Welcome To The New FAS Biosecurity Blog!

The FAS Biosecurity Program now has a blog of its own. We have mirrored the archived biosecurity posts from our old home at the FAS Strategic Security Blog, and we will be posting new material here at least twice a week.

We invite analytical and factual comments that advance the debate, but reserve the right to abbreviate long submissions and reject derogatory or purely opinionated messages.

Welcome to our new home, and please feel free to let us know what you think of the blog, or what you would like us to cover!

0 thoughts on “Welcome To The New FAS Biosecurity Blog!

  1. Global biosecurity is in danger, regarding the developing coutries emprove their education system, recently i visited sudan,college that students were learning intercelluar(biochemistry) and intracellar(biophysics) biology I never see sumarized knowlege in developing world, also the comparison between the two intramolecular(nuclear physic and intermolecular (nuclear chemistry). I feel the world is not safe,and I would like to develop mine, to secure my side

  2. technical assessment based on litmus test for iran’s nuclear, FAS Scientist recall this case differently. in my point of view if Iran capable fission or intrusive radioactive material enrichment.the two faces of the same coin. Do you have problem that iran have developed atomic bomb interms of extrusive radioactive material? If we are FAS scientist no longer have failed grade to protect what we can. even the secret service report don’t close math one and another. I have to sing asang hit the road and never come back.

  3. “I don’t think it’s an exaggeration to say that the western civilization at ending point in the study of intelligence history in general, and signals intelligence history in particular; because there is very real question of whether any serious historian (s) outside of the intelligence community are going to continue trying to research and understand and write about this subject at all “said the author Stephen Budiansky (differently).

    The critical mass of scholars willing to invest the considerable energy required to the mass technicalities of no longer complex and used to be difficult to understand subject is steadily increasing. Although the primary sources notably nearly all documents relating to secret creation of the bomb kept and no longer for coming.

    The code breakers may have the unique distinction of having perception interpreting and recreating restricted data(RD) as science. For example , Global Nuclear Security Technology Division. Its emblem demonstrates the Hexaflourite structure which was formerly restricted data, particularly stigma # 1 top secret US files.

    We all aware of Atomic Act of 1954, 4, 142, U.S.C. 2014(y) and 2162 (2009) as well NPT classified as Restricted Data” all data concerning
    1. the design, manufacture, or utilization of atomic weapons.
    2. The production of special nuclear material.
    3. The use of special nuclear material in the production of energy automatically classifying (FRD).
    Sometimes what we call white phosphorous will be declassified as fission chain reaction of Hexaflourite. What we are waiting is quantum theory interrelated the computer processor in gigantic form this is massive dynamic. It will happen, its just a question of when” if we don’t take appropriate measures to control .this massage doesn’t related threat its suggestion and reality based scenario

  4. technical advances in modern molecular biology ( Biochemistry and Biophysics)have increased the risk that reseach could be used improperly by those with malicious intent.
    I think there are certain things that can be done to minimize risk, but there is always going to be the potential for negative purposes.

    trangenic ( intracellular and intercellular)technology advances have radically changed the way we do biological research that could be applied to offensive biologcal weapons programs. i.e. Quamata;division fo the class Reptilia particularly Lizards and snakes
    1. Snakes venome is poison are enrich to use anthrax
    2. Lizards (Komodo) type have saliva which is poison

    We will talk about latter the sea poisons species for the comming lectures and nanomeds. and more about their lazer techniques. BSL-4 and BSL3 Labs.

    no matter ho seemingly unrelated to doing harm.cleaver mine could potential turn that around.

  5. Technical advances in life science research ( stem cell research) have increased both benefit/risk that could be used as biological weapons challenges. mankind in general have failed to address the threat of biological weapons and
    I swear by the God’s Sacred Oath; that my suggestions are based on ISE ( information sharing environment) and not hoax, scam, fraud. or threat to anyone;But if we search jewelery in the desert its waste of time. I’m not US EU citizen; I was born and learn north zone of somalia (Somaliland) where israel lineage is available; we all aware of that all israelians are not jewish; armanian, christian, muslims,are inclusive nation.

    biosecurity and biosafety isssues . this technologies could be applied to offensive biological weapons programs, therefore medical advances that improves the ease of engineering, handling,or delivering has potential misuse; what happened somewhere in the world, women maturation blood is poison could be used harm by triggered to human immune, as well BAT have also maturation blood that is poison, most scientist are unaware this potential misuse of negative purpose. this idea is simple but the vaccine is not, on other hand biosecurity and biosafety remains on paper, what we need is action that is accountable for .

  6. My greatest joye mom passed away 11-10-2010.I’m in mourn, I’m the poorest scientist who cares the world more than anything but when you need help. it’s difficult to communicate with other people. FAS turn back to me . When my mother get serious. tzadeikh was not acceptable, I’m sorry to tell you my pain.

  7. BIO-tech is endless threat for the decades to come. at least those topics match FAS BIO-security 2011, crops are grow and pests that attack the crops, overtime, crops can be modified to make them more resistance to pests vis-versa pests can genetically modified be more resistance to pesticides , or some case attacks human or may transmit diseases to human. more commonly , the pests are attacked directly , by pesticides(chemicals organic or inorganic). biological control requires continual attention.

    furthermore selectagent should be on agend; such amphibian, reptiles and lizards, pests and more marine select agent requires constant attention;

  8. With all due respect Gentlemen,
    Ambition is valuable quality if not in danger; whether we use Educed information (EI) or tactful civilized conduct that gracefully smooth rough edges of science (international Science partnership). micro or sub micro organism no one qualified for threat assessment. We hope CRS will— destiny speakers.
    Many experts believe that biological toxic would not be difficult to use as a weapon of mass destruction. Toxic no longer be injected, ingested, or inhaled by the victim to injure. What makes easier to disperse could be
    BHCl + S!O3
    HCl + S!O3

    Searching Silicon H3 , something look like (take the puzzle ). The world is entering an era of dramatic progress in bioscience and material science. Furthermore, IT and Scientific instrumentation, brought together and accelerated by the rare antiques opaque glassy (cutting tools) or have cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts or Extraterrestrials (astronauts) , nano-science. Organic and inorganic dual attached for mis-use. These rapidly developing research fields will transform the world and other capacity to manipulate it.

    Who is accountable for wrongful, arrogance, grinding mass graved declassified. The harmful classified documents inadvertently disseminated or declassified posting legitimate form-related to category 3 and 4 classified documents, do containment files be deleted by holding down the SHIFT key while pressing the DELETE key or do we have destiny system (PSS). Or the upcoming disaster needs preparedness.
    Do the intelligence estimates recognizes to new chair like the mother of Andromeda (Cassiopeia ) from the right-wing or beyond, in accordance With (provisions)reference of recent declassification Interstellar archaeology, Dyson spheres, Kardashev scale, SETI, and correcting equations sound bad. Other threats emerged answers remain vacuum.
    Who are in charge of space security (NEST or NASA) FAS will not grant or assess any possible outcome of potential laser mis-use (we are the ground).

  9. Nanotechnology Changes Everything

    Nanotechnology—a term encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology—is focused on understanding ,funding, controlling, and exploiting the unique properties of matter that can be emerged at the scale of one to cosmic scale nanometers. Note that the Romans had no form for negative numbers, decimal fractions, or zero (a version was introduced later). For the nanoscale an appropriate notation might be a Roman matter integer with a minus sign if needed followed by an Arabic decimal fraction. Interestingly going from (sub-micron microbes), for instance, nanoscale particles may penetrate to place in the body that inaccessible to larger particles, radical changes in behavior at the nanoscale may render harmful materials considered to be safe in larger scale and more conventional forms .

    The characteristics of nanoscale particles produce both positive and negative consequences. The unique properties of these nanotechnology materials are a double edged sword: they can be tailored for beneficial or militarily, but also have unknown known consequences. Certain nanoscale elements are highly chemically reactive due to their penetrating surface to-volume ratio. Nanotechnology may present a unique challenge in that at least some nanoscale particles can be incorporated into materials and products in a ways that cannot be easily detected or detected at all.
    At Nanoscale 10-9(-0.000000001 nanometer) matter has chemical, physical, and electrical properties; two faces of the matter positive and negative can call Nanoscale 109 (+0.000000001 nanometer) or gigantic scales with which we are generally familiar. The next decade will see the maturation of nanotechnology and engineering at microscopic molecular scales that will result in explosive growth in the ability to precisely and inexpensively control matter, opening a world of new capabilities that can be exploited. The eventual applications of these special purpose manufacturing systems include the ability to build almost any mechanical device cheaply and in large quantity, which could result in entirely new classes of sensors, armor, explosives, computing means, and energy generation and storage.
    Nano-energetics (NE), for example, has the potential to dramatically increase the power and efficiency of explosives and propellants in a number of military and space-related areas. Nanoscales have allowed scientists in the lab to improve the yield of explosives and propellants by a factor of between two and ten-fold or more. The advance of NE-related technologies is constrained by a number of hurdles that, for now, prevent the wide proliferation of NE explosives and propellants. Difficulties remain in the ability to mass produce the materials and they can often be difficult to control and store accurately: however, these technical hurdles are probably surmountable. As such, it is very likely that a number of states will deploy NE technologies over the next decade.

    Moreover, the spread of NE-related knowledge to non-state actors may allow the fabrication of crude yet powerful weapons that could be used in more powerful IEDs in the form of a hollow spheres or ellipsoid, missiles, mortars, and car bombs to further complicate operations. A U.S. defense acquisition policy has spoken thoroughly about the asymmetric application of power by potential enemies against U.S. military forces (Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress). There is also an asymmetry with respect to the defence spending and its potential opponents, particularly in irregular contexts. One needs only to consider the enormous expenditures the United States has made to counter the threat posed by improvised explosive devices (IED). The United States has spent literally billions to counter that crude, inexpensive, and extraordinary effective devices. If one were to multiply this ratio against a global enemy, it becomes untenable. While this asymmetry is most dramatic against the low-end threat, it applies to more sophisticated threats as well.

    There have been justified calls for acquisition reform for decades; and while a number of groups have produced clear, forthright, and intelligence studies, little actual reform has taken place. This is no longer a bureaucratic issue: it is having strategic effects. given the potential for disruptive technologies in the near future, the crucial issue will not be whether the United States possesses such technologies, but how affordably, how quickly, and how effectively can incorporate those technologies not only into their concepts, doctrine, and approach to war, but actually into the units and commands that will have to use those technologies on future battlefield.

    Without a thorough and coherent reform of the acquisition processes, there is considerable prospect an opponent could incorporate technological advances more affordably, quickly, and effectively with serious implications for future forces.

    The introduction of NE-related technologies implies that may face familiar difficulties, only amplified by the dual use nature, and technology, foreign state actors may use NE-related technology to strikes .Conventional military advantages. For example, naval mines and torpedoes may be dramatically shrunk, making them harder to detect and forcing ships to stay farther out to sea. More powerful and less costly propellants may allow more nations to access space through the use of NE propellants, possibly increasing the proliferation of anti-satellite capabilities to threaten orbiting assets upon. The compounds required to manufacture NE materials are relatively uncontrolled, creating possible holes in our counter-terrorist efforts both at home and abroad. NE capabilities create opportunities. For instance, faster and more precise rockets may improve ability to negate foreign air defense systems through the use of very small bombs or cruise missiles.

    A special class of nanotechnology, biotechnology or stem cell (nanomeds or nanomites), is focused on the manipulation and engineering of the substance of organic and inorganic or attached together, including such elements as the genetic code, protein engineering, and artificial life and neodymium chemicals. Biotechnology both biophysics and biochemistry as a field is now bigger than physics in terms of money spent, scientists employed, and discoveries made. The massive research and development effort will likely bear significant fruit over the next decade as future bio-technological and chemical advances will allow human beings to manipulate the structure and function of our own bodies, as well as bend other living processes to do work for human needs. By the 2020’s, biologists leveraging the nanotechnology field may be able to integrate the “incredible biochemistry (dRAIs and tRNIA ) of life with the physics of nonliving systems like quantum rods and ipad-2 and visible light (sunscreen).”These techniques could enhance human senses and physical abilities, while hindering the ability of adversaries to maintain a shield of anonymity so critical to their operations. Together, this might allow better catalog, track, and separate hostiles from local populations. It is by no means certain that the overall lead in technological development over the next 20 years. Africa’s secondary educational system is declining in a relative sense when compared to leading technological competitors, e.g., America and Europe and Asia. Furthermore, any militarily-significant technological surprise is likely to result from the combination of one or more technologies, and the novel use of the resulting combinations.
    Furthermore James R. Clapper Director of national intelligence threat assessment report Feb 10, 2011. Paragraph relating to Somalia; However, dual-use nature of some of the WMD-related items such as neodymium and dysprosium, praseodymium(Dyson spheres),while this anthropic material — critical for peaceful scientific and economic advances, it allows the materials, technologies know how- – related to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons, as well as missile delivery systems – intend to share with ease and speed. Skeleton chemical formulating of these materials were not luxury anymore!! The lanthanides. Goal is to identify the subset of Antique that has highest potential for generating information, technology or knowledge that could be misused.

    Do metal oxides are a critical to international security? Do Silicon computer processors are important for nuclear core? Such questions have deadly answers!

    The concentration of production of rare earth elements (REEs) raises the important issues of supply vulnerability. REEs are used for new energy technologies and national security applications. Is the U.S. vulnerable to supply disruptions? Are these elements essential to national security and economic well-being? Weaponries the nature elements was Advance Defense Research Administration (ADRA) task, then social benefits. Now the world vis versa. Said “Professor Ahmed A. Baniyaal”

    Ahmed Ali Abdi (timo)

  10. Thomas Bowles, Ph.D.
    Chief Science Officer, Los Alamos National Laboratory and History of cryptography
    Dr. Bowles spoke based on his experience in the nuclear physics and cryptography
    communities at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). He explained that LANL is a multi purposenational defense laboratory. The primary mission is stewardship of the Nation’s nuclear tockpile; responding to threats of weapons of mass destruction; and responding to the
    Nation’s energy and environmental needs. He stated that there is a strong and growing
    bioscience program at Los Alamos, which focuses on the intersection of bioscience and
    national security. Some activities at LANL are purely classified, such as the nuclear weapons
    program. Some research is fundamental and provides the core capabilities that drive LANL’s
    national security abilities. One of the hallmarks of Los Alamos has been the free and open
    exchange of unclassified information. The laboratory is operated by the University of
    California and has academic freedom of expression at the core of its ability to excel in carrying
    out its missions.

    Dr. Bowles said the majority of nuclear physics research is unclassified and often involves large
    collaborations with several countries. A small fraction of this research generates dual use
    information. LANL is increasingly dealing with security issues and responding to the needs of
    homeland defense. For example, some technologies are developed to detect the entry of illicit
    nuclear materials into the United States. LANL’s quantum cryptography (QKD) efforts are
    also relevant to dual use. Originally, quantum cryptography was envisioned as a means for the
    intelligence community to provide absolutely secure information transmission. This knowledge
    has applications for people who are trying to protect information of any type. The field of
    quantum computation (QC) is directly allied, and its applications range from an entirely new
    evolution in computer science, to the ability to factor large numbers, which is critical in quickly
    breaking codes.

    LANL deals with two types of information. The first is pure data that comes out of
    experimentation and theory, the second is the techniques and equipment that have dual use
    applications. In both cases, they’re very careful when information goes from single use to dual
    use; i.e., when data is combined with a dual use application. It then becomes classified
    information. In homeland defense, Dr. Bowles said the specific sensitivities to detection and
    capabilities to detect threats are restricted. There are different classification levels imposed on
    different types of information, particularly in quantum cryptography.

    Dr. Bowles stated that as a scientific organization, LANL publishes about 1,800 openpublished,
    peer-reviewed journals a year. He said that handling the flow of information has
    been a challenge. LANL has two paths for publication and presentation of research. The first
    path exempts certain areas from classification under a mechanism called designated unclassified
    research areas (DUSA). Under this system, certain well-defined areas are considered not
    essential to national security and are therefore not classified. The approval process for DUSA
    usually takes about 18 months. It’s fairly rigorous, but once it is in place, there’s a standing
    exemption for the approved information. The second path involves review of papers and talks
    by an Authorized Derivative Classifier (ADC). ADCs are specifically trained to look at
    classified information issues in a publication and every LANL product that is not under DUSA
    goes through this process.

    Dr. Bowles said that one of the greatest challenges is monitoring mail and email
    communications, because these pose tremendous susceptibility to security risks. Everyone at
    Los Alamos is trained to recognize classified and unclassified material and the training is
    renewed every year. If one is unsure whether information is unclassified, an ADC will check it.
    Dr. Bowles said LANL’s failure rate is about one in ten to the seventh power, which is enough
    to draw scrutiny from Congress. There are three areas in which problems arise: when content
    was sent that should not have been sent, which is extremely rare; when the classification level
    was incorrectly determined; and the greatest problem, when a sequence of emails taken together
    constitutes classified information. Dr. Bowles said the culture of awareness is very important
    because it’s impossible to provide the detailed guidance required for each and every message
    sent. The estimated cost for this type of monitoring would be $395 million a year, which is not
    feasible.

    Concerning communication within groups of people, some at LANL are cleared and some are
    uncleared. Some are foreign nationals, including 540 permanent staff members. Dr. Bowles
    said that normally, nuclear physics work on dual use technologies can be conducted in open,
    unclassified environments. In some cases, part of a group has offices inside a secure area and
    part of the group has offices in an open area. For specific experiments, they use special controls
    for a limited time, such as physically secure areas. Quantum cryptography is more restrictive,
    because it deals with intelligence information. This work is carried out inside Sensitive
    Compartmented Information Facilities (SCIF), with stringent access controls. This system
    automatically limits communication because not all people in the group have access.
    Dr. Bowles said that there is a greater level of concern when dealing with people from sensitive
    countries (defined as those that present particular threats to the United States). There are
    currently about 25 sensitive countries, such as North Korea and Iran. Most countries that have
    been placed on this list are there because of concerns about nuclear technologies. Dr. Bowles
    said one of the questions for the bioscience community to address is whether to single out
    people from those countries as a particular threat and decide whether they will be dealt with
    differently than those from non-sensitive countries.

    Every time a foreign national comes in to LANL, they must receive approval, whether they’re
    there for an hour or working permanently. This process includes development of a statement
    of work that indicates who will oversee the person’s work and what access to facilities and
    computer systems the individual will have. This is reviewed on a case-by-case basis every year
    to verify that there has been no loss of sensitive information or technologies. Dr. Bowles said
    the restrictions are becoming increasingly stringent. The foreign nationals soon may not be
    allowed access to administrative information maintained on the lab’s computer system, such as
    how much vacation time they have. The foreign nationals have felt the impact of this increased
    scrutiny and they feel discriminated against. Dr. Bowles said that is just a fact of life at Los
    Alamos. He tried to convince the DOE that the restrictions placed on foreign nationals
    constitute a greater security risk than the presence of the foreign nationals, because the best
    minds in the world are needed to address national security issues. DOE rejected this idea
    because they don’t want foreign nationals close to classified information, even though in the last
    50 years there has never been a documented case in which a foreign national accessed classified
    information. Every time there has been a security issue, the perpetrator has been a U.S. citizen
    with access, i.e., an insider.

    In terms of lessons learned, Dr. Bowles said the bioscience community must deal with the
    increasing rigor that’s focused on national security issues, which will be much more challenging
    than in the nuclear arena. He also said dual use technology necessarily requires additional
    efforts, such as review of publications and presentations, mail, and email; and awareness in
    discussions with internal and external personnel. He said the culture of awareness is absolutely
    critical, but it takes time, money, and resources, which will necessarily be diverted from
    scientific research. Dr. Bowles reiterated that physical access issues must be discussed,
    particularly with relation to foreign nationals. He recommended the formation of integrated
    teams between science and compliance personnel to develop solutions. In closing, he offered
    the services of the laboratory to NSABB in any way that might be useful.
    Dr. Keim then asked Dr. Phil Campbell, editor-in-chief of Nature and a Director of the Nature
    Publishing Group, to share perspectives from the scientific publishing community.

    A Century of Camouflage End(cryptography)
    A failed concealment and misdirection of adversaries are no longer primordial acts,The theory carefully distinguishes among related techniques such as hiding, blending, disguising, disrupting and decoying, each of which means something different. Camouflage remains master key of secret and more reader applied to different fields such Dyson Sphere and much more others – released January 7th, 2011.

  11. further more Dr Bowles talk about the weaponized hardness the power of seven,or precious minerals and biological is vis versa, this is how information, technology, and knowledge inter-related. ACCORDING STARK WeOPONIZE INDUSTRIES, talk about the gigantic waste.relating the big bang theory.race to the top. is the dreams of every scientist.

  12. Biotechnology in an Age of Threat.

    Upcoming articles
    1. The mutation rate and clone growth for microbial science.
    2. RNA polymorphis.
    3. RNA sequence and microbial science.
    4. Genetic Change and variation
    5. Microbial science Infrastructure.
    6. Microbial taxonomy

    A vaccine developed to protect human and Agricultural were weaponized; substances as ordinary as pure water for a vaccine facility could be used for warfare. Scientists are the designer of threat “assembling puzzles.” And the cities half empty and train stations and Airport stations remained vampires’ zoo man beating one another infected with virus targeting T-cells. High fever, vomits, internal bleeding and some case multiple organ failure and allergic reaction. Therapeutic resistance switches of (total treatment failure reported). Father leaves the san, mother, daughter even husband runaway situation emerged. Biological scientist said “due to extensive research has yield unprecedented medical break through, supporting the edge, enemy of our enemies would be our friend? Biological infrastructure has yield hostile natural disasters causes quit devastating. The rabbis 295 (dog virulent) arrested inside your house could escape any time, what insurance do families have? Nature of the threats, Think about, you are in the train station waiting for the strain, after the train stopped doors open passengers move out fast infected with this virus. What do you expect; you can’t escape from the vampires they are faster than you.
    RNA sequence and microbial science .the advent based structures that has dramatically improved our ability to overt relatedness signatures between two isolates in the field of microbial science revolution, taxonomy, and epidemiology, no matter developed, under- developing the technology is cheap and difficult to identify species and strain, sometimes unpredictable outcomes from targeting or controlling gene(s). Proceeding any need for access to the naturally occurring agents or naturally occurring nucleic acids from these agents, and greatly expand the potential availability of these agents.

    Research Random Recombinant dRNA(i) Molecules. Specifically, it describes the assessment of any biological concerns presented by the ability to understand genetic engineering or synthesize new genes, biochemical pathways, and biological components with specified or novel properties, and ultimately by the design of genetic systems, devices, and taxonomy with specified functions.

    The term “synthetic or natural biology” is used and defined Recombinant RNA Molecules in a taxonomy variety of ways within the scientific community. Indeed, the dynamic nature of science but ensures that a precise definition of “Recombinant RNA Molecules biology” will remain elusive and will evolve over time. The power of Recombinant RNA Molecules and evolutionary biologists, as more broadly envisioned, reflects the possibility of RNA biological systems that are programmable, self-referential, and modular or G-manipulation, G-enhance or even Insertion, Depletion. The ability to reformat the modules (e.g., the use of altered genetic codes or unnatural amino acids) interfere/disrupt resistance gene transfer leads to increased information content and vastly expanded possibilities for new function. Functionally, two “In vivo” top down and “In vitro” bottom up

    The goal of both is to create old or novel biological structures with predictable properties and functions. The top down approach is related to classical recombinant RNA approaches and involves the re-engineering of existing organisms or genomes for a defined purpose. Increasingly powerful techniques for RNAi synthesis and assembly have significantly accelerated re-engineering capabilities, however. The bottom up approach entails the assembly of biological components in a variety of novel ways. This approach attempts to assemble systems (both living and non-living) that perform desired functions in a predictable manner (e.g. Andromeda Strain or de novo). Additionally, synthetic biology can be viewed even more broadly to include several emerging areas of study (e.g., stem cell, biocomputation), and we note that the biosecurity risks and dual use potential of new technologies and scientific information, regardless of their fields of origin, will remain important considerations for all areas of science.

    Advances in RNA interfere/depletion technology allows the rapid chemical taxonomical and assembly of suites of genes (e.g., the genes encoding a metabolic pathway). A deeper understanding of the specific types and functions of RNA molecules has allowed the new biologist to construct, and program, biological devices. Moreover, advances in other field such asymmetric science biophysic and biochemistry) that have reversible and irreversible impact and protein engineering are allowing the fabrication of new biomasymmetrical(e.g. ,tetra hexa, e.t.c). in recent years the science has matured, recover/reconstruct some infectious virus from RNA for certain microbiall

    “tunnel vision” “tunnel myopic vision. -0.001 upto 1/100 speed ” suggested that microbes used as weapons can be seen in one of two ways. Characterized the first as Tunnel vision looks at microbes as either “weapon” or “not weapon.” Microbial black and white harm has been used to generate microbial could considered select Agent shield list. Tunnel myopic vision, he explained, includes shades of gray. For example, microbes.

    myopic vision, explained, includes shades of gray. For example, microbes are not always bad but can be put into bad. or very bad. Verminators intrinsic potential to be weapons could actually be very harmful, depending on the host. Yeast and yogurt could be catalyst considered weapons because they can contribute harm. based on microbial pathogenesis and is often species-based, in other words, we stated and highly virulent strains are considered in the same way. they plan to examine amplification factors and the relationship of damage to time.
    , these researchers defined “virulence” as the relative capaci They developed a quantitative definition, which states that the virulence weapon potential is a fraction symptomatic over the inoculum. high inoculum will appear to have a great degree of virulence. the weapon potential of a microbe depends on the inherent virulence but is influenced by communicability, stability, and time. By setting all the variables to the maximum, the scale could have a weapon potential assume (7x 10 power of minus9) maximum . mycoplasma genitalium (10–14 W). (sub-micron microbes) to the visible universe spans a range of 1060 in mass and power if mass is a rough proxy for power. This bears some relationship to the famous observation that there are 1080 protons in the visible universe.

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