Title: "Gulf Crisis: Chronology for January, 1991." AR-118 provides an abbreviated version. (910205)
02/05/91 1Ne Bk GULF CRISIS: CHRONOLOGY FOR JANUARY, 1991 (4,580)
(Following is the January 1-31, 1991, chronology of key events in the gulf crisis.)
-- Sixteen factions of the Iraqi opposition are reported to have met in Beirut. The factions issued a statement affirming the need to end Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's rule, repeal unjust laws, end discrimination, and form a coalition government. They affirmed the need for civil liberties, approval of political functions and parliamentary practices according to majority will.
-- NATO's Defense Planning Committee authorizes the deployment of aircraft from Belgium, Germany and Italy to southeastern Turkey following a request from Turkey to help deter a threat from Iraq.
-- President Bush says that he would be willing to send Secretary of State Baker to Geneva to confer with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz.
-- The London Press Association reports that the British government is expelling 75 Iraqis from Britain, including seven diplomats. A Foreign Office spokesman noted that "it is clearly prudent to take all precautions."
-- The foreign ministers of Pakistan, Iran and Turkey, during a one-day meeting in Islamabad, call for total withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, and for the full restoration of Kuwait's independence and sovereignty in accordance with U.N. Security Council resolutions and the Organization of the Islamic Conference declaration. The ministers call upon the the secretary general of the OIC to undertake every conceivable effort, including convening an emergency meeting, to promote a peaceful solution to the crisis.
-- Iraq agrees to send Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz to meet Secretary of State Baker in Geneva on January 9.
GE 2 POL207 January 5
-- President Bush, in a nationwide television address, says that during the meeting with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz in Geneva, Secretary Baker will "restate in person a message for Saddam Hussein -- withdraw from Kuwait unconditionally and immediately or face the terrible consequences."
-- Portuguese Prime Minister Cavaco Silva, meeting with opposition political leaders, reaffirms Portugal's support for the U.N resolutions and coalition activities in the gulf, and says Portugal "is ready to expand its contribution to the allied effort."
-- Norwegian Foreign Minister Thorvald Soltenberg, says the five Nordic countries wish to commit their political, financial and practical support to help the United Nations develop a long-term security arrangement in the Middle East. To secure an Iraqi withdrawal and promote stability, the Nordic countries offer peace-keeping forces and observers under the United Nations flag.
-- As Secretary of State Baker and Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz arrive in Geneva, President Bush, in a television address, calls Baker's mission "perhaps the final chance" to resolve the conflict peacefully. On the way to Geneva, Baker meets with allies in France, Germany and Italy.
-- President Bush calls on the U.S. Congress to adopt a resolution stating that it "supports the use of all necessary means to implement U.N. Security Council Resolution 678." In a letter to the congressional leadership, Bush says that such a resolution "would send the clearest possible message to Saddam Hussein that he must withdraw without condition or delay from Kuwait."
-- House Armed Service Committee Chairman Les Aspin (Democrat - Wisconsin) releases a third "white paper" on the Gulf crisis, which states that a military offensive will be a "reasonable option" if diplomatic efforts fail to persuade Iraq to leave Kuwait.
-- British Prime Minister John Major, visiting British troops in Saudi Arabia, rules out a nuclear response to an Iraqi chemical weapons attack. "We have plenty of weapons short of that," he said.
GE 3 POL207 -- Belgian Foreign Minister Mark Eyskens says in a Brussels interview that the use of force to expel Iraq from Kuwait can be justified by a weakening trade embargo, weather considerations and the fragility of the western alliance. A long-term embargo, says Eyskens, could hurt badly and destabilize countries such as Egypt, Jordan and Turkey.
-- Niger's head of state, Ali Saibou, meets in Riyadh with Saudi King Fahd on the Gulf crisis. Saibou says that Niger understands and supports the actions of King Fahd in preserving the peace and stability in the region. Niger has sent a 481-man battalion to defend Saudi Arabia against Iraq's aggression in the region.
-- Secretary of State Baker and Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz hold talks in Geneva which last for six and one- half hours. At a news conference following the talks, Baker states that "Regrettably...I heard nothing that suggested to me any Iraqi flexibility whatsoever on complying with the U.N. Security Council resolutions." He also said that Tariq Aziz refused to accept a letter from President Bush to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
-- In Baghdad, Saddam Hussein tells a Baath party meeting that "we will make them (Americans) swim in their own blood" if war starts.
-- President Bush, in a press conference, says that while he is "discouraged" about the outcome of the talks he will "continue to try to reach out" to Saddam Hussein. "We want to go the extra mile for peace," he said. "But if Saddam doesn't move, U.N. resolution 678 will be fully complied with."
-- U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar announces that he will travel to Baghdad to talk with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
-- Jamaica's Prime Minister Manley, in a televised address to the Jamaican parliament, says Jamaica and other CARICOM states have consistently supported U.N. resolutions concerning Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and continue to do so.
-- The State Department announces that American diplomats, including U.S. Charge d'affaires Joseph Wilson, will leave Baghdad by chartered aircraft January 12. The U.S. also announced a further reduction in the official U.S. presence in Yemen and advised Americans to defer non-essential travel to Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia because of the
GE 4 POL207 "uncertain conditions in the region caused by Iraq's failure to comply with United Nations resolutions."
-- The Danish Folketing unanimously passes a resolution calling for a complete Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait and giving full support to U.N. Secretary General Perez de Cuellar's mediation attempts.
-- Turkey's regional governor Hayri Kozakcioglu based in the Southeastern regional province says more than 300 Iraqi soldiers and civilians have fled to Turkey over the past few days. The army deserters have defected unarmed, and if more come, Kozakcioglu says, Turkey is prepared to take the necessary measures to take care of them, and to safeguard life and property in Turkey's eastern and southeastern regions if war breaks out.
-- The Dutch parliament, after nine hours of debate, supports the cabinet decision to place Dutch frigates in the gulf in the event of war.
-- Canadian Defense Staff General John De Chastelaine orders six additional CF-18 aircraft and a Boeing 707 refueling aircraft to the gulf to provide air cover for naval units.
-- Both houses of India's parliament adopt identical resolutions unanimously that call upon all parties to the Gulf crisis to avert a war and make a determined effort to seek a peaceful solution through dialogue under U.N. auspices or otherwise.
-- The U.S. Congress -- by a 250-183 vote in the House and 52-47 in the Senate -- passes a joint resolution that gives President Bush full authority to use U.S. armed forces to drive Iraqi forces out of occupied Kuwait to gain compliance United Nations resolutions. After the vote, Senate minority leader Robert Dole (Republican-Kansas) invites Iraqi Ambassador Mohamed al-Mashat to his office to meet with 10 senators of both parties who say their vote was a last-minute bid to avoid war through the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. The ambassador says he will pass the message on to Baghdad.
-- President Bush says the Congressional vote sends the "clearest message to Iraq that it cannot scorn the January 15th deadline" and adds that if Iraq does not withdraw from Kuwait an attack will come "sooner rather than later."
GE 5 POL207 -- The White House releases the text of the president's January 5 letter to Iraqi president Saddam Hussein, which, among other things, states "This is a war that can be ended only by Iraq's full and unconditional compliance with U.N. Security Council Resolution 678. We prefer a peaceful outcome....However, anything less than full compliance with U.N. Security Council Resolution 678 and its predecessors is unacceptable."
-- Acting Assistant Secretary of State Jock Covey tells Iraqi Ambassador al-Mashat to reduce his embassy's staff to a total of four persons, including the ambassador; the rest of the embassy personnel must depart the United States no later than midnight, January 15.
-- U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar meets Iraqi President Saddam Hussein for talks widely seen as the last chance to avert war. Emerging from three and a half hours of talks, Perez de Cuellar says he can report no progress in persuading Iraq to pull out of Kuwait by the January 15 deadline.
-- Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney says in a television interview that if force is used in the Gulf crisis, the purpose would be to "liberate Kuwait," but adds that there would be "no sanctuary inside Iraq for Iraqi forces."
-- Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, meeting with Secretary of State Baker in Cairo, indicates that he is prepared to join in offensive action against Iraq if necessary. His commitment follows an earlier commitment by Saudi King Fahd.
January 14 --
-- Iraq's 250-member National Assembly votes by acclamation to go to war rather than bow to United Nations' demands to pull out of Kuwait. Deputies rise to their feet chanting "Long Live Saddam" and reciting Koranic verses extolling the virtue of martyrdom in battle.
-- The twelve foreign ministers of the European Community states (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom) decide unanimously not to send a last- minute peace mission to Baghdad. They agree to discourage individual initiatives.
-- U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar, returning to New York, asserts that he has "not been offered anything from the Iraqi authorities which I can consider a step towards peace. As far as I am concerned, I
GE 6 POL207 have done what I have to do -- I don't know whether others will do something, but it appears to me that it is perhaps a little late for embarking on any other (peace) efforts." On his return-trip stopovers, Perez de Cuellar said he talked with President Mitterrand of France, British Prime Minister Major, Luxembourg's Foreign Minister Jacques Poos who is chairman of the 12-member European Community, and the U.S. and Soviet ambassadors. Mitterrand, he said, offered no alternatives.
-- Hamid Algabid, secretary general of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, renews appeals from Jidda to the Iraqi leader to conform to the dictates of Islam and avoid war.
-- Yemen, the only Arab member of the Security Council, proposes a six-point peace initiative in Arab capitals, which, however, it does not push in the United Nations.
-- French diplomats circulate a peace initiative which calls for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait with guarantees that it would not be attacked afterward. U.N. forces would be used to maintain the peace. It reportedly says once an agreement on a timetable for withdrawal has been reached, the U.N. Security Council should make an "active contribution" to resolve other Mideast problems, including the convening "at the appropriate moment," of an international peace conference.
-- U.S. Ambassador Thomas Pickering criticizes the French proposal because the United States is "not in favor of steps that create artificial linkage" or go contrary to the twelve UNSC resolutions already adopted.
-- The World Health Organization's executive board votes 11-3, with 8 abstaining, to reject a requested agenda item by Iraq questioning the U.N. embargo on unapproved drugs, vaccines and food. The W.H.O. said it was satisfied that the U.N. Security Council -- through its 12 resolutions on the gulf crisis -- had taken the necessary steps to safeguard the needs of Iraq for medical supplies. It also noted that Iraq had been informed that the medical supplies, milk and baby food it had requested could be purchased by W.H.O. on a reimbursable basis, but that Iraq had not asked W.H.O. to do so.
-- In Paris early in the day, U.N. Secretary General Perez de Cuellar, during a stopover following talks in Baghdad with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, tells European Community ministers that the only thing the Iraqis did was to levy violent criticism at the U.N. Security Council for condemning Iraq. Asked whether a European action, initiative or mission to Baghdad was still worthwhile, Perez de Cuellar replies that the present climate is "not suitable" for such an initiative.
GE 7 POL207 -- Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary General of the Organization for African Unity, in a television interview, calls for the unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait and a peaceful solution to the Gulf crisis.
-- Bangladesh's acting President Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed appeals to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to withdraw troops from Kuwait.
-- Turkey "temporarily suspends" its embassy operations in Baghdad, and its ambassador returns to Turkey accompanied by 20 embassy employees.
-- In Vienna, the acting foreign minister of Austria Franz Loeschnak summons the Iraqi and Soviet ambassadors for a meeting. The Austrian cabinet, following a special meeting to discuss the gulf crisis, calls for a peaceful solution, in line with "international community resolutions." Chancellor Franz Vranitzky announces that the Austrian Red Cross will send a 30-person medical team to the Gulf.
-- Iraq unilaterally closes the Habur border gate with Turkey, according to a Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman, who adds that that necessary measures have been taken at the Turkish border for all those who wish to get out of Iraq. He says Turkish-Iraqi diplomatic relations continue nonetheless.
-- United Nations Secretary General Perez de Cuellar makes a final appeal to Iraqi president Saddam Hussein "to turn the course of events away from catastrophe." In an appeal on the eve of the United Nations deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, Perez de Cuellar urges Iraq "to commence without delay, the total withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait."
-- Germany's Bundestag adopts a resolution on the gulf stating that all attempts thus far to solve the crisis by peaceful means have failed due to the adamant refusal of the Iraqi leadership to end the illegal annexation of Kuwait. The resolution calls on the Iraqi leadership to comply immediately with relevant U.N. Security Council resolutions, withdraw Iraqi troops from Kuwait, and open the way for a peaceful solution of the gulf crisis.
-- Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti in a press interview says that "the principle must be stressed that that the dispute is between Iraq and the U.N., not between Iraq and the U.S."
-- French Prime Minister Michel Rocard accuses Baghdad of turning down all offers of dialogue and says that the time has come to use force to dislodge Iraq from Kuwait. "The
GE 8 POL207 time to act has, alas, come after we did everything we could to avoid it," the prime minister says.
-- The White House issues a midnight statement to telephone callers: "January 15 was a deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. It was not a deadline for U.N. action. The choice for peace remains with Saddam Hussein."
-- U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Thomas Pickering tells reporters that he hopes that Saddam Hussein will respond positively to Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar's appeal to pull out of Kuwait unconditionally and avert a catastrophe for his country. Shortly before U.N. Resolution 678 enters into force at midnight, Pickering says that the deadline means that the United Nations multinational forces "are permitted to use such steps as may be necessary" to free Kuwait. "That doesn't mean that they must," he says, adding that the allied nations "will collectively decide" when to take "all necessary means" to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Clearly, however, the "pause for good will" to allow Iraq one final opportunity to comply has come to an end, he states.
-- The liberation of Kuwait begins as the coalition of Kuwaiti, Saudi, U.S., French and British air forces begin operation Desert Storm with massive bombing raids on military targets in Iraq and Kuwait. The multinational action focuses on such military targets as communications systems, airports, transportation systems, military installations, and nuclear and chemical weapons facilities.
-- The United States, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia formally notify the U.N. Security Council of the allied strike. U.S. Ambassador Thomas Pickering tells the council the goal is to liberate Kuwait, not to destroy or dismember Iraq and that "Iraq can still avoid further destruction by unconditional, immediate and complete withdrawal from Kuwait."
-- General Norman Schwarzkopf, in Riyadh, says 36 hours into the campaign the combined forces have launched 1,200 air missions into Iraq and Kuwait. "We're doing everything we possibly can to avoid injuring, hurting or destroying innocent people," Schwarzkopf says. He also confirms that Iraq launched seven Scud surface-to-surface missiles against Israel and one against Saudi Arabia. The missiles, carrying conventional high explosive warheads, were aimed at population centers, not military targets. Schwarzkopf says the Scud missiles fired against Israel yielded "insignificant results," and the one aimed at Dhahran was
GE 9 POL207 destroyed by a Patriot missile before it could cause any damage.
-- President Bush condemns Iraqi Scud missile attacks against civilians in Saudi Arabia and Israel, warning that none of Iraq's neighbors is safe from Iraqi missile attack. The president promises an all-out effort to destroy Iraqi missile sites.
Iraqi officials place captured British and American airmen on television. General Norman Schwarzkopf confirms that "it is entirely likely" that at least two American airmen were held by Baghdad. Senator John McCain (Republican-Arizona), a former prisoner of war in Vietnam, says the statements were "obviously made under duress." Britain asks the Red Cross to probe the Iraqi actions.
-- The U.S. announces it is sending Patriot air defense units to assist Israel in its defense against missile attacks from Iraq.
-- The State Department delivers a diplomatic note to Khalid J. Shewayish, the Iraqi charge d'affaires, reminding Baghdad of its obligation under the 1949 Geneva Conventions not to mistreat prisoners. Washington also promises to provide "humane and safe detention and medical care" to captured Iraqi soldiers.
-- Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney says Iraq's plan to use captured allied airmen as human shields is a violation of international law and can be classified as a war crime. "Iraq is a signatory to the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners. This would be a clearcut violation of the Geneva Convention. It's in effect a war crime. Those people who carry out those kinds of acts will be held accountable."
-- Under Secretary of State Robert Kimmett summons the Iraqi charge d'affaires and warns Iraq that any effort to hold allied prisoners of war (POWs) at military targets in Iraq will constitute a war crime and that individuals responsible will be personally liable and subject to prosecution.
* PAGE 10 PAGE 10 POL207 -- Iraqi Scud missiles fired at civilian areas of Tel Aviv kill three and injure 90 Israelis. The White House again condemns the attacks as a "brutal act of terror."
-- Heads of foreign affairs ministries of the 12 European Community (EC) states meeting in Luxembourg voice profound concern at the "unscrupulous" use of prisoners of war by Iraq in the Gulf war. The EC reaction comes in response to Iraq's announcement that it intends to keep prisoners of war close to military bases and other potential targets of enemy action.
-- The White House says that allied air forces have struck a production facility for biological weapons disguised by Iraq to look like a baby milk factory.
-- The Nestle Corporation says baby formula was never produced at a Baghdad factory bombed by warplanes from the multinational forces, although film footage of the plant taken from a visit to the plant organized in 1990 by Iraqi authorities for foreign reporters shows products bearing the brand Guigoz, a Nestle affiliate.
-- The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Geneva expresses concern to the Iraqi government about the treatment of allied airmen taken prisoner during the gulf war. The committee says it reminded Iraq of its obligations under the Third Geneva Convention relating to the treatment of prisoners of war, especially Article 13, which states that "prisoners of war must at all times be protected, particularly against acts of violence or intimidation and against insults and public curiosity."
-- Germany expels 28 Iraqi diplomats and government officials, in action said to prevent the diplomats from ordering terrorist acts. The diplomats were employed at the the Iraqi embassy in Bonn and at Iraq's mission in Berlin, the German Foreign ministry said.
-- Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak says Iraq's Scud missile cannot win the gulf war and appeals to Iraqi president Saddam Hussein to end the bloodshed by withdrawing from Kuwait.
-- Responding to news reports of a massive outpouring of oil from Iraqi-held facilities in the Persian Gulf, Defense Department spokesman Pete Williams says Iraq's deliberate
* PAGE 11 PAGE 11 POL207 spilling of crude oil in the gulf "is clearly an act of environmental terrorism."
-- President Bush says scientists of the U.S., Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and other countries have met on the "enormous environmental damage and are close to agreement on a method of attacking the spill. Bush pledges "that every effort will be made to try to stop this continuing spill into the gulf and to stop what has spilled from moving further south." White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater says Iraq released the oil over several days from tank farms in Kuwait by deliberately "opening the spigots and letting it flow" into the sea. He says the spill is several times larger than the 11-million-gallon Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska. The gulf spill threatens Saudi Arabia's ports, refineries and desalting plants.
-- A major U.S. poll by the Wall Street Journal and NBC News shows that three out of four Americans approve of President Bush's performance, specifically his decision to go to war to free Kuwait from Iraq.
-- President Bush orders a team of U.S. government oil pollution and environmental experts to Saudi Arabia, to assist the Saudis to minimize the environmental damage from the oil slick.
-- The allied air campaign is forcing Iraq's air force into Iran, says the commander of U.S. forces, General Norman Schwarzkopf. Schwarzkopf says that in the previous 24 hours, more than 39 Iraqi aircraft have fled to Iran.
-- The U.S. Air Force carries out a precision bombing operation in Kuwait to put out an oil fire and stop the control mechanism that allows oil to be pumped into the Gulf. "The best estimates we have, based upon the length of the oil spill is that this probably was opened up about January 19th," says General Norman Schwarzkopf. As he showed before and after film footage he said, "I am showing you what we have done to date to try and use our military power to solve this very, very difficult problem, and I am trying to show you that we tried to do it in such a way that we are not destroying the entire economy of Kuwait. I think we have been successful, but only time is going to tell."
* PAGE 12 PAGE 12 POL207 -- Iran officially informs U.N. Secretary General Perez de Cuellar that until the end of hostilities in the Persian Gulf, it will not allow Baghdad the use of Iraqi military planes and personnel that have entered Iranian territory. In the event of emergency landing of any aircraft of either side on Iranian territory, Iran says the aircraft will be seized and held until the termination of hostilities.
-- The United Nations World Health Organization calls Iraq's discharge of oil into the Gulf "an environmental disaster of unprecedented proportions." The effects of the oil spill will be "long-lasting and of concern to public health," the organization said. "The most imminent danger appears to be the threat to a major source of water supply for the countries of the region who depend on desalination of the sea water for their daily water supply." W.H.O. appeals to all governments concerned to help stop the spread of the oil spill and mitigate its effects on public health.
-- The Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly adopts a resolution which strongly condemns Iraq's attacks on Israel, treatment of prisoners of war and the discharging of oil into the gulf. "The assembly calls for a war crimes tribunal to be established to deal with the many crimes already committed by the Iraqi authorities as well as those which may be committed before the aims of the U.N. resolutions have been secured," the resolution states.
-- Secretary of State James Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Bessmertnykh, in a statement following their discussions in Washington, say "a cessation of hostilities would be possible if Iraq would make an unequivocal commitment to withdraw from Kuwait." Such a commitment, they say, "must be backed by immediate, concrete steps leading to full compliance with the Security Council resolutions."
-- President Bush, in his State of the Union address, says the 28-nation coalition opposing Iraqi aggression is "on course," and "Iraq's capacity to sustain war is being destroyed." But he stresses, "We do not seek the destruction of Iraq, its culture, or its people. Rather, we seek an Iraq that uses its great resources, not to destroy, not to serve the ambitions of a tyrant, but to build a better life for itself and its neighbors."
-- The Department of Defense says that between 80 and 90 Iraqi aircraft, 65 percent of them military, have now flown into Iran.
* PAGE 13 PAGE 13 POL207
-- The Dutch Cabinet, responding to a NATO request, decides to send two squadrons of Hawk anti-aircraft missiles to NATO ally Turkey to help defend it from a possible Iraqi attack, a Dutch Defense Ministry spokesman announces. The missiles will be used to defend airports from enemy aircraft.
-- Germany's Chancellor Helmut Kohl tells parliament that Germany must stand unwaveringly behind the anti-Iraq coalition and Israel and help pay for their defense, even if it could not send troops to the gulf. Germany offers Israel a 500-million-dollar defense package that includes medicines and medical equipment, Patriot missiles, gear to counter poison gas and financial help in building two submarines in German shipyards.
-- Turkey's religious affairs director Mustafa Sayit Yazicioglu says in a written statement that jihad calls against multinational anti-Iraqi forces are inappropriate. Yazicioglu declares that the war in the gulf is not a conflict between Christians and Muslims. "This is not a war between Muslims and Christians. Among the coalition forces there are also Muslim armed forces. Their aim is to stop the oppression imposed on one neighbor from another neighbor," Yazicioglu explains.
-- A Red Cross convoy carrying 19 tons of emergency medical supplies for Iraqi civilians crosses from Iran into Iraq. The International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva says it is the first mission since the war began. NNNN
File Identification: 02/05/91, PO-207; 02/05/91, EU-205; 02/05/91, NE-208; 02/11/90, AR-118; 02/06/91, AX-301; 02/06/91, PX-301; 02/06/91, AR-310; 02/09/91, NA-606; 02/08/91, NA-512
Product Name: Wireless File
Product Code: WF
Keywords: OPERATION DESERT STORM; PEACEKEEPING FORCES; MILITARY STRATEGY; BUSH, GEORGE/Foreign Relations: Near East & South Asia; IRAQ-US RELATIONS; DIPLOMATIC COMMUNICATIONS; ARAB NATIONS-US RELATIONS; ARAB NATIONS-IRAQ RELATIONS; MISS
Document Type: CHR
Thematic Codes: 1NE
Target Areas: EU; NE; AF; AR; EA
PDQ Text Link: 171325; 172045