric pressure, occurring in an individual exposed to an altitude beyond that to which acclimatization has occurred.

altitude slot. See altitude hole.

altitude tint. See hypsometric tinting.

ambient temperature. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Outside temperature at any given altitude, preferably expressed in degrees centigrade.

ambulance exchange point (AXP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A location where a patient is transferred from one ambulance to another en route to a medical treatment facility. This may be an established point in an ambulance shuttle or it may be designated independently. See also medical treatment facility.

ambulatory patient. See walking patient.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The United States standards organization that establishes procedures for the development and coordination of voluntary American National Standards.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). [TP 25-71] ASCII is a standard code for representing characters as binary numbers, used on most microcomputers, computer terminals, and printers. In addition to printable characters, the ASCII code includes control characters to indicate carriage return, backspace, etc.

ammo (plus, minus, zero). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning I have amount of ammunition indicated left (type may be specified. For example:

l ammo plus - I have more than half my ammunition left;

l ammo minus - I have less than half my ammunition left;

l ammo zero - I have no ammunition left.

ammunition. See munition.

ammunition and toxic material open space. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area especially prepared for storage of explosive ammunition and toxic material. For reporting purposes, it does not include the surrounding area restricted for storage because of safety distance factors. It includes barricades and improvised coverings. See also storage.

ammunition controlled supply rate. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In Army usage, the amount of ammunition estimated to be available to sustain operations of a designated force for a specified time if expenditures are controlled at that rate. It is expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired by weapons, and in terms of units of measure per organization per day for bulk allotment ammunition items. Tactical commanders use this rate to control expenditures of ammunition during tactical operations at planned intervals. It is issued through command channels at each level. It is determined based on consideration of the required supply rates submitted by subordinate commanders and ammunition assets available.

ammunition lot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A quantity of homogeneous ammunition, identified by a unique lot number, which is manufactured, assembled, or renovated by one producer under uniform conditions and which is expected to function in a uniform manner.

ammunition supply point. See distribution point.

amphibian. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A small craft, propelled by propellers and wheels or by air cushions for the purpose of moving on both land and water.

amphibious assault. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The principal type of amphibious operation that involves establishing a force on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also assault; assault phase.

amphibious assault area. See landing area.

amphibious assault bulk fuel system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The petroleum, oils, and lubricants discharge system used to support US Marine Corps amphibious assaults and maritime prepositioning force operations. It consists of 5,000 or 10,000 feet of buoyant 6-inch hose deployed from a landing ship, tank in amphibious assaults or a maritime prepositioning ship in maritime prepositioning force operations. See also amphibious assault; petroleum, oils, and lubricants.

amphibious assault landing. See amphibious operation, Part 5.

amphibious assault ship (general purpose). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A naval ship designed to embark, deploy, and land elements of a landing force in an assault by helicopters, landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and by combinations of these methods. Designated LHA.

amphibious aviation assault ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An amphibious assault ship, landing platform helicopter; general purpose amphibious assault ship; or general purpose amphibious assault ship (with internal dock).

amphibious chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A special naval chart designed to meet special requirements for landing operations and passive coastal defense, at a scale of 1:25,000 or larger, and showing foreshore and coastal information in greater detail than a combat chart.

amphibious command ship (LCC). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A naval ship from which a commander exercises control in amphibious operations.

amphibious construction battalion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A permanently commissioned naval unit, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, designed to provide an administrative unit from which personnel and equipment are formed in tactical elements and made available to appropriate commanders to operate pontoon causeways, transfer barges, warping tugs, and assault bulk fuel systems, and to meet salvage requirements of the naval beach party.

amphibious control group. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne ship-to-shore movement in an amphibious operation.

amphibious demonstration. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of amphibious operation conducted for the purpose of deceiving the enemy by a show of force with the expectation of deluding the enemy into a course of action unfavorable to him.

amphibious force. {JP 1-02} (DoD, NATO)

l A naval force and landing force, together with supporting forces that are trained, organized and equipped for amphibious operations.

l In naval usage, the administrative title of the amphibious type command of a fleet.

amphibious group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command within the amphibious force, consisting of the commander and staff, designed to exercise operational control of assigned units in executing all phases of a division-size amphibious operation.

amphibious lift. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total capacity of assault shipping utilized in an amphibious operation, expressed in terms of personnel, vehicles, and measurement or weight tons of supplies.

amphibious objective area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A geographical area, delineated in the initiating directive, for purposes of command and control within which is located the objective(s) to be secured by the amphibious task force. This area must be of sufficient size to ensure accomplishment of the amphibious task force's mission and must provide sufficient area for conducting necessary sea, air, and land operations.

amphibious objective study. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A study designed to provide basic intelligence data of a permanent or semipermanent nature required for planning amphibious operations. Each study deals with a specific area, the selection of which is based on strategic location, susceptibility to seizure by amphibious means, and other considerations.

amphibious operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An attack launched from the sea by naval and landing forces, embarked in ships or craft involving a landing on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. As an entity, the amphibious operation includes the following phases:

l planning. The period extending from issuance of the initiating directive to embarkation.

l embarkation. The period during which the forces, with their equipment and supplies, are embarked in the assigned shipping.

l rehearsal. The period during which the prospective operation is rehearsed for the purpose of:

l Testing adequacy of plans, the timing of detailed operations, and the combat readiness of participating forces;
l ensuring that all echelons are familiar with plans; and
l testing communications.

l movement. The period during which various components of the amphibious task force move from points of embarkation to the objective area.

l assault. The period between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission.

amphibious planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of planning for an amphibious operation, distinguished by the necessity for concurrent, parallel, and detailed planning by all participating forces; and wherein the planning pattern is cyclical in nature, composed of a series of analyses and judgments of operational situations, each stemming from those that have preceded.

amphibious raid. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of amphibious operation involving swift incursion into or temporary occupation of an objective followed by a planned withdrawal. See also amphibious operation.

amphibious reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An amphibious landing conducted by minor elements, normally involving stealth rather than force of arms, for the purpose of securing information, and usually followed by a planned withdrawal.

amphibious reconnaissance unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A unit organized, equipped, and trained to conduct and support amphibious reconnaissance missions. An amphibious reconnaissance unit is made up of a number of amphibious reconnaissance teams.

amphibious shipping. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Organic Navy ships specifically designed to transport, land, and support landing forces in amphibious assault operations and capable of being loaded or unloaded by naval personnel without external assistance in the amphibious objective area.

amphibious squadron. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A tactical and administrative organization composed of amphibious assault shipping to transport troops and their equipment for an amphibious assault operation.

amphibious striking forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Forces capable of projecting military power from the sea upon adjacent land areas for initiating and/or conducting operations there in the face of enemy opposition.

amphibious task force (ATF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The task organization formed for the purpose of conducting an amphibious operation. The amphibious task force always includes Navy forces and a landing force, with their organic aviation, and may include Military Sealift Command-provided ships and Air Force forces when appropriate.

amphibious tractor. See amphibious vehicle.

amphibious transport dock. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ship designed to transport and land troops, equipment, and supplies by means of embarked landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters. Designated as LPD.

amphibious transport group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subdivision of an amphibious task force, composed primarily of transport ships. The size of the transport group will depend upon the scope of the operation. Ships of the transport group will be combat-loaded to support the landing force scheme of maneuver ashore. A transport unit will usually be formed to embark troops and equipment to be landed over a designated beach or to embark all helicopter-borne troops and equipment.

amphibious vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A wheeled or tracked vehicle capable of operating on both land and water. See also landing craft; vehicle.

amphibious vehicle availability table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tabulation of the type and number of amphibious vehicles available primarily for assault landings and for support of other elements of the operation.

amphibious vehicle employment plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan showing in tabular form the planned employment of amphibious vehicles in landing operations, including their employment after the initial movement to the beach.

amphibious vehicle launching area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area, in the vicinity of and to seaward of the line of departure, to which landing ships proceed and launch amphibious vehicles.

amphibious withdrawal. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of amphibious operation involving the extraction of forces by sea in naval ships or craft from a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also amphibious operation.

amplifying report. See contact report.

analog. The representation of quantities that vary continuously. Information that steadily flows and changes. The representation of numerical values by physical variables such as temperature, current, and voltage.

analogy cost estimate. [DSMC] An estimate of costs based on historical data of a similar (analog) item.

analysis. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In intelligence usage, a step in the processing phase of the intelligence cycle in which information is subjected to review in order to identify significant facts for subsequent interpretation. See also intelligence cycle. 2[TR 5-11] A broad category of study and investigation which includes support to operational, tactical, and strategic decision making. 3[TR 350-70] One of five phases of the training development process. It is the process used to determine if training is required; determine who (soldiers/units) needs training; identify the critical tasks they must be able to perform for survival on the battlefield; and identify the standards, conditions, performance measures, and other criteria needed to perform each task. The five types of training analyses:

l Needs Analysis

l Mission Analysis

l Collective Critical Task Analysis

l Job Analysis

l Individual Critical Task Analysis

analysis of alternatives (AoA). 1[DSMC] An analysis of the estimated costs and operational effectiveness of alternative materiel systems to meet a mission need and the associated program for acquiring each alternative. Formerly known as cost and operational effectiveness analysis. 2[TR 5-11] A study conducted to provide support for acquisition decisions in the acquisition cycle.

analysis of manufacturing. [DSMC] The review and evaluation of assembly and fabrication processes to determine how effectively and efficiently the contractor's manufacturing operations have been planned or accomplished.

analyst. 1[TR 350-70] In training analysis, an individual assigned to perform the analysis associated with the training development process. Personnel assigned to this position (or who are detailed to assist in this process) should be trained in their area of responsibility and have a knowledge of commander/unit mission and structure, analysis techniques, documentation research techniques, and interview techniques. An analyst need not be a subject matter expert but must have access to job experts. 2In intelligence analysis, an individual trained to convert information into intelligence.

anchor. See sinker.

anchor cable. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air transport, a cable in an aircraft to which the parachute static lines or strops are attached.

anchor line extension kit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device fitted to an aircraft equipped with removable clamshell doors to enable paratroopers to exit from the rear.

anchorage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specified location for anchoring or mooring a vessel in-stream or offshore.

anchored. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Am orbiting a visible orbit point."

ancillary materials. Documents that integrate the use of instructional media materials by directing the instructor and student use of the materials and providing supplemental information. Ancillary materials may be a self-study workbook, lecture guide, student guide, exercise controller guide, or instructor utilization handbook.

ancillary software. Commercial off-the-shelf packages or tools used with authoring software. Examples of ancillary software are storyboarding tools, word processing, graphics, flowcharting, and computer-managed instruction (CMI) software.

ancillary training. Refers to training in subjects that pertain to the duty performance of personnel but are separate from the individual's primary job. Included is training in those subjects not identified in the individual's job description.

angels. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air intercept and close air support, a code meaning aircraft altitude (in thousands of feet).

angle of convergence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle subtended by the eyebase of an observer at the point of focus.

angle of depression. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The angle in a vertical plane between the horizontal and a descending line.

l In air photography, the angle between the optical axis of an obliquely mounted air camera and the horizontal.

Also called depression angle. See also tilt angle.

angle of safety. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The minimal permissible angular clearance, at the gun, of the path of a projectile above the friendly troops. It is the angle of clearance corrected to ensure the safety of the troops.

angle of view. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The angle between two rays passing through the perspective center (rear nodal point) of a camera lens to two opposite corners of the format.

l In photogrammetry, twice the angle whose tangent is one-half the length of the diagonal of the format divided by the calibrated focal length.

angle T. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the angle formed by the intersection of the gun-target line and the observer-target line.

animation. The simulation of movement produced by displaying a series of successive images. For successful animation sequences, images must replace one another rapidly enough to appear to be continuous movement; at least 14 frames per second (FPS).

annex. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A document appended to an operation order or other document to make it clearer or to give further details.

annotated print. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A photograph on which interpretation details are indicated by words or symbols.

annotation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A marking placed on imagery or drawings for explanatory purposes or to indicate items or areas of special importance.

annual appropriation. Funds available for obligations incurred during one fiscal year only.

annual screening. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One day of active duty for training required each year for Individual Ready Reserve members so the services can keep current on each member's physical condition, dependency status, military qualifications, civilian occupational skills, availability for service, and other information.

annual training. [TR 350-70] The minimal period of annual active duty training a member performs to satisfy the annual training requirements associated with a Reserve Component assignment. It may be performed during one consecutive period or in increments of one or more days, depending upon mission requirements.

answer key. [TR 350-70] A document that shows the answers to each test question and the test standard for the test.

answer weight reference sheet. [TR 350-70] A document which provides the subcourse title and number, edition number, credit hours, and lists the test question number, the answer for each question, the assigned weight, and the page number where the answer can be located.

antemortem identification media. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Records, samples, photographs taken prior to death. These include, but are not limited to fingerprints, dental x-rays, body tissue samples, photographs of tattoos or other identifying marks. These predeath records would be compared against records completed after death to help establish a positive identification of a remains. See also mortuary affairs.

antenna mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a contact mine fitted with antennae which, when touched by a steel ship, sets up galvanic action to fire the mine. See also mine.

anthropometric. Of or relating to the study of human body measurements, especially on a comparative basis.

anthropometry. Specific physical measurements (static and functional) applied to system design for human engineering.

anti-aliasing. Software adjustment to make diagonal or curved lines appear smooth and continuous in computer generated images.

Anti-Deficiency Act. [DSMC] The salient features of this Act include: prohibitions against authorizing or incurring obligations or expenditures in excess of amounts apportioned by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) or in excess of amounts permitted by agency regulations; and establishment of procedures for determining the responsibility for violations and for reporting violations to the President, through OMB and to the Congress.

anti-G suit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A device worn by aircrew to counteract the effects on the human body of positive acceleration.

anti-satellite missile (ASAT). Proposed missile to be launched by an F-15 at high altitude. Some tests have been completed.

antiair warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A U.S. Navy/U.S. Marine Corps term used to indicate that action required to destroy or reduce to an acceptable level the enemy air and missile threat. It includes such measures as the use of interceptors, bombers, antiaircraft guns, surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles, electronic attack, and destruction of the air or missile threat both before and after it is launched. Other measures which are taken to minimize the effects of hostile air action are cover, concealment, dispersion, deception (including electronic), and mobility. See also counter air.

antiarmor helicopter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A helicopter armed primarily for use in the destruction of armored targets. Also called antitank helicopter.

anticipated responses. Answers expected from students in reply to planned questions.

anticipation. The ability to avoid surprise as operations unfold, mental and physical adjustments as a result of monitoring operations and determining future actions.

anticountermining device. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device fitted in an influence mine designed to prevent its actuation by shock.

anticrop agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A living organism or chemical used to cause disease or damage to selected food or industrial crops.

anticrop operation. The employment of anticrop agents in military operations to destroy the enemy's source of selected food or industrial crops. See also antiplant agent; herbicide.

antilift device. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device arranged to detonate the mine to which it is attached, or to detonate another mine or charge nearby, if the mine is disturbed.

antimateriel agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A living organism or chemical used to cause deterioration of, or damage to, selected materiel.

antimateriel operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The employment of antimateriel weapons or agents in military operations.

antipersonnel mine (land mine warfare). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mine designed to cause casualties to personnel. See also mine.

antiplant agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A microorganism or chemical that will kill, disease, or damage plants. See also anticrop agent; herbicide.

antiradiation missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A missile which homes passively on a radiation source. See also guided missile.

antirecovery device. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, any device in a mine designed to prevent an enemy discovering details of the working of the mine mechanism.

antisubmarine action. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation by one or more anti-submarine ships or aircraft, or a combination of both, against a particular enemy submarine.

antisubmarine air close support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Air operations for the antisubmarine warfare protection of a supported force. These operations are normally carried out within 80 nautical miles of the force, but this limit may be varied at the discretion of the controlling officer in tactical command.

antisubmarine air distant support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Antisubmarine air support at a distance from, but directly related to, specific convoys or forces.

antisubmarine air search attack unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The designation given to one or more aircraft separately organized as a tactical unit to search for and destroy submarines.

antisubmarine barrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The line formed by a series of static devices or mobile units arranged for the purpose of detecting, denying passage to, or destroying hostile submarines. See also antisubmarine patrol.

antisubmarine operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operation contributing to the conduct of antisubmarine warfare.

antisubmarine patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The systematic and continuing investigation of an area or along a line to detect or hamper submarines, used when the direction of submarine movement can be established. See also antisubmarine barrier.

antisubmarine rocket (ASROC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A surface ship-launched, rocket-propelled, nuclear depth charge or homing torpedo. Designated as RUR-5A.

antisubmarine screen. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An arrangement of ships and/or aircraft for the protection of a screened unit against attack by a submarine.

antisubmarine search. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Systematic investigation of a particular area for the purpose of locating a submarine known or suspected to be somewhere in the area. Some types of search are also used in locating the position of a distress incident.

antisubmarine support operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation conducted by an antisubmarine force in the area around a force or convoy, in areas through which the force or convoy is passing, or in defense of geographic areas. Support operations may be completely coordinated with those of the force or convoy, or they may be independent operations coordinated only to the extent of providing operational intelligence and information.

antisubmarine torpedo (ASTOR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A submarine-launched, long-range, high-speed, wire-guided, deep-diving, wakeless torpedo capable of carrying a nuclear warhead for use in antisubmarine and antisurface ship operations.

antisubmarine warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Operations conducted with the intention of denying the enemy the effective use of submarines.

antisubmarine warfare forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Forces organized primarily for antisubmarine action. May be composed of surface ships, aircraft, submarines, or any combination of these, and their supporting systems.

antisurface air operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An air operation conducted in an air/sea environment against enemy surface forces.

antisweep device. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any device incorporated in the mooring of a mine or obstructor, or in the mine circuits to make the sweeping of the mine more difficult.

antisweeper mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine which is laid or whose mechanism is designed or adjusted with the specific object of damaging mine countermeasures vessels. See also mine.

antitank helicopter. See antiarmor helicopter.

antitank mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine designed to immobilize or destroy a tank. See also mine.

antiterrorism (AT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military forces. See also antiterrorism awareness; counterterrorism; proactive measures; terrorism.

antiterrorism awareness. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fundamental knowledge of the terrorist threat and measures to reduce personal vulnerability to terrorism. See also antiterrorism.

antivignetting filter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A filter bearing a deposit which is graduated in density to correct for the uneven illumination given by certain lenses, particularly wide angle types.

antiwatching device. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device fitted in a moored mine which causes it to sink should it watch, so as to prevent the position of the mine or minefield being disclosed. See also watching mine.

any Service member mail. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Mail sent by the general public to an unspecified Service member deployed on a contingency operation, as an expression of patriotic support.

apogee. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The point at which a missile trajectory or a satellite orbit is farthest from the center of the gravitational field of the controlling body or bodies.

apparent horizon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The visible line of demarcation between land/sea and sky.

apparent precession. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The apparent deflection of the gyro axis, relative to the Earth, due to the rotating effect of the Earth and not due to any applied force. Also called apparent wander.

apparent wander. See apparent precession.

appeal process. [DSMC] A request for reconsideration of an action taken to adjust, reduce, or delete funding for an item during the congressional review of the defense budget (authorization and appropriation).

appendix. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subsidiary addition to a main paper. Details essential to the main paper but too bulky or numerous to include therein are usually embodied in appendices.

applicable materiel assets. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the total acceptable materiel assets that meets the military or other characteristics as defined by the responsible military service and that is in the right condition and location to satisfy a specific military requirement.

application. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The system or problem to which a computer is applied. Reference is often made to an application as being either of the computational type, wherein arithmetic computations predominate, or of the data processing type, wherein data handling operations predominate.

l In the intelligence context, the direct extraction and tailoring of information from an existing foundation of intelligence and near real time reporting. It is focused on and meets specific, narrow requirements, normally on demand.

2[TR 5-11] A specific, individual project session that requires or uses a modeling and simulation to achieve its purpose. 3[DSMC] The process of selecting requirements that are pertinent and cost effective for the particular materiel acquisition and contractually invoking them at the most advantageous times in the acquisition cycle.

application program interface (API). [TP 25-71] The API is defined as the interface between two software applications or between a software application and its platform which provide operating system services, network communication services, user interface services, data management services, and data interchange services.

application software. A computer program designed to do one specific job or perform a specific task. Any software that is part of the application layer.

application sponsor. [TR 5-11] The organization that utilizes the results or products from a specific application of a model or simulation.

applied research. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Research concerned with the practical application of knowledge, material, and/or techniques directed toward a solution to an existent or anticipated military requirement. See also basic research; research.

applied research (6.2). [DSMC] A funding category that includes efforts toward the solution of specific military problems, short of major development projects.

apportioned effort. [DSMC] Effort that by itself is not readily divisible into short-span work packages but which is related in direct proportion to measured effort.

apportionment. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) In the general sense, distribution for planning of limited resources among competing requirements. Specific apportionments (e.g., air sorties and forces for planning) are described as apportionment of air sorties and forces for planning, etc. See also allocation; apportionment (air). 2[DSMC] The action by which the Office of Management and Budget distributes amounts available for obligation in an appropriation account. The distribution makes amounts available on the basis of specified time periods (usually quarters), programs, activities, projects, objects, or combinations thereof. The apportionment system is intended to achieve an effective and orderly use of funds. The amounts so apportioned limit the obligations that may be incurred. See resource allocation process (RAP).

apportionment (air). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The determination and assignment of the total expected air effort by percentage and/or by priority that should be devoted to the various air operations and/or geographic areas for a given period of time. Also called air apportionment. See also apportionment.

appreciations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personal conclusions, official estimates, and assumptions about another party's intentions, military capabilities, and activities used in planning and decision making.

l desired appreciations - Adversary personal conclusions and official estimates, valid or invalid, that result in adversary behaviors and official actions advantageous to friendly interests and objectives.

l harmful appreciations - Adversary personal conclusions, official estimates, or assumptions, valid or invalid, that result in adversary behaviors and official actions harmful to friendly interests and objectives.

apprenticeship. [TR 350-70] A structured training program involving instruction, work experience, and testing, usually for a set period of time, leading to certification in a given area.

approach clearance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Authorization for a pilot conducting flight in accordance with instrument flight rules to commence an approach to an airport.

approach control. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A control station in an air operations control center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center, which is responsible for controlling air traffic from marshal until hand-off to final control. See also air operations center; air traffic control center; helicopter direction center; marshal.

approach end of runway. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That end of the runway nearest to the direction from which the final approach is made.

approach lane. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An extension of a boat lane from the line of departure toward the transport area. It may be terminated by marker ships, boats, or buoys.

approach march. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Advance of a combat unit when direct contact with the enemy is imminent. Troops are fully or partially deployed. The approach march ends when ground contact with the enemy is made or when the attack position is occupied. See also advance to contact.

approach schedule. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The schedule which indicates, for each scheduled wave, the time of departure from the rendezvous area, from the line of departure, and from other control points and the time of arrival at the beach.

approach sequence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The order in which two or more aircraft are cleared for an approach.

approach time. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The time at which an aircraft is expected to commence approach procedure.

appropriation. [DSMC] An authorization by an act of Congress that permits Federal agencies to incur obligations and make payments from the Treasury. An appropriation usually follows enactment of authorizing legislation. An appropriation act is the most common means of providing budget authority. See budget authority. Appropriations do not represent cash actually set aside in the Treasury; they represent limitations of amounts which agencies may obligate during a specified time period.

appropriation limitation. [DSMC] An amount fixed by Congress within an appropriation which cannot be exceeded.

appropriators (appropriations committees). [DSMC] The Senate and House Appropriations Committees. They recommend legislation granting funding for federal agencies and also have oversight authority to monitor how funds are spent.

approval authority. 1The level of guidance and decision authority designated for approval of IPR actions (appointment of IPR chair, approval of the AMC position prior to an IPR, and approval of the IPR results). 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) A representative (person or organization) of the Commandant, US Coast Guard, authorized to approve containers within terms of the International Conference for Safe Containers. See also International Convention for Safe Containers.

approved programs. [DSMC] The technical and operational, schedule, and quantity requirements reflected in the latest approved Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) (USD(A&T)) acquisition decision memorandum, or other document reflecting a more current decision of the USD(A&T) or other appropriate approval authority (such as the President's budget, the future years defense program, and supporting documentation).

approved project. [DSMC] A cooperative project under Title 22 USC 2767 that has DoD Component approval for implementation, or a cooperative research and development project under Title 10 U.S.C.2350a that has the Office of the Secretary of Defense approval for implementation, before any formal agreements have been negotiated or concluded and funds are released.

apron. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A defined area, on an airfield, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance.

aptitude. [TR 350-70] The ability of a soldier to acquire skill or show the potential for acquiring skill when given the opportunity and proper training. Aptitude may be the ability to learn a specific skill or the potential to receive general training.

architecture. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) A framework or structure that portrays relationships among all the elements of the subject force, system, or activity. 2[TR 5-11] The structure of components in a program/system, their relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time.

archive. [JP 1-02] (DoD) When used in the context of deliberate planning, the directed command will remove the referenced operation plan, operation plan in concept format, or concept summary and any associated Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing files from its library of active plans. All material will be prepared for shipment to appropriate archive facilities in accordance with Joint Pub 5-03.1 and appropriate command directives. See also maintain; retain.

area. See advisory area; air defense action area; area control center; assembly area; closed area; concentration area; control area; danger area; defensive coastal area; embarkation area; fire support area; impact area; initial approach area; landing area; maneuvering area; maritime control area; naval support area; objective area; prohibited area; staging area; submarine patrol area; terminal control area; transit area. See also zone.

area air defense commander (AADC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force, the commander will assign overall responsibility for air defense to a single commander. Normally, this will be the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the command, control, and communications capability to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. Representation from the other components involved will be provided, as appropriate, to the area air defense commander's headquarters.

area assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The commander's prescribed collection of specific information that commences upon employment and is a continuous operation. It confirms, corrects, refutes, or adds to previous intelligence acquired from area studies and other sources prior to employment.

area bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Bombing of a target which is in effect a general area rather than a small or pinpoint target.

area command. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A command which is composed of those organized elements of one or more of the armed services, designated to operate in a specific geographical area, which are placed under a single commander. See also command; functional component command.

area common user system (ACUS). A communications system (MSE at ECB and TRI-TAC at EAC).

area control center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction. See also air traffic control center; flight information region.

area coordination group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A composite organization, including representatives of local military, paramilitary, and other governmental agencies and their U.S. counterparts, responsible for planning and coordinating internal defense and development operations.

area damage control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or manmade disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects. See also damage control; disaster control.

area defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Denying the enemy access to designated terrain for a specific time to retain ground using a combination of defensive positions and small, mobile reserves.

area of influence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commander's command or control.

area of intelligence responsibility. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area allocated to a commander in which the commander is responsible for the provision of intelligence within the means at the commander's disposal. See also area of interest; area of responsibility.

area of interest. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces who could jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission.

area of militarily significant fallout. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Area in which radioactive fallout affects the ability of military units to carry out their normal mission.

area of northern operations. A region of variable width in the Northern Hemisphere that lies north of the 50 degrees isotherm--a line along which the average temperature of the warmest 4-month period of the year does not exceed 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Mountain regions located outside of this area are included in this category of operations provided these same temperature conditions exist.

area of operations (AO). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. See also area of responsibility; joint operations area; joint special operations area. 2A geographical area assigned to an Army commander by a higher commander — an AO has lateral and rear boundaries which usually define it within a larger joint geographical area.

area of responsibility (AOR). [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The geographical area associated with a combatant command within which a combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct operations.

l In naval usage, a predefined area of enemy terrain for which supporting ships are responsible for covering by fire on known targets or targets of opportunity and by observation.

area of separation (AOS). See buffer zone. See also area; peace operations.

area of war. That area of land, sea, and air which is, or may become, directly involved in the operations of war.

area operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In maritime usage, operations conducted in a geographical area and not related to the protection of a specific force.

area oriented. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel or units whose organizations, mission, training, and equipping are based on projected operational deployment to a specific geographic or demographic area.

area radar prediction analysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radar target intelligence study designed to provide radar significant data for use in the preparation of radar target predictions.

area search. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Visual reconnaissance of limited or defined areas.

area target. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A target consisting of an area rather than a single point.

areodesy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The branch of mathematics which determines, by observation and measurement, the exact positions of points and the figures and areas of large portions of the surface of the planet Mars, or the shape and size of the planet Mars.

areodetic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of, pertaining to, or determined by areodesy.

arm or de-arm. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Applies to those procedures in the arming or de-arming section of the applicable aircraft loading manual or checklist that places the ordnance or explosive device in a ready or safe condition i.e., rocket launchers, guided missiles, guns--internal and pods, paraflares--(external and SUU-44/25 dispenser). (NOTE: The removal or installation of pylon or bomb rack safety pins from a nonordnance-loaded station is considered a function requiring certification within the purview of this publication.). See also arming; de-arming; ordnance.

armament delivery recording. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Motion picture, still photography, and video recordings showing the delivery and impact of ordnance. This differs from reconnaissance imagery in that it records the act of delivery and impact and normally is done by the weapon system delivering the ordnance. Armament delivery recording is used primarily for evaluating strike effectiveness and for combat crew training. It is also one of the principal sources of over-the-target documentation in force employments, and may be used for public affairs purposes.

armaments. [DSMC] Weapons with lethal capability (e.g., missiles, rifles).

armed forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The military forces of a nation or a group of nations. See also forces.

armed forces censorship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The examination and control of personal communications to or from persons in the Armed Forces of the United States and persons accompanying or serving with the Armed Forces of the United States. See also censorship.

armed forces courier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer or enlisted member in the grade of E7 or above, of the U.S. Armed Forces, assigned to perform Armed Forces Courier Service duties and identified by possession of an Armed Forces Courier Service Identification Card (ARFCOS Form 9). See also courier.

Armed Forces Courier Service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A joint service of the Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, with the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, as executive agent. The courier service provides one of the available methods for the secure and expeditious transmission of material requiring protected handling by military courier.

armed forces courier station. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Army, Navy, or Air Force activity, approved by the respective military department and officially designated by Headquarters, Armed Forces Courier Service, for the acceptance, processing, and dispatching of Armed Forces Courier Service material.

Armed Forces of the United States. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used to denote collectively all components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. See also United States Armed Forces.

Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). The AFQT is a combination of verbal (VE), arithmetic reasoning (AR), and numerical operations (NO) AVSAB subtests. The AFQT is used to screen out applicants whose mental characteristics are not sufficient for Army duties. The AFQT composite is a good general intelligence test as well as a practical index of reading ability.

Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A worldwide radio and television broadcasting organization that provides US military commanders overseas and at sea with sufficient electronic media resources to effectively communicate theater, local, DoD, and Service-unique command information to their personnel.

armed helicopter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A helicopter fitted with weapons or weapon systems.

armed mine. JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine from which all safety devices have been withdrawn and, after laying, all automatic safety features and/or arming delays have operated. Such a mine is ready to function after receipt of a target signal, influence, or contact. See also mine.

armed reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mission with the primary purpose of locating and attacking targets of opportunity, i.e., enemy materiel, personnel, and facilities, in assigned general areas or along assigned ground communications routes, and not for the purpose of attacking specific briefed targets.

Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals (ASBCA). [DSMC] Board established to act as the authorized representative of the Secretary of Defense or department secretaries, in deciding appeals under the disputes clause of government contracts.

armed services committees. [DSMC] (Senate Armed Services Committee and House National Security Committee) Standing committees which authorize DoD programs and conduct oversight.

Armed Services Medical Regulating Office (ASMRO). A joint activity reporting directly to the Commander in Chief, U.S. Transportation Command, the Department of Defense single manager for the regulation of movement of uniformed services patients. The Armed Services Medical Regulating Office authorizes transfers to medical treatment facilities of the military departments or the Department of Veterans Affairs and coordinates intertheater and inside continental United States patient movement requirements with the appropriate transportation component commands of U.S. Transportation Command.

Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). [TR 350-70] A series of tests designed under Department of Defense sponsorship which measures potential for training in general occupational areas.

armed sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sweep fitted with cutters or other devices to increase its ability to cut mine moorings.

arming. [JP 1-02] (DoD) As applied to explosives, weapons, and ammunition, the changing from a safe condition to a state of readiness for initiation.

arming delay device. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device fitted in a mine to prevent it being actuated for a preset time after laying.

arming lanyard. See arming wire.

arming pin. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A safety device which is inserted into a fuse to prevent the arming cycle from starting until its removal.

arming system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of a weapon which serves to ready (arm), safe, or re-safe (disarm) the firing system and fusing system and which may actuate devices in the nuclear system.

arming wire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A cable, wire or lanyard routed from the aircraft to an expendable aircraft store in order to initiate the arming sequence for the store upon release from the aircraft, when the armed release condition has been selected; it also prevents arming initiation prior to store release and during safe jettison. Also called arming lanyard. See also safety wire.

armistice. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In international law, a suspension or temporary cessation of hostilities by agreement between belligerent powers.

armistice demarcation line (ADL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A geographically defined line from which disputing or belligerent forces disengage and withdraw to their respective sides following a truce or cease fire agreement. Also called cease fire line in some United Nations operations. See also armistice; cease fire; cease fire line; peace operations.

armored personnel carrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A lightly armored, highly mobile, full-tracked vehicle, amphibious and air-droppable, used primarily for transporting personnel and their individual equipment during tactical operations. Production modifications or application of special kits permit use as a mortar carrier, command post, flame thrower, antiaircraft artillery chassis, or limited recovery vehicle.

armored reconnaissance airborne assault vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A lightly armored, mobile, full-tracked vehicle serving as the main reconnaissance vehicle in infantry and airborne operations, and as the principal assault weapon of airborne troops.

arms control. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A concept that connotes: a. any plan, arrangement, or process, resting upon explicit or implicit international agreement, governing any aspect of the following:

l The numbers, types, and performance characteristics of weapon systems (including the command and control, logistics support arrangements, and any related intelligence-gathering mechanism).

l The numerical strength, organization, equipment, deployment, or employment of the Armed Forces retained by the parties (it encompasses disarmament).

l On some occasions, those measures taken for the purpose of reducing instability in the military environment.

arms control agreement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The written or unwritten embodiment of the acceptance of one or more arms control measures by two or more nations.

arms control agreement verification. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A concept that entails the collection, processing, and reporting of data indicating testing or employment of proscribed weapon systems, including country of origin and location, weapon and payload identification, and event type.

arms control measure. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any specific arms control course of action.

Arms Export Control Board. [DSMC] An interagency board, chaired by the Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance (Science and Technology), that serves to advise the Secretary of State on matters relating to security assistance program levels and arms transfer policies.

arms transfer. [DSMC] Defense articles and defense services (arms, ammunition, and implements of war, including components, training, manufacturing licenses, technical assistance, related technical data) provided by the government under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended.

armstrong. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The term, peculiar to the air support radar team, indicating both the command and response for arming and fusing circuit activation.

Army Acquisition Executive (AAE). 1[TP 71] Senior acquisition executive responsible for administering acquisition programs IAW established policies and guidelines. The AAE is also the senior procurement executive. 2The principle advisor and staff assistant to the Secretary of the Army for acquisition of Army systems. The AAE is responsible for overall management of research, development, and acquisition programs. The AAE, also known as the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research, Development, and Acquisition), is responsible for overall management of RDA programs. The AAE is also the senior procurement executive.

Army acquisition objective (AAO). Quantity of an item authorized for peacetime acquisition to equip the Army approved force and specified allies in peacetime and sustain these forces in wartime. The AAO is shaped by the Secretary of Defense’s materiel support planning guidance.

Army air defense command post. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The tactical headquarters of an Army air defense commander.

Army air-ground system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Army system which provides for interface between Army and tactical air support agencies of other services in the planning, evaluating, processing, and coordinating of air support requirements and operations. It is composed of appropriate staff members, including G2 air and G3 air personnel, and necessary communication equipment.

Army and Air Force Exchange Service imprest fund activity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military operated retail activity, usually in remote or forward sites, when regular direct operations exchanges cannot be provided. It is a satellite activity of an Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) direct operation. The supported unit appoints the officer-in-charge of an imprest fund activity, who is issued an initial fund by AAFES to purchase beginning inventory. Money generated from sales is used to replenish the merchandise stock. See also imprest fund.

Army Apprenticeship Program. [TR 350-70] A training program that provides service members the opportunity to gain civilian recognition in a skilled trade related to their military occupational specialty.

Army base. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A base or group of installations for which a local commander is responsible, consisting of facilities necessary for support of Army activities including security, internal lines of communication, utilities, plants and systems, and real property for which the Army has operating responsibility. See also base complex.

Army Battle Command System. [TP 525-5] Migration of all fielded and developmental Army C2 systems into one fully integrated and interoperable system with seamless connectivity from the NCA to the foxhole.

Army Capabilities Plan (ACP). An HQDA document reflecting capabilities attainable within the existing programs and budget limitations.

Army Civilian Training Education and Development System (ACTEDS). [TR 350-70] A system that ensures planned development of civilians through a blend of progressive and sequential operational assignments, institutional training, and self-development as individuals progress from entry level to senior positions.

Army component commander. A military commander responsible for the employment and sustainment of assigned Army forces in theater — exercise command over all units, detachments, organizations, and installations assigned to the unified command.

Army Continuing Education System (ACES). [TR 350-70] An integrated system of educational opportunities, both academic and nonacademic.

Army corps. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A tactical unit larger than a division and smaller than a field army. A corps usually consists of two or more divisions together with auxiliary arms and services. See also field army.

Army correspondence course. See correspondence course.

Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP). [TR 350-70] An overall program established by AR 351-20. The ACCP is a formal nonresident extension of TRADOC service schools. The ACCP offers individual and group study enrollments in correspondence courses. Based on course eligibility requirements, individuals enroll at their own discretion and determine their own course of study for either correspondence courses or subcourses. The ACCP offers these courses and subcourses free of charge to the Active and Reserve Components, ROTC and military academy cadets, authorized federal civilian employees, and non-U.S. citizens who are employed by the DoD. Correspondence materials are also available for foreign military students through the Foreign Military Sales Program. AC and RC soldiers in the grade of E4 and E5 can accrue promotion points, and RC soldiers can accrue retirement points through the ACCP.

Army correspondence subcourse. See correspondence subcourse.

Army cost analysis paper- (ACAP-) HQDA Comptroller of the Army (COA). A document presenting a comparative analysis between costs present in the materiel developer’s current baseline cost estimate, and a corresponding independent parametric cost estimate developed by the COA.

Army Doctrine and Training Digital Library. [TR 350-70] The information foundation for AT XXI. Allows trainers, trainees, training developers, and doctrine writers to store and retrieve training products and materials via the internet and personal computers. ADTDL features include an electronic card catalog or pointer (transparent to the users) to doctrinal and training information and products stored in various databases/repositories.

Army Extension Training Information System (AETIS). A database of audio and video products, courseware, and videodisks available for extension training.

Army Force Guidance (AFG). A HQDA document providing objective force guidance to major Army commands.

Army group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Several field armies under a designated commander.


Army Model and Simulation Standards Report. [TR 5-11] The Army Model and Simulation Standards Report contains the yearly status of Army efforts to standardize model and simulation techniques and procedures. It also reflects the Army’s yearly model and simulations investments through the Army Model Improvement Program (AMIP) and the Simulation Technology (SIMTECH) Program.

Army Modernization Information Memorandum (AMIM). DA Pam 5-25, Army Modernization Information Memorandum (AMIM), provides the user with composite data on all HQDA-approved force modernization materiel systems. These data are used for planning, programming, and budgeting resources to operate and to support the fielding and sustainment of newly developed, major product improved, and selected displaced equipment. The Army staff uses AMIM data for review of the force modernization program and budget submissions and as a baseline for the preparation of program justification for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, OMB, and the Congress.

Army modernization training (AMT). [TR 350-70] Required training to support the Army modernization process. AMT includes new equipment training (NET) for new, improved, and cascading materiel systems, doctrine and tactics training (DTT), sustainment training (ST), unit modernization, deployment, and proponent training.

Army Modernization Training Automation System (AMTAS). A database for new equipment training plans (NETPs).

Army Occupational Survey Program (AOSP). With the cooperation of service schools, AOSP does research on military occupational specialties (MOS). Using soldier tasks as the basic units of analysis, data are collected on such variables as percent performing, task learning difficulty, and relative time spent. After the survey data have been analyzed, a report on the MOS is prepared. (obsolete, see Occupational Data, Analysis, Requirements, and Structure (ODARS) Program)

Army Planning and Programming Memorandum (APPGM). A Chief of Staff of the Army document providing program guidance to the Army Staff for program objective memorandum (POM) development.

Army procurement appropriation (APA). A funding term for the purchase of major equipment or weapons. It describes a three-year cycle that includes OPA (other procurement, Army) funds.

Army Program for Individual Training (ARPRINT). A computerized TRADOC database and management system. It identifies officer and enlisted training requirements. It also contains programs for the Active Army, Reserve Components, other U.S. services, and foreign military forces.

Army program memorandum (APM). A document initiated by direction of HQDA and previewed by the Army Requirements and Management Board (ARMB) when HQDA has final program decision authority.

Army school. [TR 350-70] Institution authorized by Headquarters Department of the Army to conduct formal courses for individuals, collective training where required (such as crew training), and training of Army National Guard or U.S. Army Reserve units.

Army service area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The territory between the corps rear boundary and the combat zone rear boundary. Most of the Army administrative establishment and service troops are usually located in this area. See also rear area.

Army service component commander (ASCC). The commander of the Army component in support of a theater commander, combatant commander, or joint force commander. The ASCC is responsible for preparing, maintaining, training, equipping, administering, and supporting Army forces assigned to unified and specified commands. The ASCC normally advises the combatant or subordinate unified commander on the proper employment of the forces of the Army component. The ASCC is normally not a part of the joint force staff.

Army special operations component (ARSOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Army component of a joint force special operations component. See also Air Force special operations component; Navy special operations component.

Army special operations forces (ARSOF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those Active and Reserve Component Army forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations.

Army strategic appraisal (ASA). A HQDA document presenting the critical strategic issues for mid-range period.

Army Systems Acquisition Review Council (ASARC). [TP 71] Top level, DA review body for ACAT I and ACAT II programs. Convened at formal milestone reviews or other program reviews to provide information and develop recommendations for decision by the AAE.

Army tactical data link 1. See tactical digital information link.

Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP). [TR 350-70] The cornerstone of unit training. It is the umbrella program to be used by the trainer and training manager in the training evaluation of units. The ARTEP is a complete program enabling commanders to evaluate and develop collective training based on unit weaknesses, then train the unit to overcome those weaknesses and reevaluate. Success on the battlefield depends on the coordinated performance of collective and individual skills that are taught through the ARTEP MTP.

Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) mission training plan (MTP). See mission training plan.

Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) products. See mission training plan, drill, and exercise.

Army Training Requirements Analysis System (TRAS). A management system that provides for the documentation of training and resource requirements in time to inject them into resource acquisition systems. The purpose of the TRAS is to ensure that, as required by current and future proponent Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS) institutional strategies, students, instructors, facilities, ammunition, equipment, manpower, and funds are all at the right place and time to accomplish TRADOC's missions, and the instruction produced is consistent with TRADOC and Army training requirements.

Army Training Requirements and Resource System (ATRRS). [TR 350-70] The Army training management system. It projects inputs, resource requirements, and student accountability, and updates military personnel training records. It provides the data for Congressional military manpower training reports (MMTR), etc.

Army training system. [TR 350-70] The concept used by the Army to develop, manage, and conduct training. System components are institutional training, forces (unit) training, and training support.

Army Training XXI. [TP 525-75] Army Training XXI incorporates three strategic campaign plans that parallel the three axis of Force XXI.

l Warfighter XXI. It will re-engineer unit training and provide the Army with a vision of how to train collective tasks using information age technology. The vision is to provide trainers with automated training management tools and a flexible, mission essential task list (METL) driven menu. The menu will be composed of structured exercises developed concurrently with building the synthetic environment (SE) to integrate live field training.

l Warrior XXI. It focuses on development of the institutional and self-development pillars of training. The end state will be a seamless, total Army networked organization engineered to meet institutional training needs. Deployable training packages and distance learning will provide the capability to deliver training and education to soldiers and units, in the institution, at home station, and throughout the world.

l Warnet XXI. It provides the linkage between training acquisition, new equipment training, and digitization of training support products. The primary goals of Warnet XXI are to develop and provide new equipment packages for use in developing training programs, and exportable training products for units.

Army Universal Task List (AUTL). [TR 350-70] A common reference system. It is a comprehensive, but not all inclusive, hierarchical listing of Army tasks on or in support of the battlefield. The AUTL is architecturally linked to the Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). The AUTL collectively includes tasks at each level or war, i.e., strategic, operational, and tactical. It may serve as a tool for mission essential task list (METL) development for field commanders, combat developers, analysts, trainers, and planners for analyzing and integrating operations.

Army’s Five-Year Defense Plan (AFYDP). The official programming document consisting of the Army’s portion of the Five-Year Defense Plan.

Armywide Doctrinal and Training Literature (ADTL). [TR 350-70] Includes DA-numbered, indexed, and published publications which are available in a variety of media, e.g., paper, CD-ROM. ADTL publications include FMs, TCs, ARTEP products, STPs, TMs, JROTCMs, and selected DA pams or posters.

Armywide Doctrinal and Training Literature Program (ADTLP). [TR 350-70] The Army program for management, prioritization, print/replication, and distribution of ADTL, prescribed forms, and selected DA pamphlets and posters in a medium that supports the Total Army.

Armywide doctrinal and training literature (ADTL) publication hierarchy. [TR 350-70] A framework that provides the relationship between categories and classifications of Armywide doctrinal and training publications.

Armywide training aids, devices, simulations, and simulators (TADSS) requirement.

l TADSS determined by TRADOC (training developer) to have application to more than one MACOM. TADSS include investment and expense items.

l TADSS to be used within the Army's institutional training base or TRADOC service school, where the graduating students will be assigned to more than one MACOM throughout the Army.

array. The designation of a location of points by coordinates. A 2-D array is described with X-Y coordinates; a 3-D array is described with X-Y-Z coordinates.

arresting barrier. See aircraft arresting barrier.

arresting gear. See aircraft arresting gear.

arrival zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, the area in or adjacent to the United States where smuggling concludes and domestic distribution begins. By air, an airstrip; by sea, an offload point on land, or transfer to small boats. See also transit zone

Article 341. Name the CIA used for the Lockheed U-2.

artificial horizon. See attitude indicator.

artificial intelligence (AI). The development or capability of a machine that can perform functions that are normally associated with human intelligence such as learning, adapting, reasoning, self-correction, and automatic improvement.

artillery fire plan table. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A presentation of planned targets giving data for engagement. Scheduled targets are fired in a definite time sequence. The starting time may be on call, at a prearranged time or at the occurrence of a specific event.

artillery survey control point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A point at which the coordinates and the altitude are known and from which the bearings/azimuths to a number of reference objects are also known.

artwork. Still illustrations or graphics.

aspect angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The angle between the longitudinal axis of the target (projected rearward) and the line of sight to the interceptor measured from the tail of the target.

aspect ratio. The measurement of a film or television viewing area in terms of its relative width and height values. The width-to-height ratio of a single frame of film (three-to-two) or video (four-to-three).

assault. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The climax of an attack, closing with the enemy in hand-to-hand fighting.

l In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission.

l To make a short, violent, but well-ordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement, a fort, or a machine gun nest.

l A phase of an airborne operation beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead.

See also assault phase; landing attack.

assault aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A powered aircraft that moves assault troops and/or cargo into an objective area.

assault area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, that area that includes the beach area, the boat lanes, the lines of departure, the landing ship areas, the transport areas, and the fire support areas near the boat lanes.

assault area diagram. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A graphic means of showing, for amphibious operations, the beach designations, boat lanes, organization of the line of departure, scheduled waves, landing ship area, transport areas, and the fire support areas in the immediate vicinity of the boat lanes.

assault craft. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A landing craft or amphibious vehicle primarily employed for landing troops and equipment in the assault waves of an amphibious operation.

assault craft unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A permanently commissioned naval organization, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, that contains landing craft and crews necessary to provide lighterage required in an amphibious operation.

assault echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The element of a force that is scheduled for initial assault on the objective area.

assault fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l That fire delivered by attacking troops as they close with the enemy.

l In artillery, extremely accurate, short-range destruction fire at point targets.

assault follow-on echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, that echelon of the assault troops, vehicles, aircraft equipment, and supplies which, though not needed to initiate the assault, is required to support and sustain the assault. In order to accomplish its purpose, it is normally required in the objective area no later than five days after commencement of the assault landing.

assault phase. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of their mission.

l In an airborne operation, a phase beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault.

assault schedule. See landing schedule.

assault shipping. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Shipping assigned to the amphibious task force and utilized for transporting assault troops, vehicles, equipment, and supplies to the objective area.

assault wave. See wave.

assembly. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In logistics, an item forming a portion of an equipment, that can be provisioned and replaced as an entity and which normally incorporates replaceable parts or groups of parts. See also component; subassembly.

assembly anchorage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An anchorage intended for the assembly and onward routing of ships.

assembly area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l An area in which a command is assembled preparatory to further action.

l In a supply installation, the gross area used for collecting and combining components into complete units, kits, or assemblies.

assembly chart. [DSMC] Portrays the proposed sequence of assembly operations constituting the assembly process in the production of goods that are composed of many components.

assessment. 1 [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned intelligence activity.

l Judgment of the motives, qualifications, and characteristics of present or prospective employees or agents.

2A judgment of the effectiveness and efficiency of a training system, in terms of measurement and evaluation.

asset (intelligence). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any resource-person, group, relationship, instrument, installation, or supply - at the disposition of an intelligence organization for use in an operational or support role. Often used with a qualifying term such as agent asset or propaganda asset.

Asset Source for Software Engineering Technology (ASSET). ASSET is a U. S. DoD project to promote the reuse of computer software and software-related products. ASSET, developed by IBM and its subcontractor, SAIC, is organized under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA's) Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable Systems (STARS) program which was chartered for the purpose of achieving dramatic improvements in software productivity while continuing incremental improvements in quality and reliability. ASSET strives to be the national clearinghouse for software reuse sources and information.

assign. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the functions, of the unit or personnel.

l To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or functions are primary and/or relatively permanent.

See also attach.

assignment-oriented training. [TR 350-70] Training designed to qualify a soldier to perform those specific functions associated with the duty position and skill level at his/her next assignment.

assisted recovery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The return of an evader to friendly control as the result of assistance from an outside source. See also evader; source.

assistance mechanism. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Individuals, groups of individuals, or organizations, together with material and/or facilities in position, or that can be placed in position by appropriate US or multinational agencies, to accomplish or support evasion and recovery operation. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations.

associated school. [TR 350-70] A TRADOC school whose primary mission falls within the functional area of TRADOC and is associated with, and under the tasking authority of, TRADOC for combat developments and selected training actions.

associated schools. TRADOC schools assigned to a specific major subordinate command.

l USACAC associated schools include: John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center, Infantry, Field Artillery, Armor, Signal, Military Police, Intelligence Center, Air Defense Artillery, Aviation, Chemical, and Engineer.

l USACASCOM associated schools are: Chaplain, Adjutant General, Finance, Ordinance, Missile and Munitions, Transportation, Academy of Health Sciences, Quartermaster, and Aviation Logistics.

associated support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval air operations, assistance provided by a force or unit to another force or unit that is under independent tactical control, neither being subordinate to the other. See also direct support; support.

associated support items of equipment (ASIOE). An end item required for the operation, maintenance, and/or transportation of a BOIP item. ASIOEs are listed on the BOIP of the item they support. ASIOEs have their own LIN and are separately documented into TOE/VTAADS.

association. [TP 25-71] A relationship between or among records. Record associations include attachment and file.

association devices. Memory aids, techniques which ease recall, mnemonic devices.

assumed azimuth. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The assumption of azimuth origins as a field expedient until the required data are available.

assumed grid. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A grid constructed using an arbitrary scale superimposed on a map, chart, or photograph for use in point designation without regard to actual geographic location. See also grid.

assumption. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A supposition on the current situation or a presupposition on the future course of events, either or both assumed to be true in the absence of positive proof, necessary to enable the commander in the process of planning to complete an estimate of the situation and make a decision on the course of action.

assured communications. The certainty of priority electronic transmission capability when needed throughout the strategic, operational, and tactical areas of operations.

astern fueling. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transfer of fuel at sea during which the receiving ship(s) keep(s) station astern of the delivering ship.

asymmetrical sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sweep whose swept path under conditions of no wind or crosstide is not equally spaced either side of the sweeper's track.

asynchronous. A system in which stages of a program are set up so the completion of one operation initiates the next. A mode of communication in which the next command is started and stopped by special signals, referred to as start and stop bits.

asynchronous transmission. Transmission in which time intervals between transmitted characters may be of unequal length. Transmission controlled by start and stop bits at the beginning and end of each character.

at my command. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the command used when it is desired to control the exact time of delivery of fire.

at priority call. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A precedence applied to the task of an artillery unit to provide fire to a formation/unit on a guaranteed basis. Normally observer, communications, and liaison are not provided. An artillery unit in direct support or in support may simultaneously be placed at priority call to another unit or agency for a particular task and/or for a specific period of time.

atmosphere. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The air surrounding the Earth. See also ionosphere; stratosphere; tropopause; troposphere.

atmospheric/off the wall estimate. [DSMC] Wild guess (usually a cost estimate) based on experience of the estimator, but without confidence.

atmospheric environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The envelope of air surrounding the Earth, including its interfaces and interactions with the Earth's solid or liquid surface.

atomic air burst. See airburst.

atomic defense. See nuclear defense.

atomic demolition munition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nuclear device designed to be detonated on or below the ground surface, or under water as a demolition munition against material-type targets to block, deny, and/or canalize the enemy.

atomic underground burst. See nuclear underground burst.

atomic underwater burst. See nuclear underwater burst.

atomic warfare. See nuclear warfare.

atomic weapon. See nuclear weapon.

attach. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary.

l The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such functions are secondary or relatively temporary, e.g., attached for quarters and rations; attached for flying duty.

See also assign.

attached airlift service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The airlift service provided to an organization or command by an airlift unit attached to that organization.

attachment. [TP 25-71] A record is associated with another record as an attachment when it is attached to the record and filed or transmitted between two persons. See attach.

attack aircraft carrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A warship designed to support and operate aircraft, engage in attacks on targets afloat or ashore, and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces. Designated as CV or CVN. CVN is nuclear powered.

attack altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The altitude at which the interceptor will maneuver during the attack phase of an air intercept.

attack assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An evaluation of information to determine the potential or actual nature and objectives of an attack for the purpose of providing information for timely decisions. See also damage estimation.

attack cargo ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A naval ship designed or converted to transport combat-loaded cargo in an assault landing. Capabilities as to carrying landing craft, speed of ship, armament, and size of hatches and booms are greater than those of comparable cargo ship types. Designated as LKA.

attack carrier striking forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Naval forces, the primary offensive weapon of which is carrier-based aircraft. Ships, other than carriers, act primarily to support and screen against submarine and air threat and secondarily against surface threat.

attack condition alpha. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Considers there is inadequate warning of attack, and the command post or headquarters of a decision authority becomes ineffective prior to the performance of essential functions.

attack condition bravo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Considers there is sufficient effective warning of impending attack to relocate personnel required to perform essential functions to alternate command facilities.

attack group. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A subordinate task organization of the navy forces of an amphibious task force. It is composed of assault shipping and supporting naval units designated to transport, protect, land, and initially support a landing group.

attack heading. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The interceptor heading during the attack phase that will achieve the desired track-crossing angle.

l The assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown by aircraft during the delivery phase of an air strike.

attack helicopter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A helicopter specifically designed to employ various weapons to attack and destroy enemy targets.

attack origin. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The location or source from which an attack was initiated.

l The nation initiating an attack. See also attack assessment.

attack pattern. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The type and distribution of targets under attack. See also attack assessment; target pattern.

attack position. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The last position occupied by the assault echelon before crossing the line of departure. Sometimes called forming up place.

attack size. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The number of weapons involved in an attack. See also attack assessment.

attack speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The speed at which the interceptor will maneuver during the attack phase of an air intercept.

attack timing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The predicted or actual time of bursts, impacts, or arrival of weapons at their intended targets.

attack warning/attack assessment. Not to be used. See separate definitions for tactical warning and for attack assessment.

attacking. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a term meaning, "Am commencing attacking run with weapon indicated" (size may be given).

attention step. A segment of a lesson introduction in which the presenter gains the attention of the student and focuses upon the subject to be taught.

attenuation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Decrease in intensity of a signal, beam, or wave as a result of absorption of energy and of scattering out of the path of a detector, but not including the reduction due to geometric spreading, i.e., the inverse square of distance effect.

l In mine warfare, the reduction in intensity of an influence as distance from the source increases.

l In camouflage and concealment, the process of making an object or surface less conspicuous by reducing its contrast to the surroundings and/or background.

Also called tone down.

attenuation factor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ratio of the incident radiation dose or dose rate to the radiation dose or dose rate transmitted through a shielding material. This is the reciprocal of the transmission factor.

attitude. 1[TR 350-70] An internal state that influences an individual’s choices or decisions to act in a certain way under particular circumstances. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The position of a body as determined by the inclination of the axes to some frame of reference. If not otherwise specified, this frame of reference is fixed to the Earth. 3[JP 1-02] (NATO) The grid bearing of the long axis of a target area. See intelligence cycle.

attitude director indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An attitude indicator which displays command signals from the flight director computer.

attitude indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays the attitude of the aircraft by reference to sources of information which may be contained within the instrument or be external to it. When the sources of information are self-contained, the instrument may be referred to as an artificial horizon.

attitude measure. [TR 350-70] An instrument designed to gather information about a person's disposition toward something. This could include liking or disliking subject matter, usefulness of a medium, or opinions about the medium.

attitudinal traits. An observable behavior that can be included in the affective domain.

attrition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The reduction of the effectiveness of a force caused by loss of personnel and materiel.

attrition minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a field intended primarily to cause damage to enemy ships. See also minefield.

attrition rate. 1[TRADOC] The rate at which students are disenrolled from a course or fail to complete a course satisfactorily. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A factor, normally expressed as a percentage, reflecting the degree of losses of personnel or materiel due to various causes within a specified period of time.

attrition reserve aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Aircraft procured for the specific purpose of replacing the anticipated losses of aircraft because of peacetime and/or wartime attrition.

attrition sweeping. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The continuous sweeping of minefields to keep the risk of mines to all ships as low as possible.

audio. Sound used to convey information that does not lend itself to a textual or graphical environment. For some training subject areas, the use of sound is critical to full achievement of learning objectives.

audio compression. See still-frame audio.

audio producer. Prepares tape recordings and produces audio programs. The audio producer combines narration, music, and other sound effects in the production of an audio program.

audio track. The section of an analog media that contains the sound signal that accompanies the video signal. The audio track usually runs along the edge of the videotape, and beside the video track on a disk.

audio-only lesson. 1[TR 350-70] An audio recording that provides information related to a task, or supporting skill and knowledge training. One type talks a soldier through a series of actions in conjunction with hands-on training. 2[DoD] A recording that provides verbal information related to a task, or supporting skill and knowledge training.

audio-only program. A production which does not contain any video or pictures; for example, a record or radio program.

audiovisual aid. Any static or dynamic device utilized to facilitate and reinforce learning through one or both of the physical senses of sight and hearing.

audiovisual equipment. Equipment used for producing, processing, recording, and showing audio-visual products.

audiovisual media. Refers to any device such as television or film which is both seen and heard.

audiovisual products. Material containing sound or imagery for conveying a message. Refers to still photography, graphics arts, still projections such as overhead transparencies, slides or film strips, motion pictures such as film, videotape, or videodisk, audio recordings (tape and disk), and combinations of such media.

audiovisual services. Those functions performed in the production, manipulation, distribution, and storage of audiovisual materials such as scripting, video storyboard, photography, sound or television recording, film processing, film or tape editing, animation, graphic arts, audio-visual media depository and record center operations, reproduction and distribution of products, loan of audio-visual products or equipment, presentation of television, audio, still, or motion picture information; and design of consulting support for audiovisual users.

audit. [DSMC] Systematic examination of records and documents to determine adequacy and effectiveness of budgeting, accounting, financial, and related policies and procedures; compliance with applicable statutes, regulations, policies, and prescribed procedures; reliability, accuracy and completeness of financial and administrative records and reports; and the extent to which funds and other resources are properly protected and effectively used.

audit trail. 1[TR 350-70] A systemic documentation of decisions made or actions taken. 2A documented record of the relationships among data.

auditor. [DSMC] Represents the cognizant audit office designated by the Defense Contract Audit Agency or Service audit activities for conducing audit reviews of the contractor's accounting system policies and procedures for compliance with the criteria.

augmentation forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Forces to be transferred from a supporting commander to the combatant command (command authority) or operational control of a supported commander during the execution of an operation order approved by the National Command Authorities

authentic record. [TP 25-71] A record that can be proven to be genuine based on its mode (i.e., method by which a record is communicated over space or time), form (i.e., format/media that a record has when it is received), state of transmission (i.e., the primitiveness completeness, and effectiveness of a record when it is initially set aside after being made or received), and manner of preservation and custody.

authenticate. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A challenge given by voice or electrical means to attest to the authenticity of a message or transmission.

authentication. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator.

l A means of identifying individuals and verifying their eligibility to receive specific categories of information.

l Evidence by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official.

l In evasion and recovery operations, the process whereby the identity of an evader is confirmed.

See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations; security.

authenticator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A symbol or group of symbols, or a series of bits, selected or derived in a prearranged manner and usually inserted at a predetermined point within a message or transmission for the purpose of attesting to the validity of the message or transmission.

author or originator. [TP 25-71] The author of a document is the physical person or the office/position responsible for the creation of the document. The author is usually indicted by the letterhead and/or signature. For RMS purposes the author/originator must be a personal name or official title, not a code or alias.

authoring. A structured approach to developing all elements of a unit of instruction.

authoring languages. A set of words, notation, syntax, and semantics used by an author to specify the logic and content of instruction to be delivered by a computer.

authoring software. Computer programs designed to help authors create Interactive Multimedia Instruction without elaborate programming. There are three types of Interactive Multimedia Instruction authoring software; authoring language, authoring system, and ancillary software.

authoring system. 1[TR 350-70] In interactive coursewear, a software that allows an author to generate an instructional program without any programming, simply by specifying the instructional content and teaching logic. It provides an actual lesson framework with an implicit or explicit teaching strategy. 2[DoD] A prepackaged, prompted authoring aid, courseware template, or menu-driven editor designed to help authors (without formal computer programming skills) create Interactive Multimedia Instruction without elaborate programming. It is often referred to as an authoring package.

authority for systems acquisition. [DSMC] The framework granting authority for DoD to develop, produce, and field weapon systems emanates from four sources: the law (legal basis), executive direction (orders), Office of Management and Budget Circular A-109, and the Federal Acquisition Regulation. The framework guides and grants authority, enables the DoD to conduct business, and is the apparatus for decision making and execution.

authorization. [DSMC] An act of Congress which permits a federal program or activity to begin or continue from year to year. It sets limits on funds that can be appropriated, but does not grant funding which must be provided by a separate Congressional appropriation.

authorized individual. [TP 25-71] A records manager and/or other persons specifically designated by the records manager as responsible for managing various aspects of an organization's records.

authorized representative. [DSMC] Any person, persons, or board (other than the contracting officer) authorized to act for the head of an agency or the Secretary.

authorized work. [DSMC] That effort which has been definitized and is on contract, plus that which definitized contract costs have not been agreed to but for which written authorization has been received.

authorizers (authorization committees). [DSMC] The standing committees of Congress which have legislative authority, authorize programs, and conduct oversight over agency programs. Authorizers for DoD are the: Senate Armed Service Committee and House National Security Committee.

authorizing legislation. [DSMC] Legislation enacted by Congress to permit establishment or continuation of a Federal program or agency. Authorizing legislation is normally required before enactment of budget authority.

auto-stop. A preprogrammed instruction telling the system to stop automatically at a designated place.

autocode format. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An abbreviated and formatted message header used in conjunction with the Mobile Cryptologic Support Facility (MCSF) to energize the automatic communications relay functions of the MCSF providing rapid exchange of data through the system.

automated data handling. See automatic data handling.

automated data processing equipment (ADPE). [DSMC] 1A machine, or a group of interconnected machines, consisting of input, storage, computing, control, and output services, which uses electronic circuitry in the main computing element to perform arithmetic and/or logical operations automatically by means of internally stored or externally controlled programmed instructions. 2Data processing equipment which directly supports or services central computer operations.

automated information system (AIS). [DoD 5200.2-R] A combination of computer hardware and software, data, or telecommunications, that performs functions such as collecting, processing, transmitting, and displaying information. Excluded are computer resources, both hardware and software, that are: physically part of, dedicated to, or essential in real time to the mission performance of weapon systems.

automated information systems (AISs). [CJCSI 6212.01A] Computer hardware, computer software, telecommunications, information technology, personnel, and other resources that collect, record, process, store, communicate, retrieve, and display information. An AIS can include computer hardware only, computer software only, or a combination of the above.

automated instructional development. [TR 350-70] The automation of the analysis, design, development, and evaluation of training.

Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS). [TR 350-70] A computer system for the management of individual, resident training. It also handles the administrative and scheduling functions at United States Army Training and Doctrine Command schools and Army training centers.

Automated Instructional Management System – Redesign (AIMS-R). [TR 350-70] This will be an automated, interactive training information management system which will provide Army schools, training centers, and NCO academies the capability to develop, administer, and monitor resident and nonresident (correspondence and self development) individual training during peacetime and mobilization.

Automated Systems Approach to Training (ASAT). [TR 350-70] The HQ TRADOC training development automation system under development as a tool for training developers to develop doctrine and training products.

automated unit reference sheets (AURS). A document which, generally, proposes or portrays certain basic personnel and equipment data for organizational development. It provides information for use in developing BOIP and draft plan TOE to support concepts and doctrine studies, computer assisted war games simulations, and operational testing.

automatic approach and landing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A control mode in which the aircraft's speed and flight path are automatically controlled for approach, flare-out, and landing. See also ground-controlled approach procedure.

automatic data handling. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A generalization of automatic data processing to include the aspect of data transfer.

automatic data processing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Data processing largely performed by automatic means.

l That branch of science and technology concerned with methods and techniques relating to data processing largely performed by automatic means.

automatic flight control system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which includes all equipment to control automatically the flight of an aircraft or missile to a path or attitude described by references internal or external to the aircraft or missile.

automatic leveling. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A flight control system feature which returns an aircraft to level flight attitude in roll and pitch.

automatic message processing system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any organized assembly of resources and methods used to collect, process, and distribute messages automatically.

automatic pilot. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That part of an automatic flight control system which provides attitude stabilization with respect to internal references.

automatic resupply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A resupply mission fully planned before insertion of a special operations team into the operations area that occurs at a prearranged time and location, unless changed by the operating team after insertion. See also emergency resupply; on-call resupply.

automatic search jammer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An intercept receiver and jamming transmitter system which searches for and jams signals automatically which have specific radiation characteristics.

Automatic Secure Voice Communications Network (AUTOSEVOCOM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A worldwide, switched, secure voice network developed to fulfill DoD long-haul, secure voice requirements.

automatic supply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system by which certain supply requirements are automatically shipped or issued for a predetermined period of time without requisition by the using unit. It is based upon estimated or experience-usage factors.

automatic test equipment (ATE). [DSMC] Any automated device used for the express purpose of testing prime equipment; usually external to the prime device (e.g., support equipment).

automatic throttle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A flight control system feature which actuates an aircraft throttle system based on its own computation and feedback from appropriate data sources.

automatic toss. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In a flight control system, a control mode in which the toss bombing maneuver of an aircraft is controlled automatically.

automatic trim. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A flight control system feature which adjusts the trim of an aircraft in flight.

Automatic Voice Network (AUTOVON). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A major subsystem of the Defense Switched Network, which replaced the Automatic Voice Network as the principal long-haul, non-secure voice communications network within the Defense Communications System. See also Defense Switched Network.

automation. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The implementation of processes by automatic means.

l The conversion of a procedure, a process, or equipment to automatic operation.

automation security. Measures employed to protect Army automation and information handled by such automation from hostile and benign threats. Safeguarding automation against unauthorized exploitation through espionage, sabotage, theft, fraud, misappropriation, or misuse.

autonomous operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has lost all communications with higher echelons. The unit commander assumes full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets.

availability. Measure of the degree to which an item is in an operable and commitable state at the start of the mission, when the mission is called for at an unknown (random) point in time.

availability (operational) (Ao). A measure of the degree to which a system is either operating or is capable of operating at any time when used in its typical operational and support environment.

availability date. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The date after notification of mobilization by which forces will be marshalled at their home station or mobilization station and available for deployment. See also home station; mobilization; mobilization station.

available payload. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The passenger and/or cargo capacity expressed in weight and/or space available to the user.

available-to-load date (ALD]. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A day, relative to C-day in a time-phased force and deployment data, that unit and non-unit equipment and forces can begin loading on an aircraft or ship at the port of embarkation.

avenue of approach. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path.

average speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The average distance traveled per hour, calculated over the whole journey, excluding specifically ordered halts.

average unit procurement cost (AUPC). [DSMC] Objectives design to average unit procurement cost objectives, expressed in constant dollars, are established for Milestone I, Approval to Begin a New Acquisition Program. AUPC includes recurring flyaway, rollaway, sailaway costs (including nonrecurring production costs) adjusted for data, training, support equipment, and initial spares costs.

aviation combat element. See Marine air-ground task force.

aviation life support equipment. See life support equipment.

aviation medicine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The special field of medicine which is related to the biological and psychological problems of flight.

aviation ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An aircraft carrier or aircraft carrier, nuclear. See also air-capable ship; aircraft.

avoidable delay. [DSMC] Any time during an assigned work period which is within the control of the worker and which he/she uses for idling or for doing things unnecessary to the performance of the operation. Such time does not include allowance for personal requirements, fatigue, and unavoidable delays.

avoidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Individual and/or unit measures taken to avoid or minimize nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) attacks and reduce the effects of NBC hazards.

award. [DSMC] Notification to bidder of acceptance of bid.

awareness training. [TR 350-70] Training used to disseminate information that provides an individual with the basic knowledge/understanding of a policy, program, or system, not a critical task or supporting skill or knowledge. The proponent school identifies the most efficient and economical media to disseminate the awareness training and disseminates as part of a TSP with supporting administrative information. An example is the annual security briefing. It—

l May not be related to course-specific training objectives and takes place outside of POI academic time (although the training material may be passed out during POI time).

l Can be disseminated as handouts, supplemental reading, orientations, etc.

l Is not formally evaluated.

axial route. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A route running through the rear area and into the forward area. See also route.

axis of advance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line of advance assigned for purposes of control; often a road or a group of roads, or a designated series of locations, extending in the direction of the enemy.

azimuth. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Quantities may be expressed in positive quantities increasing in a clockwise direction, or in X, Y coordinates where south and west are negative. They may be referenced to true north or magnetic north depending on the particular weapon system used.

azimuth angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An angle measured clockwise in the horizontal plane between a reference direction and any other line.

azimuth guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Information which will enable the pilot or autopilot of an aircraft to follow the required track.

azimuth resolution. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ability of radar equipment to separate two reflectors at similar ranges but different bearings from a reference point. Normally the minimum separation distance between the reflectors is quoted and expressed as the angle subtended by the reflectors at the reference point.