Description: SLAM-Expanded Response (ER) is Naval Aviation’s follow-on to the SLAM Stand-off Outside Area Defense (SOAD) weapon. It is a day/night, adverse-weather, precision-strike
weapon with over-the-horizon range. SLAM is based on the highly successful and reliable
Harpoon anti-ship missile, with a Global Positioning System-aided Inertial Navigation System
(GPS/INS) for mid-course guidance, and a Maverick imaging infrared sensor and a Walleye data
link for precise, “man-in-the-loop” terminal guidance. SLAM-ER, an evolutionary upgrade of
SLAM, provides the Navy and Marine Corps with a major improvement in precision strike
capability. A modified Tomahawk warhead improves lethality and penetration. New planar wings
double the range and allow terrain-following flight. Mission planning time has been reduced to
less than 30 minutes, and targeting has been improved via a “freeze frame” command that
reduces pilot workload.
SLAM-ER+ will also incorporate Automatic Target Acquisition (ATA), making it an autonomous
weapon and enhancing the missile’s capability against small targets and targets in urban
environments. ATA uses a matching algorithm to recognize both the aimpoint as well as the
surrounding scene, reducing the requirement for manual pilot intervention via a data link.
Program Status: SLAM Initial Operational Capability was reached in 1991. Procurements of
SLAM have been 75 units each in FY 1994 and 1995. SLAM-ER successfully completed
developmental testing (with five-of-five successful missions), and IOC was in FY 1998. SLAM-
ER+ will enter production in FY 1999.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.
High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile
Description: A joint-service program with the Navy as lead service, HARM is the Navy’s primary anti-radiation, defense-suppression, air-to-surface missile. It has been employed against targets
in the 1986 Gulf of Sidra crisis and the 1991 Gulf War, as well as most recently in Operation
Desert Fox and in defense of “no-fly” zones above Iraq. HARM is designed to destroy or suppress
enemy electronic emitters, especially those associated with radar sites used to direct anti-aircraft
guns and surface-to-air missiles. The AGM-88B (Block III) and the AGM-88C (Block IV) are
currently being upgraded to the Block IIIA and Block V, respectively. These upgrades will provide
increased capability against target shutdown, blanking, and blinking. They will also add capability
against complex wave forms and have improved control of the missile’s geographic footprint to
reduce potential damage to friendly forces in the target area. HARM Block V will also add a
capability to home on jamming equipment.
Program Status: In production. FY 1992 was the last year for Navy all-up rounds. Current
production comprises AGM-88C (Block IV) guidance sections and warheads to upgrade earlier
AGM-88A missiles. Developmental Testing has completed, Operational Testing is scheduled for
FY 1999, and implementation is planned for FY 2000. There is a potential for nearly 5,300
missiles to receive the Block III upgrade and 2,700 missiles to receive the Block V upgrade. In
addition, a new upgrade is planned as a tri-national (Germany, Italy, and the United States)
cooperative project. This international upgrade will add a precision inertial navigation suite
(IMU/GPS) and new software. The IMU/GPS improvements will nearly eliminate fratricide; allow
HARM to more readily attack the shutdown, blanking, or blinking target; and permit its use as a
precision-guided munition (point-to-point capability). The Block VI cooperative Engineering and
Manufacturing Development phase is in progress and will continue through FY 2002.
Description: A new family of Stand-off Outside Point Defense (SOPD) weapons was introduced to the Fleet beginning in FY 1998 with the Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW). JSOW is a key
program that will replace five types of the older air-to-ground weapons currently in the naval
inventory. It is a joint Navy-Air Force weapon development program, with the Navy as the lead
service. It will provide a family of precision-guided weapons that will allow naval aircraft to attack
targets at increased stand-off distances, greatly increasing aircraft survivability. JSOW will be
usable in adverse weather conditions, and, like the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), will give
aircrews the ability to attack multiple targets in a single sortie. The JSOW family uses a common
weapon body for all variants. The AGM-154A variant carries BLU-97 combined-effect bomblets
for use against area targets. To provide anti-armor capability, a follow-on version will carry the
BLU-108 payload derived from the Sensor Fused Weapon (SFW). A third variant is being
developed for a unitary warhead to provide blast-fragmentation capability.
Program Status: The test program for the AGM-154A completed in June 1997 and Carrier Air Wing 9 deployed with five experimental JSOWs in fall 1997. AGM-154A Initial Operational
Capability occurred in FY 1998. AGM-154B and AGM-154C variants are expected to reach IOC
in FY 2002 and FY 2003, respectively.
Description: The AIM-9X is a major modification to the AIM-9M Sidewinder. The program upgrades the missile with a focal plane array guidance control section, a highly maneuverable
airframe, and signal processors that enhance its kinematics and infrared countermeasures
capabilities. The missile will provide U.S. fighters with air superiority well into the next century.
The missile’s high off-boresight capability can be coupled to a helmet-mounted cueing system,
which will revolutionize the way in which air-to-air missiles are employed. The Navy’s F/A-18C/D/E/F Hornet and the Air Force’s F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-15 Eagle, and F-22 aircraft are
currently programmed to carry the AIM-9X.
Program Status: The 18-month Demonstration/Validation program was completed in the summer 1996. An Engineering and Manufacturing Development phase began in FY 1997. Initial
Operational Capability is scheduled for FY 2002.
Description: The AIM-120 AMRAAM missile is deployed on the F/A-18C/D Hornet, and will be deployed on the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft. Joint U.S. Air Force and Navy procurement of AMRAAM continues, and deliveries of the AIM-120C are under way. The AIM-120C Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) Program is a key factor in maintaining air superiority into the next century. This modernization plan includes clipped wings
for internal carriage, a propulsion enhancement program, increased warhead lethality, and
enhanced electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) capabilities through hardware and
Ultimately, AMRAAM will be the Department of the Navy’s sole Medium/Beyond Visual Range
(BVR) missile. As part of the continuing “neckdown strategy,” the radar-guided AIM-54C Phoenix
and AIM-7M Sparrow are out of production, and no further software or hardware improvements
are planned. Nevertheless, F-14 Tomcats armed with the AIM-54C and AIM-7M will remain
effective air superiority fighters into the next century, and the AIM-54/AIM-7 inventory will support
the Tomcat throughout its remaining service life.
Program Status: Deliveries of the reprogrammable AIM-120B began reaching the Fleet in April 1995, followed by the AIM-120C in 1996. The joint AMRAAM procurement and an aggressive P3I
program are continuing.
Description: The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) currently under development is a multi-service effort to develop a strap-on, Global Positioning System-aided Inertial Navigation System
(GPS/INS) guidance kit that will improve the accuracy of general-purpose bombs in all weather
conditions. JDAM will also allow a single aircraft to attack multiple targets from a single release
Program Status: The Air Force is the lead service for JDAM. Low-Rate Initial Production began in FY 1997, and Milestone III is planned for FY 1999. The delivery of 937 strap-on kits for 2,000-
pound bombs began in FY 1998.
Developer/Manufacturer: Boeing, St. Louis, Missouri.
Description: The Mk 48 torpedo is carried by all U.S. attack and ballistic missile submarines (SSN and SSBNs). The improved version, the Mk 48 ADCAP, is carried by the Los Angeles (SSN-688)-class, Sturgeon (SSN-637)-class, and Ohio (SSBN-726)-class submarines; it will also arm the three Seawolf (SSN-21)-class submarines and the Virginia (SSN-774)-class submarines. The Mk 48 ADCAP’s upgraded guidance and propulsion systems enable U.S. submarines to attack hostile surface ships or submarines in the presence of torpedo countermeasures and in adverse environmental conditions, including shallow water. A modification to the ADCAP (ADCAP MOD) increases guidance and control speed and memory, and significantly reduces radiated noise. Both torpedoes combat fast, deep-diving nuclear submarines and high-performance surface ships. The ADCAP is also effective against the diesel submarine (SSK) threat in the littoral environment, and the ADCAP MOD will improve the torpedo’s performance against all threats in all operational environments. Both variants can operate with or without wire guidance using active and/or passive homing, and can execute preprogrammed search and attack procedures.
A follow-on hardware upgrade, known as Common Broadband Advanced Sonar System
(CBASS), began development in FY 1998. CBASS will further enhance the torpedo’s
performance against modern SSNs and SSKs employing advanced countermeasures.
Program Status: ADCAP MODs upgrade production began in FY 1995. An additional 90
torpedoes are to be upgraded in FY 1999, with another 421 weapons to be upgraded between FY
2000 and 2005. CBASS MODs are scheduled for implementation on 313 torpedoes between FY
2002 and 2005.
Developer/Manufacturer: ADCAP MOD: Northrop Grumman, Sunnyvale, California. CBASS: To
Description: The Trident II/D5 is the sixth generation of the U.S. Navy’s Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) program, which started in 1955. The D5 is a three-stage, solid-propellant, inertial-guided submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) with a range greater than 4,000 nautical miles and an accuracy measured in hundreds of feet. The Ohio (SSBN-726)-class submarines each carry 24 Trident missiles — Trident I/C4 on the first eight ships stationed in Bangor, Washington, and Trident II/D5 on the ten ships stationed in Kings Bay, Georgia. Beginning in FY 2000, four of the C4 ships will be converted to carry the Trident II/D5 missile. Trident II missiles are capable of carrying W76 or W88 Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs). In operation, these missiles have been declared at eight MIRV warheads under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). The Navy continues to address future deterrence requirements against weapons of mass destruction, and the Trident II/D5 will ensure that the United States has a modern, survivable strategic deterrent.
Program Status: Production of 79 D5 missiles remains to reach the inven-tory objective of 425 missiles for 14 Trident II/D5 SSBNs in two oceans. Planned procurement through FY 2005 is 5-12 missiles per year.
Description: AGS is a large-caliber (nominally 155mm) Gun Weapon System planned for
installation in the DD-21 Land-Attack Destroyers to provide high-volume, sustainable fires in
support of amphibious operations and the joint land battle. AGS is a fully integrated gun weapon
system that includes two 155mm guns, fully integrated gun and fire control systems, and test and
fault isolation functions. Each gun will be capable of independently firing up to 12 rounds per
minute from an automated magazine storing as many as 1,500 rounds. The AGS program also
includes development of a 155mm version of the Extended Range Guided Munition (ERGM, see
separate program summary). AGS will be designed to meet the reduced manning and low radar-
signature requirements of DD-21.
Program Status: The program started in FY 1999. The first gun system is scheduled for delivery to DD-21 in FY 2006, with an Initial Operational Capability of 2008.
Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined. The AGS is being developed as part of the full-service contractor acquisition strategy for DD-21.
Description: The Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile (TLAM) is the Navy’s premier, all-weather, long-range, subsonic land-attack cruise missile deployed on surface warships and submarines. The TLAM/C (BGM-109C) variant is armed with a unitary conventional warhead, while the TLAM/D (BGM-109D) variant is armed with submunitions. TLAM is guided by an on-board Inertial
Navigation System (INS) and Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM), which compares a stored
digital map with actual terrain. TLAM Block III complements TERCOM with a Global Positioning
System (GPS) guidance capability. The upgraded Tactical Tomahawk preserves Tomahawk’s long-range precision-strike capability while significantly increasing responsiveness and flexibility. Tactical Tomahawk improvements include:
a range increase to 1,600 nautical miles at altitude
the ability to loiter over the battlefield and to respond to emergent targets
a missile-mounted camera that gives a snapshot of the battlefield for Battle Damage Indication
Imagery (BDII) via satellite data link
Global Positioning System mission planning on-board the launch platform, enabling shooter to
rapidly plan and execute strike missions against emergent battlefield targets
an open architecture to allow for future advances and alternative payloads
Program Status: Tactical Tomahawk became the program of record in FY 1998 and will reach Initial Operational Capability in FY 2003.
Description: The Mk 15 Phalanx Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) is an integral element of the Ship Self-Defense System (SSDS) and the anti-air warfare defense-in-depth concept. CIWS is a radar-controlled, rapid-fire gun designed as a fast-reaction terminal defense weapon against anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) penetrating outer fleet defenses. CIWS is capable of firing 4,500
rounds per minute and is integrated with a search-and-track radar and weapon-control unit. A
unique closed-loop fire control system that tracks both the incoming target and the stream of
outgoing projectiles gives CIWS the capability to correct its aim to hit fast-moving and
maneuvering targets. Enhancements to existing CIWS capabilities include the new High Order
Language Computer (HOLC), which improves Phalanx performance against high-speed
maneuvering targets. The Phalanx Surface Mode (PSUM), CIWS IB, uses electro-optical systems to provide day/night detection capability and enables the CIWS to engage surface targets and
slow-moving air targets, e.g., helicopters.
Program Status: More than 400 CIWS systems have been deployed at sea on U.S. warships since the system was first tested in August 1973. Development and Operational Testing (DT/OT) of the HOLC fire-control system completed in FY 1996, using the Self-Defense Test Ship. Testing of the Phalanx Surface Mode capability completed in FY 1998. Initial delivery is expected in FY 2000.
Description: The Extended-Range Guided Munition (ERGM) is a 12-caliber rocket-assisted
projectile carrying a 4-caliber submunition payload. The 110-pound aerodynamic projectile is five
inches in diameter and 61 inches in length, uses a coupled Global Positioning System/Inertial
Navigation System (GPS/INS) guidance system, and is armed with a submunition warhead. Prior
to launch from a 5-inch/62-caliber Mk 45 gun, the ERGM is provided a target set in GPS
coordinates, and after launch the ERGM acquires GPS lock and establishes its relative position
within the GPS system. The GPS guidance is tightly linked to an inertial guidance system that is
immune to jamming, which will enable the ERGM round to attack targets in a heavy electronic
countermeasures environment. The Navy is taking advantage of a U.S. Army-developed
submunition for the ERGM; 72 M-80 dual-purpose (anti-material/personnel) submunitions with
both shaped charge and enhanced fragmentation will be incorporated in each round. The
ERGM’s submunitions will be uniformly dispensed within a pre-determined area that depends
upon the specific target to be attacked and the altitude at which the submunitions are released.
ERGM’s range and precise GPS targeting capability will improve Naval Surface Fire Support
(NSFS) and provide near-term gunfire support for amphibious operations, suppression and
destruction of hostile anti-shipping weapons and air defense systems, and naval fires support to
the joint land battle.
Program Status: Milestone I/II was reached in July 1996, allowing the ERGM to enter Engineering and Manufacturing Development. Low-Rate Initial Production of 500 rounds will begin in FY 2000.
Description: The Land-Attack Standard Missile (LASM) is a land-attack variant of the Navy’s
Standard (SM-2) surface-to-air missile. LASM will provide Aegis surface warships a surface fire
support weapon with the range, lethality, responsiveness, and accuracy needed to support
Marine Corps Fire Support requirements for Operational Maneuver from the Sea. LASM is a
supersonic missile, 186 inches long and 13.5 inches in diameter, launched from the Mk 41
Vertical Launching System (VLS). It employs a highly effective Mk 125 blast-fragmentation
warhead and Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) for precision
Program Status: The Chief of Naval Operations selected LASM for development and
procurement on 16 April 1998. Programmed funding for LASM starts in FY 2000 and LASM Initial
Operational Capability is planned for FY 2003. The procurement objective is 800 missiles. The
first successful LASM concept demonstration flight occurred 21 November 1997 at the White
Sands Missile Range. There have been two additional flight demonstrations and two warhead
arena tests. Ongoing efforts include risk reduction and engineering analysis and testing.
Description: The Mk 54 Lightweight Hybrid Torpedo is a modular upgrade to the lightweight
torpedo inventory and is designed to counter quiet diesel-electric submarines operating in shallow
water. LHT combines existing torpedo hardware and software from the Mk 46, Mk 50, and Mk 48
Advanced Capability (ADCAP) programs with advanced digital Commercial Off-The-Shelf
electronics. The resulting Mk 54 LHT offers significantly improved shallow-water counter-
countermeasures capability at reduced life-cycle costs.
Program Status: In-water testing is planned for FY 1999, and Initial Operational Capability is
expected in FY 2003.
Navy Area TBMD
Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense
Description: The Navy Area TBMD Program will provide the capability to defend naval forces at
sea and in the littorals, and extend that protection to forces and facilities on shore; it provides for
engagement of Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBMs) in the terminal phase of flight. Additionally, it is
based on evolving the capabilities and investments in the Aegis Weapon System and takes
advantage of the solid foundation of Aegis ships, trained crews, and existing industrial
foundations to develop a capability to defeat TBMs. Because the threat from theater-range
ballistic missiles is increasing, near-term Navy Area TBMD from ships at sea — taking advantage
of the inherent flexibility and mobility of naval forces without reliance on host nation permission or
support — is critical for safe entry of our forces into overseas ports and airfields; Navy Area
TBMD is thus the keystone of America’s increasingly continental U.S. (CONUS)-based national
security and national military strategies. The United States has more than $67 billion invested in
its fleet of highly capable Aegis cruisers and destroyers that are routinely deployed around the
world; it is this investment that provides the foundation for sea-based Navy Area TBMD.
Program Status: In March and July 1996, Aegis warships demonstrated the ability of the SPY
phased-array radar to track “real world” TBMs. On 24 January 1997, the Navy Area program
conducted the first intercept of a TBM target, using a modified SM-2 Block IV missile (an early
prototype of the SM-2 Block IVA Area TBMD missile) at the White Sands Missile Range, New
Mexico, which demonstrated the functionality of the infrared seeker. The program was
subsequently approved to proceed to Engineering and Manufacturing Development at a
Milestone II Defense Acquisition Board on 22 February 1997. The Navy Area TBMD Program has
deployed a User Operational Evaluation System termed “Linebacker” on two ships — the USS
Lake Erie (CG-70) and Port Royal (CG-73) — and will deliver the first of 32 SM-2 Block IVA Engineering and Manufacturing Development missiles in FY 2000. “Linebacker” represents the
capability available in engineering development equipment and computer programs midway
through the EMD phase.
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona; Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey; and Motorola, Chandler, Arizona.
Navy Theater-Wide TBMD Theater Ballistic Missile Defense
Description: Navy Theater-Wide (NTW) TBMD builds upon the Navy Area TBMD capability and
consists of modifications to the Aegis Weapon System, and the integration of the Ballistic Missile
Defense Organization (BMDO)-developed Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) and a
third-stage rocket motor into the existing Standard SM-2 Block IV Missile. The NTW system will
be capable of intercepting threat ballistic missiles in their ascent, midcourse, and descent phases
of their exo-atmospheric trajectory. Coupled with the Navy Area TBMD capability, this will provide
robust defense-in-depth to U.S. and allied forces, vital political and military assets, population
centers, and large geographic regions against the threat of ballistic missile attack. The Navy’s
NTW capability will pace the growing ballistic missile threat by providing a Block I capability
against medium-range ballistic missiles, and a follow-on Block II capability against medium- and
long-range ballistic missiles. In the near term, a two-pronged developmental approach leads to:
A system-level Aegis LEAP Intercept (ALI) program from 1998 to 2000
Parallel risk-reduction activities in preparation for engineering development, including:
Kinetic Warhead Divert
Kinetic Warhead Seeker
Program Status: On 16 May 1997, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and
Technology approved recommendations of the NTW Overarching Integrated Product Team for
the program to proceed toward the next milestone and entry into the Acquisition Life Cycle in the
Preliminary Design and Risk Reduction phase, and to provide Milestone I documentation to
support a Defense Acquisition Board. In September 1997, Phase II of the Navy TBMD Cost and
Operational Effectiveness Analysis recommended the SM-3 LEAP as the interceptor of choice.
An initial Aegis LEAP intercept with a prototype SM-3 is planned for late-FY 1999, and an initial
NTW Block I capability is scheduled for FY 2007 deployment with the more robust Block II
capability to follow. The DAB is planned for the second quarter FY 1999 and will approve the
funding and pace of development and deployment for the NTW program. Both the Navy Area and
NTW programs are Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty compliant.
Developer/Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey.; Raytheon, Tucson,
Arizona; Thiokol, Promontory, Utah; Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale, California; and Boeing, Seattle,
Description: The Mk 57 NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System (NSSMS) is deployed on more than 50 U.S. Navy ships and numerous NATO ships as their primary surface-to-air ship self-defense missile system. Modifications to the Sea Sparrow will continue, including re-architecture, which reduces manpower requirements, increases firepower, and reduces cost of ownership through the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf parts.
The Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) is the next generation of Sea Sparrow missiles,
selected for the Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) Flight IIA Aegis destroyer self-defense system as well as for aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, with a new launcher. ESSM is a kinematic
upgrade to the improved RIM-7P missile; the existing rocket motor and control section are
replaced with a larger-diameter rocket motor, a tail control section for increased responsiveness,
and an integrated thrust vector control for vertical launch applications. ESSM will also have an
upgraded warhead and a quick-start electronic upgrade. Enhanced ESSM kinematic performance
and warhead lethality will leverage the robust RIM-7P guidance capability to provide increased
operational effectiveness against high-speed maneuvering anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs) at
greater intercept ranges. ESSM will be incorporated into the Aegis Weapon System for short- to
medium-range missile defense. ESSM development is being pursued as an international
cooperative initiative involving ten countries in the NATO Sea Sparrow Consortium.
Program Status: In-service support of NATO Sea Sparrow systems is continuing, and fleet introduction of the vertical-launched Sea Sparrow in three partner navies is complete. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in June 1995, and ten nations signed a Production MOU for ESSM in December 1997. A Milestone III decision is expected in FY 2002 for Full-Rate Production in FY 2003. Initial Operational Capability is anticipated in FY 2003, with fleet
introduction on an Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) Flight IIA Aegis destroyer.
RIM-66C SM-2 Standard Missile-2
Blocks II, III, IIIA, IIIB
Description: The Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) is the Navy’s primary surface-to-air theater air warfare weapon. Deployed SM-2 Block II/III/IIIA/IIIB configurations are all-weather, ship-
launched, medium-range surface-to-air missiles derived from the SM-1, which is still in service
with both U.S. and allies’ fleets. Each of the blocks is progressively more capable against more
challenging threats and in more challenging electronic countermeasures (ECM) environments.
The SM-2 is launched from the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) and the Mk 13 and Mk 26
Guided Missile Launching Systems (GMLS). It employs inertial mid-course guidance with
command updates from the shipboard fire control system and an ECM-resistant monopulse
receiver for semi-active radar terminal homing. SM-2 continues to evolve to counter expanding
threat capabilities. Improvements in very high and very low- altitude intercepts and in particularly
stressing ECM environments are being implemented through modular changes. The Block IIIB
missile incorporates an infrared (IR) guidance mode capability developed in the Missile Homing
Improvement Program (MHIP) with the radio frequency (RF) semi-active guidance system of the
proven SM-2 Block IIIA. The MHIP dual-mode RF/IR guidance capability is being incorporated to
counter a specific fielded and proliferating electronic warfare systems in existing aircraft and
cruise missile threats.
Program Status: SM-2 Block II/III/IIIA/IIIB missiles are currently deployed. FY 1995 was the first year of production for the SM-2 Block IIIB (mod kits). The first successful Block IIIB was fired on
21 October 1994 at White Sands Missile Range, and the weapon achieved Initial Operational
Capability in October 1997. Procurement of more than 500 missiles is planned through FY 2003.
Description: The Navy’s Standard Missile-2 (SM-2) Block IV will operate in conjunction with the Aegis Weapon System and Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS) to provide an improved long-range fleet area defense against aircraft and cruise missiles. The SM-2 Block IV is a kinematic improvement beyond the SM-2 Block III, incorporating a thrust-vector-controlled booster, a more robust airframe, and guidance and control modifications for improved altitude/range/cross-range
coverage against high-performance, low radar cross-section threats in a stressing electronic
countermeasures (ECM) environment. In addition to providing significant increases in ship area
defense capability, the SM-2 Block IV is the developmental stepping-stone to SM-2 Block IVA, the
Navy’s Area Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) missile. The SM-2 Block IVA upgrade adds
a dual-mode radio frequency/infrared (RF/IR) sensor, an upgraded ordnance package, and
autopilot-control enhancements to the SM-2 Block IV. The SM-2 Block IVA missile uses the
TBMD-modified Aegis Weapon System on board Aegis cruisers and destroyers to track and engage TBMs. It enhances U.S. littoral warfare capability by allowing Aegis ships to provide
TBMD for ships at sea and ground force embarkation areas ashore, without the constraints
imposed by sealift or airlift or the need for host-country permission. The SM-2 Block IVA will
provide the baseline for the evolutionary development of the SM-3 Navy Theater-Wide TBMD missile.
Program Status: Developmental and initial operational testing has been completed on SM-2 Block IV, and the Defense Acquisition Board approved low-rate production. The SM-2 Block IV will
achieve Initial Operational Capability in FY 1999. A System Design Review for SM-2 Block IVA
was conducted in December 1993 and a Risk Reduction Flight Demonstration program was
initiated in FY 1994. An Environmental Test Round (ETR-2A) was successfully launched in
summer 1996, and a Developmental Test Round (DTR-1) was launched in FY 1997 to
demonstrate the imaging infrared seeker and the capability to intercept a TBM. Procurement of
more than 200 missiles is planned through FY 2003.
Description: RAM is a high firepower, low-cost system designed to engage anti-ship cruise
missiles (ASCMs) in the stressing electronic countermeasures (ECM) littoral conflict environment.
RAM is a 5-inch diameter surface-to-air missile with passive dual-mode radio frequency/infrared
(RF/IR) guidance and an active-optical proximity and contact fuse. RAM has minimal shipboard
control systems and does not require shipboard information after launch. Effective against a wide
spectrum of existing threats, the RAM Block 1 IR upgrade will incorporate IR “all-the-way-homing”
to improve performance against evolving passive and active ASCMs.
Program Status: RAM is installed in all five Tarawa (LHA-1)-class amphibious assault ships; all
seven Wasp (LHD-1)-class amphibious assault ships; five Spruance (DD-963)-class destroyers
(DD-972, 973, 977, 987, 922); four Whidbey Island (LSD-42)-class dock landing ships (LSD-42,
44, 45, 48); and three Harpers Ferry (LSD-49)-class dock landing ships (LSD-49, 51, 52). Block 0
missiles and launchers are in their final production run and are on schedule; the missile has had
successful intercepts in 104 of 108 production-acceptance and ship-qualification tests. The Block
1 missile program is completing Developmental/Operational Testing and will be ready for a full
rate production decision (Milestone III) in mid-FY 1999. Initial Operational Capability for RAM
Block 1 will be in FY 2000. Congress approved the Navy’s request to procure 100 missiles in FY
Developer/Manufacturer: Raytheon, Tucson, Arizona; and RAMSYS, Germany.