TEXT:*EPF405   02/23/95
(Article on Gallucci, Hubbard before House panel)  (1130)
By Jane A. Morse
USIA Staff Writer
Washington, Feb. 23 -- Only South Korean light water nuclear reactors will
be provided to North Korea under the Agreed Framework, Ambassador Robert L.
Gallucci emphasized to Congress today.

Gallucci is the chief negotiator for the United States regarding the pact
under which North Korea will halt its plutonium-producing nuclear program
in exchange for proliferation-resistant light water reactors.  He testified
before the House Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on Asia
and the Pacific and the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and

"The DPRK says it is concerned about the technical viability of those (South
Korean) reactors, but more accurately, we believe the North finds it
politically difficult to have South Koreans build reactors in its country,"
Gallucci said.  But he stressed that "There simply is no alternative to the
South Korean reactor."

Under the Agreed Framework, the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (DPRK)
has agreed to shut down its 5-megawatt gas graphite nuclear reactor and
halt construction on two larger reactors -- 50 and 200 megawatt -- which,
if completed, could have produced enough plutonium each year for dozens of
nuclear bombs, Gallucci said.

The North Korea's freeze on its potentially threatening nuclear program is a
benefit to the United States, the Asia-Pacific region, and the world,
Gallucci said.  North Korea can benefit, under the Agreed Framework, by
receiving two light water nuclear reactors capably of generating 2,000
megawatts of electrical power.

But the Agreed Framework will not collapse if North Korea chooses not to
accept light water reactors from the Republic of Korea (ROK), Gallucci

"If the DPRK does not accept the South Korean reference reactors, but
maintains the freeze on its nuclear activity and therefore is in compliance
with the Agreed Framework, that is a situation in which we can continue to
operate.  In other words, the benefit to them is the light water reactor
project.  The failure of the North Korean to accept that (South Korean)
model at this point is not an obstacle to implementation from our

1till, the DPRK's choice of light water reactors remains ROK reactors or

"The only light water reactors that we -- the United States together with
our allies and others -- would propose to build are the South Korean
reference reactors," Gallucci said.  "In the meantime, until that issue is
resolved, what we're looking at is compliance by North Korea with those
provisions which are a benefit to us:  principally, the freeze on their
nuclear activities.  And as long as those provisions are in place, then
they are abiding by the Agreed Framework.  Our ability to go ahead and
provide them with one of the things they get under the agreement will
depend on their willingness to accept a South Korean reactor.  No other
reactor is on our mind to be provided to North Korea."

Gallucci noted that the Agreed Framework involves many other issues than
that of North Korea's nuclear program.  Principal among these is:  the
DPRK's ballistic missile program; the forward deployment of its
conventional forces; the resolution of the issue of Americans still missing
in action from the Korean War; and, progress in North-South dialogue.

Thomas Hubbard, deputy assistant secretary of state for East Asia, also
spoke at the hearing.  He added that the Agreed Framework "is a critical
effort to achieve our nonproliferation efforts, but it is also an important
step in a process in which the United States and the ROK work together
toward our common goal; that is, peace and security on the Korean

The Agreed Framework obliges the DPRK to take two specific actions in
relation to the ROK, Hubbard said.  "One is to take steps to implement the
North-South Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean
Peninsula; and two, to engage in South-North Dialogue.  South-North
Dialogue is essential if the Framework itself is to be fully implemented.
But it is probably even more important to note that South-North dialogue is
key to a broader effort to create a solid, stable state of peace on the

Hubbard said it is hoped that dialogue between the two Koreas will create an
atmosphere conducive to the expanded interaction that will be required to
carry out the projects envisioned under the Framework.

"It is a matter of continuing concern that the DPRK is not yet taken any
steps to fulfill its obligations to engage in North-South dialogue,"
Hubbard said.  "We are using every possible occasion to reinforce to the
North Koreans that dialogue is vital to the full implementation to the

The United States fully intends to establish soon a liaison office in North
Korea, Hubbard said.  "But let me stress that we will not establish these
offices, we will not improve our relations with North Korea at the expense
of our vital alliance and our vital relationship with South Korea."

Hubbard discussed the DPRK's efforts in recent years to "unilaterally
destroy the armistice mechanism set up and the armistice agreement which
ended the Korean War.

"This runs counter to the North-South Agreement on Reconciliation,
Nonaggression, and Exchanges and Cooperation signed in December 1991, which
states that it is the responsibility of the two Koreas to transform the
armistice regime into a firm state of peace," Hubbard said.  "It also
commits both Koreas to abide by the present armistice agreement until a
stable peace can be created."

Hubbard explained that the present armistice mechanism consists of the
Military Armistice Commission (the "MAC") and the Neutral Nations
Supervisory Commission (NNSC).  The function of the NNSC is to oversee the
cessation of the introduction of reinforcing military personnel and
1quipment and to conduct investigations of armistice violations.  "That is
an institution that is now threatened," Hubbard said.

"The DPRK has failed to nominate a successor to Czechoslovakia as a member
of the NNSC, and has persuaded the Chinese to recall their representatives
from the Military Armistice Commission," Hubbard said.

"Now the DPRK is threatening to evict the Polish NNSC contingent.  We have
forcefully told Pyongyang that such an action would be a violation of the
Armistice Agreement, which has maintained peace now for more than 40 years.
 If Pyongyang hopes that its attempts to destroy the mechanisms set up by
the Armistice Agreement will lead us to enter into bilateral talks on a
peace treaty, it is badly mistaken.

"Peace on the Korean peninsula, we have always maintained, is a matter for
Koreans north and south to settle.  The United States is willing to assist,
as both Koreas desire, but we will not negotiate a bilateral peace accord
with the DPRK," Hubbard emphasized.