The U.S. Army has published an updated training manual on military mountaineering (very large pdf).
“Mountains exist in almost every country in the world and almost every war has included some type of mountain operations,” the manual states. “This pattern will not change; therefore, Soldiers will fight in mountainous terrain in future conflicts. Although mountain operations have not changed, several advancements in equipment and transportation have increased the Soldiers’ capabilities.”
From bowline knots to glacier traverses and emergency evacuations, the 300-page manual covers the basic techniques and essential skills of mountaineering. It is intended as a training aid and naturally cannot serve as a substitute for training by an experienced instructor. To the contrary, “Improper use of techniques and procedures by untrained personnel may result in serious injury or death.”
For military doctrine and training in other environments see:
Desert Operations, Field Manual 90-3, August 1993
Jungle Operations, Field Manual 90-5, August 1982
Cold Region Operations, ATTP 3-97.11, January 2011