ACCESSION NUMBER:380446 FILE ID:EPF405 DATE:02/23/95 TITLE:GALLUCCI: ONLY ROK REACTORS WILL BE PROVIDED UNDER DPRK PACT (02/23/95) TEXT:*EPF405 02/23/95 GALLUCCI: ONLY ROK REACTORS WILL BE PROVIDED UNDER DPRK PACT (Article on Gallucci, Hubbard before House panel) (1130) By Jane A. Morse USIA Staff Writer Washington, Feb. 23 -- Only South Korean light water nuclear reactors will be provided to North Korea under the Agreed Framework, Ambassador Robert L. Gallucci emphasized to Congress today. Gallucci is the chief negotiator for the United States regarding the pact under which North Korea will halt its plutonium-producing nuclear program in exchange for proliferation-resistant light water reactors. He testified before the House Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and the Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade. "The DPRK says it is concerned about the technical viability of those (South Korean) reactors, but more accurately, we believe the North finds it politically difficult to have South Koreans build reactors in its country," Gallucci said. But he stressed that "There simply is no alternative to the South Korean reactor." Under the Agreed Framework, the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (DPRK) has agreed to shut down its 5-megawatt gas graphite nuclear reactor and halt construction on two larger reactors -- 50 and 200 megawatt -- which, if completed, could have produced enough plutonium each year for dozens of nuclear bombs, Gallucci said. The North Korea's freeze on its potentially threatening nuclear program is a benefit to the United States, the Asia-Pacific region, and the world, Gallucci said. North Korea can benefit, under the Agreed Framework, by receiving two light water nuclear reactors capably of generating 2,000 megawatts of electrical power. But the Agreed Framework will not collapse if North Korea chooses not to accept light water reactors from the Republic of Korea (ROK), Gallucci explained. "If the DPRK does not accept the South Korean reference reactors, but maintains the freeze on its nuclear activity and therefore is in compliance with the Agreed Framework, that is a situation in which we can continue to operate. In other words, the benefit to them is the light water reactor project. The failure of the North Korean to accept that (South Korean) model at this point is not an obstacle to implementation from our perspective." 1till, the DPRK's choice of light water reactors remains ROK reactors or nothing. "The only light water reactors that we -- the United States together with our allies and others -- would propose to build are the South Korean reference reactors," Gallucci said. "In the meantime, until that issue is resolved, what we're looking at is compliance by North Korea with those provisions which are a benefit to us: principally, the freeze on their nuclear activities. And as long as those provisions are in place, then they are abiding by the Agreed Framework. Our ability to go ahead and provide them with one of the things they get under the agreement will depend on their willingness to accept a South Korean reactor. No other reactor is on our mind to be provided to North Korea." Gallucci noted that the Agreed Framework involves many other issues than that of North Korea's nuclear program. Principal among these is: the DPRK's ballistic missile program; the forward deployment of its conventional forces; the resolution of the issue of Americans still missing in action from the Korean War; and, progress in North-South dialogue. Thomas Hubbard, deputy assistant secretary of state for East Asia, also spoke at the hearing. He added that the Agreed Framework "is a critical effort to achieve our nonproliferation efforts, but it is also an important step in a process in which the United States and the ROK work together toward our common goal; that is, peace and security on the Korean peninsula." The Agreed Framework obliges the DPRK to take two specific actions in relation to the ROK, Hubbard said. "One is to take steps to implement the North-South Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula; and two, to engage in South-North Dialogue. South-North Dialogue is essential if the Framework itself is to be fully implemented. But it is probably even more important to note that South-North dialogue is key to a broader effort to create a solid, stable state of peace on the peninsula." Hubbard said it is hoped that dialogue between the two Koreas will create an atmosphere conducive to the expanded interaction that will be required to carry out the projects envisioned under the Framework. "It is a matter of continuing concern that the DPRK is not yet taken any steps to fulfill its obligations to engage in North-South dialogue," Hubbard said. "We are using every possible occasion to reinforce to the North Koreans that dialogue is vital to the full implementation to the Framework." The United States fully intends to establish soon a liaison office in North Korea, Hubbard said. "But let me stress that we will not establish these offices, we will not improve our relations with North Korea at the expense of our vital alliance and our vital relationship with South Korea." Hubbard discussed the DPRK's efforts in recent years to "unilaterally destroy the armistice mechanism set up and the armistice agreement which ended the Korean War. "This runs counter to the North-South Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonaggression, and Exchanges and Cooperation signed in December 1991, which states that it is the responsibility of the two Koreas to transform the armistice regime into a firm state of peace," Hubbard said. "It also commits both Koreas to abide by the present armistice agreement until a stable peace can be created." Hubbard explained that the present armistice mechanism consists of the Military Armistice Commission (the "MAC") and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC). The function of the NNSC is to oversee the cessation of the introduction of reinforcing military personnel and 1quipment and to conduct investigations of armistice violations. "That is an institution that is now threatened," Hubbard said. "The DPRK has failed to nominate a successor to Czechoslovakia as a member of the NNSC, and has persuaded the Chinese to recall their representatives from the Military Armistice Commission," Hubbard said. "Now the DPRK is threatening to evict the Polish NNSC contingent. We have forcefully told Pyongyang that such an action would be a violation of the Armistice Agreement, which has maintained peace now for more than 40 years. If Pyongyang hopes that its attempts to destroy the mechanisms set up by the Armistice Agreement will lead us to enter into bilateral talks on a peace treaty, it is badly mistaken. "Peace on the Korean peninsula, we have always maintained, is a matter for Koreans north and south to settle. The United States is willing to assist, as both Koreas desire, but we will not negotiate a bilateral peace accord with the DPRK," Hubbard emphasized. NNNN .