The United States Navy


Advanced Swimmer Delivery System

Description: This dry mini-submarine will be 65 feet long, have a two-man crew, and carry a Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) squad or other services' Special Operations Forces (SOF). The ASDS will conduct long-range clandestine insertions and extractions in support of special operations missions and will be launched either from a host submarine, much like the Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV), or from the well decks of amphibious ships. This system eliminates the extended exposure to cold water inherent with in-service wet submersible Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (SDVs) and will result in reduced physical and mental fatigue of SOF team members.

Program Status: The U.S. Special Operations Command has funded procurement of all planned ASDSs. The first will complete integration in late FY 1999 and will be homeported with SEAL Delivery Team One (SDVT ONE) in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ASDSs are scheduled to be homeported in Hawaii and in Little Creek, Virginia (SDVT TWO). Modifications to in-service submarines that will host the ASDSs are underway.

Developer/Manufacturer: Northrop Grumman, Annapolis, Maryland.

SSBN-726 Ohio Class
Nuclear-Powered Ballistic Missile Submarine

Description: The Ohio-class Trident submarine is the Navy's contribution and the most survivable and enduring leg of the strategic Triad to the nation's strategic deterrent posture. The fleet ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) thus is one of the Navy's highest policy, program, and operational priorities. Each of the first eight Ohio-class ships are configured to carry 24 Trident I/C4 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). The ninth ship, the USS Tennessee (SSBN-734), and all later ships are armed with the Trident II/D5 missile system. Trident missiles are capable of carrying Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs); in operation these missiles have been declared at eight MIRV warheads under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).

Program Status: All 18 of the Ohio-class submarines have been commissioned. The final ship of the class, the USS Louisiana (SSBN-743), joined the Fleet in FY 1997. Beginning in FY 2000, four of the first eight ships will be converted to carry the Trident II/D5 missile. Various proposals are under consideration regarding modifications to the other four early SSBNs that do not receive D5 back-fit, including conversion to an enhanced land-attack/strike variant or a Special Forces platform.

Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut.

SSN-21 Seawolf Class
Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine

Description: The Seawolf (SSN-21)-class attack submarines provide robust open-ocean sea control capabilities against current and future submarine threats, as well as significant multi- mission littoral warfare capabilities. The design emphasis in the Seawolf class is on high submerged speeds and deep operating depth, with significantly improved machinery quieting, combat systems, sensor systems, and payload capacity compared to the Improved Los Angeles (SSN-688I) attack submarines (SSN-751 and later units). Continuing trials of the SSN-21 have confirmed the ship's superior capabilities in all critical warfighting areas.

Program Status: The USS Seawolf was commissioned in July 1997, and the USS Connecticut (SSN-22), in December 1998. The third submarine of the class, Jimmy Carter (SSN-23), is under construction and is scheduled for delivery in 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut.

SSN-774 Virginia Class
Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine

Description: The Virginia class, formerly called the New Attack Submarine (NSSN), will provide advanced acoustic technology and sustain minimum essential attack submarine force levels as the Los Angeles (SSN-688)-class attack submarines leave the Fleet. The Virginia SSNs will perform traditional open-ocean anti-submarine and anti-surface missions, yet will be specifically enhanced for multi-mission littoral and regional operations. These advanced submarines will also be fully configured to conduct offensive and defensive mining operations, mine reconnaissance, Special Operations Forces insertion/extraction, battle group support, intelligence-collection and surveillance missions, sea-control operations, and land attack. Further, the Virginia SSNs will be specifically configured to adapt easily to special missions and emerging future requirements.

The 30-ship SSN-774 program is the first major program to implement acquisition reform initiatives fully. The tenets of Virginia-class affordability are Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD), modular construction, parts reduction, and aggressive insertion of advanced Commercial Off-The-Shelf technologies. The IPPD concept teams the Navy, shipbuilders, designers, and vendors to assure the most efficient and effective design early in the design process. Modular construction allows construction, assembly, and testing of systems prior to installation in the ship's hull, thereby reducing costs, minimizing rework, and simplifying system integration. The ship's modular design will also facilitate technology insertion in both new construction of future ships and back-fit into existing ships, throughout their 30-year service lives.

Program Status: Advance procurement for the lead ship, Virginia, was funded in FY 1996, and the SSN-774 was fully funded in FY 1998. The first four ships will be built under an innovative teaming arrangement between General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation (EB) and Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS). Under the teaming arrangement, construction of the first four ships will be shared by ship section. NNS will build the bow, stern, sail, and selected forward sections for each submarine. EB will build the hull sections, the engine room modules, and the command- and-control system operating spaces. EB will assemble and deliver the first and third ships; NNS the second and fourth. Construction of Virginia began last year, and the second submarine of the class, Texas (SSN-775), will begin construction in FY 1999. The first major Defense program to implement fully acquisition reform initiatives, the Virginia Class Program Office (PMS450) has twice received the David Packard Award for Acquisition Excellence.

Developer/Manufacturer: General Dynamics' Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut; and Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia.

Surface Ships, Craft & Logistics Systems

Cargo Offload and Discharge System

Description: The Cargo Offload and Discharge System (COLDS) includes the Cargo Offload and Transfer System (COTS) for dry cargo and the Offshore Petroleum Discharge System (OPDS) for liquid cargo. COLDS supports Logistics-Over-The-Shore (LOTS) operations loading and unloading of Marine Corps Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) and Assault Follow-On Echelon (AFOE) ships without benefit of established port facilities. Routine replacement of these heavily used assets maintains LOTS readiness.

Program Status: Current research and development efforts to provide a Sea-State-Three operational LOTS capability include an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) for lighterage, multiple projects for shipboard cranes, and various critical elements of the LOTS system of systems. The contract for next-generation sea-state-three lighterage will be awarded in FY 2000 following the ACTD. The completed 3,000-foot modular Elevated Causeway [ELCAS(M)] was delivered in early FY 1998.

Developer/Manufacturer: ELCAS(M): JERED Brown Brothers, Brunswick, Georgia. Non-powered causeways: Metal Trades, Charleston, South Carolina.

CG-47 Ticonderoga Class
Aegis Guided Missile Cruiser Conversion Program

Description: The 27 CG-47 class guided missile cruisers have combat systems centered around the Aegis Weapon System and the SPY-1 multi-function, phased-array radar. The Ticonderoga class' combat system includes the Standard Missile (SM-2), unparalleled air warfare systems, advanced anti-submarine warfare systems, embarked sea-control helicopters, and robust command-control-and-communications systems in a potent, multi-mission (ASW, AAW, and ASUW) ship. In addition, 22 of the 27 cruisers are equipped with the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS), giving them a significant land-attack/strike capability with the Tomahawk Land- Attack cruise Missile (TLAM). Ticonderoga-class cruisers provide multi-mission offensive and defensive capabilities, and can operate independently or as part of carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious ready groups, and underway replenishment groups. Beginning in FY 2004, after incorporating new mission capabilities as part of the Cruiser Conversion Program, these ships will also provide area defense against ballistic missiles, as well as land-attack and area air-defense commander capability.

Program Status: The Cruiser Conversion Program is a mid-life warfighting capability upgrade for the Navy's Aegis guided missile cruisers. The Cruiser Conversion Program enables the Navy's deployment of Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD), Land Attack in support of the Marine Corps' concept of Operational Maneuver from the Sea (OMFTS), and Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) capability. The Cruiser Conversion improvements in warfighting capability will extend the Aegis combat system's relevancy well into the 21st century. Twenty-two Ticonderoga Aegis cruisers are planned for conversion beginning in FY 2004.

Developer/Manufacturer: Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi, and Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey.

CVN-68 Nimitz Class and CVNX
Nuclear-Powered Aircraft Carrier

Description: Nimitz (CVN-68)-class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers are replacing the Navy's aging conventionally powered (oil-fired) carriers on a one-for-one basis, preserving and recapitalizing aircraft carrier battle group (CVBG) force levels to meet forward-presence, crisis- response, and warfighting requirements. The mission of the CVN-68-class aircraft carriers is to support and operate aircraft that engage in attack, surveillance, and electronic warfare against targets at sea, in the air, or ashore in support of Marines or joint forces. America's 12 carriers are forward-deployed world wide in support of U.S. strategy and commitments and are increasingly important as the Navy adjusts its emphasis toward littoral regions and land-based forces are brought home to the United States.

Since the mid/late-1960s when the baseline Nimitz design was finalized, the Navy's carrier force has not had the advantage of an aggressive and robust research and development program to insert leading-edge technologies and systems into subsequent hulls. For this reason, and to ensure that the carrier/naval aviation force can meet the daunting operational requirements of the next century, in 1993 the Navy established a future sea-based air platforms working group to investigate the requirements, available technologies and systems, and needed R&D to ensure that a new class of aircraft carriers could capture elements of the incipient Revolutions in Military and Business Affairs. Based upon these initial studies, the Navy established an approach and program to develop a revolutionary-design next-generation nuclear carrier, CVNX, to reach the fleet in 2013, in time to replace the nation's first nuclear-powered carrier, USS Enterprise (CVN-65), as that ship reaches 52 years of age. Fiscal reality, however, resulted in the Navy modifying its approach to the CVNX in mid-1998. Instead of the one-step revolutionary leap from a modified-repeat Nimitz design (CVN-77) to a radically different CVNX, the Navy decided to focus on an evolutionary program that will incorporate warfighting improvements and acquisition, operations, and support cost-saving measures at an affordable pace, over three consecutive hulls beginning with CVN-77. Initial investments will be made in an advanced nuclear plant and electrical distribution system for CVN-77, which will be carried forward, along with other improvements, into the CVNX-1 and follow-on carriers. Despite the modification to the overall plan, the principal design objectives for the CVNX class remain intact: to reduce total ownership costs significantly during each carrier's 50-year service life and to provide a flexible infrastructure that will facilitate the insertion of new warfighting capabilities as they evolve.

Program Status: Eight Nimitz-class carriers have been delivered through 1998; Ronald Reagan (CVN-76) is currently under construction and is scheduled to deliver in FY 2002. The President's FY 2000-2005 Future Years Defense Plan includes funding for CVN-77, a modified-repeat of the CVN-76, to replace the USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63) in 2008. A multi-year research and development program is also underway for CVNX, the first unit of which could be requested in FY 2006 for an FY 2013 delivery to replace the USS Enterprise and sustain minimum essential carrier force levels. Follow-on, evolutionary-enhanced CVNXs are planned for construction starts at roughly five-year intervals beyond 2006.

Developer/Manufacturer: Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia.

DD-21 Land-Attack Destroyer

Description: The Land-Attack Destroyer (DD-21) is the first surface combatant founded entirely upon post-Cold War thinking and strategic concepts. Accordingly, the DD-21 design concept will support joint-service requirements in littoral regions. Armed with an array of land-attack weapons, DD-21 will provide sustained, offensive, distributed, and precise firepower at long ranges in support of forces ashore. With state-of-the-art information technologies, DD-21 will operate seamlessly with other naval, ground, and land-based air forces, and will be in accordance with the Navy's evolving “Network-Centric Warfare” concept of operations and IT21 (Information Technology for the 21st Century) architecture. The DD-21 emphasis on “sensor-to-shooter” connectivity will provide a naval or Joint Task Force commander with the multi-mission flexibility to destroy a wide variety of land targets while simultaneously countering maritime threats. Moreover, DD-21 will take advantage of advanced stealth features to make these warships less detectable to potential adversaries and more survivable to enemy attack.

The innovative DD-21 acquisition strategy calls for industry to propose independent designs that meet the challenging operational requirements and aggressive affordability goals. Since the Navy is specifying capabilities rather than specific systems, the exact configuration for DD-21 has yet to be determined. Nevertheless, the combat capa bility of DD-21 will include a mix of sensors and weapons appropriate for a 21st century multi-mission surface warship. DD-21 will push the envelope in improved joint connectivity, advanced computing systems, reduced signatures (radar cross section, infrared, acoustic, magnetic, and active signature management techniques), and reduced manning. In addition to specifying a crew size objective of 95, the DD-21 Program Office (PMS-500) is also aggressively engaged in identifying cost efficiencies in related shore-based and at-sea infrastructures. DD-21 has a procurement cost objective of $750 million (for the fifth ship in each shipyard in FY 1996 dollars) and an operating and (O&S) cost objective of $2,700 (FY 1996) per hour underway (about one-third the O&S cost of a conventional surface combatant). DD-21 represents a measured revolution in surface combatant design and acquisition.

Program Status: While ultimately responsible for acquiring a “family” of next-generation surface combatants for the 21st Century (SC-21), the DD-21 Program Executive Office (PEO DD-21) will initially concentrate on design of a new Land-Attack Destroyer. On 12 January 1998, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology signed an Acquisition Decision Memorandum, approving Program Definition and Risk Reduction (Phase I) for DD-21. The ADM signing signified the formal establishment of this new warship program and marked the beginning of a new era in surface combatant design and naval warfare capability. In August 1998, the Navy awarded an agreement to two competing industry teams to conduct requirements analyses and trade-off studies and to develop initial system concept designs. Down-selection to a single design and “Full Service Contractor” is planned for 2001. Beginning with lead ship award in 2004, the Navy plans to acquire 32 DD-21s at a rate of three ships per year, each with an expected service life of 35 years. The DD-21s will enter the Fleet as the Spruance (DD-963)-class destroyers (31 ships commissioned from 1975 to 1983) and the Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7)-class frigates (51 ships commissioned from 1977 to 1989) retire, sustaining the 116-ship surface combatant force level validated by the 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review.

Developer/Manufacturer: To be determined.

DDG-51 Arleigh Burke Class
Aegis Guided Missile Destroyer

Description: The state-of-the-art DDG-51 guided missile destroyers have combat systems centered around the Aegis Weapon System and the SPY-1D multi-function, phased-array radar. Arleigh Burke's combat system includes the Mk 41 Vertical Launching System (VLS), an advanced anti-submarine warfare system, advanced anti-air warfare missiles, and Tomahawk cruise missiles in a potent, multi-mission (ASW, AAW, ASUW, and Strike) platform. These ships will also provide future land-attack capability, as well as area-wide defense against ballistic and overland cruise missiles. Incorporating all-steel construction and gas-turbine propulsion, Arleigh Burke destroyers provide multi-mission offensive and defensive capabilities, and can operate independently or as part of carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious ready groups, and underway replenishment groups. The Flight IIA variant incorporates facilities to support two embarked helicopters, significantly enhancing the ship's sea-control capabilities.

Program Status: 25 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers have been delivered through FY 1998 and 20 others are under contract and in various stages of construction, with additional ships programmed for future years. The class will total 57 ships. The first Flight IIA destroyer, Oscar Austin (DDG- 79), was launched in early FY 1999. A multi-year procurement of 12 ships in FY 1998 through 2001 was approved by Congress, which saves $1.4 billion compared to a conventional acquisition strategy. Four DDGs were approved in FY 1998, and the Navy has requested three more in FY 1999. The SPY-1D(V), an upgrade to the SPY-1 family of radars, successfully underwent the first phase of testing in 1996. This improved radar will keep these ships ahead of the emerging low-observable anti-ship cruise missile threat in the cluttered littoral operating environment.

Developer/Manufacturer: Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi; and Lockheed Martin, Moorestown, New Jersey.

Landing Craft, Air Cushion

Description: This high-speed, fully amphibious landing craft is capable of carrying a 60-ton payload (75 tons in overload) at speeds in excess of 40 knots with a nominal range of 200 nautical miles. Its ability to ride on a cushion of air allows it to operate directly from the well decks of amphibious warships. Carrying equipment, troops, and supplies, the LCAC launches from the well deck, transits at high speed, traverses the surf zone and lands at a suitable place ashore where it quickly offloads and returns to amphibious shipping for follow-on sorties. LCACs provide amphibious task force commanders flexibility in selecting landing sites. LCACs permit access to more than 70% of the world's beaches as compared with 17% for conventional landing craft. Additionally, LCACs deliver vehicles and cargo directly onto dry land rather than in the surf zone as is the case with conventional landing craft in some circumstances. LCACs are multi-mission craft which can conduct assault lane breaching, shallow-water mine countermeasures and logistics support.

Program Status: Initial Operational Capability was achieved in 1986. Contracts for 91 LCACs were approved through FY 1997, with 90 craft delivered to the Fleet by the end of 1998. Delivery of LCAC 91 is scheduled for FY 1999. A Service Life Extension Program will begin in FY 2000 and will extend the LCAC's operational life from 20 years to 30 years.

Developer/Manufacturer: Textron Marine and Land Systems, New Orleans, Louisiana.

LHD-1 Wasp Class
Amphibious Assault Ship

Description: The Wasp (LHD-1) class is a multi-purpose amphibious assault ship whose primary mission is to provide embarked commanders with requisite command and control capabilities for amphibious operations and to employ elements of a landing force through a combination of helicopters, landing craft, or amphibious vehicles. The LHD class has a secondary mission of sea control. Amphibious forces are the centerpiece of a balanced naval expeditionary capability and provide rapid power projection ashore. These capabilities are significantly enhanced by the LHD. The Wasp class increases total lift capacity by providing both a flight deck for helicopters and Vertical/Short Take-Off or Landing aircraft, such as the AV-8B Harrier and the V-22 Osprey, and a well deck for both air-cushioned and conventional landing craft.

Program Status: Six ships have been delivered to the Fleet, and one additional ship, Iwo Jima (LHD-7), is scheduled to be delivered in late 2000.

Developer/Manufacturer: Ingalls Shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi.

Large Medium-Speed Roll-On/Roll-Off Ship

Description: The 1992 Department of Defense Mobility Requirements Study (MRS) defined the requirements for the LMSR program, which were revalidated in the MRS Bottom-Up Review of 28 March 1995. Nineteen LMSR Sealift Ships are being acquired: five through conversions of container ships to RO/ROs and 14 through new construction. LMSRs will provide the Army with eight ships for afloat prepositioning of a heavy brigade's equipment and combat support, and 11 ships for a heavy division's surge equipment from the United States. Each RO/RO ship will carry about 300,000 square feet of equipment and vehicles at a sustained speed of 24 knots.

Program Status: The five conversions have been delivered. New-construction contracts have been awarded to two shipyards for one lead ship and options for six additional ships at each yard. The first new-construction ship delivered in June 1998 and the last is scheduled for delivery in FY 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: Conversions: National Steel and Shipbuilding Company, San Diego, California (3); and Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Newport News, Virginia (2). New construction: Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana; and NASSCO, San Diego.

LPD-17 San Antonio Class
Amphibious Transport Dock Ship

Description: The LPD-17 is an amphibious transport dock ship optimized for operational flexibility and designed to meet Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) lift requirements in the emerging Operational Maneuver from the Sea and Ship-to-Objective Maneuver concepts of operations. The LPD-17 is a medium-size (approximately 25,300 tons full load), medium-speed (greater than 20 knots, sustained) diesel-powered ship (four turbocharged diesels, two shafts, two outboard rotating fixed-pitch propellers), of 682 feet in length, with a beam of 105 feet, and a crew of about 363. The LPD-17 will carry approximately 720 troops, and will have 25,000 square feet of space for vehicles, 36,000 cubic feet of cargo space, medical facilities (24 beds, two operating rooms), aviation facilities (“O”-level maintenance for three CH-46 helicopters or accommodate a mix of AH-1/UH-1, CH-46, and CH-53E helicopters and MV-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft), and two landing craft air cushion (LCAC) vehicles. The 12 LPD-17s in the current program will provide the functional replacement for 36 aging amphibious lift ships. With the seven Wasp (LHD-1) class, five Tarawa (LHA-1)-class amphibious assault ships, and the 12 LPDs, the Navy will have the foundation for meeting the assault-echelon lift requirements of 2.5 Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) equivalents during wartime and sustaining approximately three forward-deployed Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) in peacetime.

Program Status: Initial contract award to design and build the lead ship of the class was awarded to the Avondale-Bath Alliance in December 1996. A contract award protest was successfully resolved in April 1997. Initial delivery is expected in FY 2003.

Developer/Manufacturer: Avondale-Bath Alliance (Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana; Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; Raytheon, San Diego, California; and Intergraph, Huntsville, Alabama).

MHC-51 Osprey Class
Coastal Mine Hunter

Description: The Osprey (MHC-51)-class coastal mine hunters are an important element of the U.S. Navy's program to revitalize the nation's mine countermeasures (MCM) force. The modular Osprey design is based on the glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) hull design of the Italian Lerici-class MCM ships. The Osprey class incorporates mine-hunting and neutralization equipment including the advanced SQQ-32 mine-hunting sonar and SLQ-48 Mine Neutralization System (MNS) and embarked Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) divers. The Navy is modifying the ships to increase their endurance to 15 days. These ships complement the Navy's 14 Avenger (MCM-1) multi-mission MCM ships, all of which are in service. (See the Mine Warfare section, below, for a discussion of the Navy's principal mine warfare programs.)

Program Status: Eleven of the 12 ships in the program have been commissioned through 1998.

Developer/Manufacturer: Intermarine USA, Savannah, Georgia; and Avondale Industries, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Mk V
Special Operations Craft (SOC)

Description: The Mk V is a high-performance combatant craft capable of being transported overland and on board U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy aircraft using its own transporter system. (Mk Vs can also be transported by surface lift and are compatible with An-124 aircraft.) Mk Vs primarily support medium-range insertion and extraction of Special Operations Forces (SOF), but can also support limited coastal patrol and interdiction taskings. The Mk V SOC is 82 feet long and is powered by two 2,285 horsepower diesel engines driving waterjets, which provide sustained maximum speeds in excess of 45 knots and unrefueled ranges greater than 500 nautical miles. Armament is tailorable through the selection of multiple crew-served small/minor caliber weapons (40mm grenade launchers; 12.7mm and 7.62mm single, twin or “gatling” machine guns; 25mm chain guns and hand-held Stinger surface-to-air missiles) that provide 360 degree coverage. Each craft is operated by a five-man crew and is capable of carrying a Navy Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) platoon (16 personnel) with four Combat Rubber Raiding Craft (CRRC). The need for this type of combatant craft was validated during Operations Desert Shield/Storm and is further justified by potential maritime SOF employments in all unified areas of responsibility. Twelve Mk Vs will be assigned to Special Boat Squadron One (SBR-1), Coronado, California, and eight to Special Boat Squadron Two (SBR-2), Little Creek, Virginia. Operational Mk V detachments comprise two craft, mission support equipment, and eighteen personnel.

Program Status: The Mk V SOCs were acquired under a streamlined acquisition program. Initial Operational Capability was attained in August 1995 upon delivery of the first two craft. Full-Rate Production began in FY 1996. Through 1998, 16 of 20 craft have been delivered and are operational world wide. Final system deliveries are scheduled (for SBR-1) in FY 1999.

Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Inc., Gulfport, Mississippi.

PC-1 Cyclone Class
Patrol Coastal Craft

Description: The PC is a commissioned vessel primarily intended for operations in the littoral/shallow coastal waters. PCs replaced the Navy's Mk III and Mk IV patrol boats (PBs). The PC is 170.5 feet in length and displaces in excess of 350 tons. The propulsion plant comprises four 3,600 bhp diesel engines driving four shafts, making a top speed in excess of 35 knots. Range is greater than 3,000 nautical miles at 12 knots. Manning is four officers and 24 enlisted personnel, not including embarked Special Operations Forces (SOF) in dedicated berthing spaces. The PC is armed with hand-held Stinger surface-to-air missiles, two Mk 38 mounts (with 25mm chain guns), several mounts that will accept 12.7mm or 7.62mm machine guns, and/or 40mm grenade launchers. The need for this type of combatant craft was validated during Operation Earnest Will in the Arabian Gulf in 1987-88, revalidated during Operations Desert Shield/Storm, and is further justified by potential maritime SOF employment in all unified areas of responsibility. PCs are unique in that each is a commissioned ship, but operational leadership and resource sponsorship are provided by the Commander, Naval Special Warfare Command, the naval component of the U.S. Special Operations Command. PCs conduct and support special operations missions, including special reconnaissance (coastal patrol), direct action (interdiction), and foreign internal defense usually in support of a theater commander's peacetime engagement strategy. Other missions that PCs support include maritime delivery/recovery of SOF, maritime intercept operations, and deception (usually in support of amphibious operations).

Program Status: The first ship, Cyclone (PC-1), was funded in FY 1990 and entered service in August 1993. Originally, Naval Special Warfare planned to procure a total of 16 PC-1s, but the program was reduced to 13 craft. However, a fourteenth ship is now under construction, with delivery scheduled for FY 2000.

Developer/Manufacturer: Bollinger Shipyards, Houma, Louisiana.

Ocean Surveillance Ship

Description: T-AGOS ocean surveillance ships are small, civilian-manned auxiliary ships that play a prominent role in augmenting the Navy's overall anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capability. There are three classes of this ship: the monohull Stalwart (T-AGOS-1)-class and two twin-hull classes, the Victorious (T-AGOS-19), known as SWATH-P, and Impeccable (T-AGOS-23), the SWATH-A. These last two classes are Small Waterplane Area Twin-Hull (SWATH) designs that allow the ships to operate in relatively high seas. T-AGOS ships provide a platform for the Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (AN/UQQ-2 SURTASS). The T-AGOS is the Navy's only long-range, mobile, surface ASW platform capable of detecting submarine targets. Although these ships are part of the Military Sealift Command's Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force (NFAF), they come under the operational control of fleet commanders.

Program Status: Three T-AGOS ships are in the Fleet as SURTASS platforms as of early 1998. These three ships are augmented by one additional leased commercial vessel, Cory Chouest, equipped with SURTASS as well as a prototype SURTASS Low Frequency Active (LFA) system under development for the SWATH-A class. Eleven T-AGOS monohull ships have transferred to other federal agencies; and four others are in lay-up with the inactive fleet. Four small (3,500-ton) SWATH-P ships are in service. One large (5,500-ton) Impeccable-class SWATH-A ship, designed as a platform for SURTASS Low Frequency Active (LFA), is under contract, and is scheduled to be delivered in FY 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Inc., Moss Point, Mississippi.

Oceanographic Ship

Description: T-AGS-60-class oceanographic ships provide multi-purpose oceanographic survey and data collection capabilities in littoral, coastal, and deep-ocean areas including physical, chemical, and biological environmental investigations; marine geology and geophysics; and bathymetric, gravimetric, and magnometric surveying. Typical missions of T-AGS-60 ships include oceanographic sampling and multi-layer data collection, and the launch, recovery, and tow of scientific packages, using both tethered and autonomous remotely operated vehicles.

Program Status: These ships are replacements for technically obsolete or single-purpose ships. A total of six ships are planned; four have been delivered from FY 1994 to FY 1998. The fifth, Bruce C. Heezen (T-AGS-64), is scheduled for delivery in December 1999, and a sixth ship (T-AGS-65) is under contract for delivery in December 2001.

Developer/Manufacturer: Halter Marine, Inc., Moss Point, Mississippi.

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