Russian Defense Business Directory

Geographical List - M

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MAKHACHKALA

MIASSMOSCOW (including MOSCOW OBLAST)


MAKHACHKALA

ENTERPRISE NAME: ELTAV PLANT

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Zavod "Eltav"

ADDRESS:

367009, Makhachkala, Russia (Republic of Dagestan)

Ulitsa Aviatsionnaya, 7

Eltav Plant

Telephone: (011-7-87200) 7-51-67, 4-42-10 (Commercial Director); Telex: N/A; Teletype: 175242 MORE; Fax: (011-7-095) 291-42-81

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Eltav Plant in Makhachkala produces electronic components such as transistors, diodes, and microchips and has recently diversified into production of consumer goods such as halogen lamps.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronic components; SIC Code: 3641, 3645, 3674

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 1,500; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Saadu Musayevich Megomedov, Director

Viktor Nikolayevich Krestin, Commercial Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1984

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Electronic components

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Transistors, diodes, semiconductors, microchips.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The Eltav Plant has moved into production of halogen lamps and is planning production of domestic lighting appliances.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

MIASS

ENTERPRISE NAME: MAKEYEV DESIGN BUREAU

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: KB imeni Akademika V.P. Makeyeva, Makeyev Design Bureau State Rocketry Center, "KB imeni Akademika V.P. Makeyeva" gosudarstvennyy raketnyy tsenter, KB-National Rocketry Center in Memory of V.P. Makeyev, Konstruktorskoe bureau mashinostroyeniya imeni Akademika V. P. Makeyeva.

ADDRESS:

456300, Miass, Russia, (Chelyabinsk Oblast)

Turgoyakskoe Shosse, 1

Makeyev Design Bureau

Telephone: (011-7-35135) 2-63-33; Telex: 124858 ROSA SU; Teletype: N/A; Fax: (011-7-35135) 3-41-75

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Makeyev Design Bureau is a developer of submarine-launched ballistic missiles, space rocket systems, commercial satellites, and research equipment carried in near-earth orbits and semi-vertical trajectories. It also develops agro-industrial processing equipment, medical equipment, and petroleum and chemical processing equipment.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Ballistic missiles; SIC Code: 3443, 3483, 3523, 3556, 3559, 3663, 3764, 3812, 3823, 3829

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Igor Ivanovich Vyelichko, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Development of submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Development of space launchers, commercial satellites, agro-industrial processing equipment, medical equipment, and petroleum and chemical processing equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Makeyev officials have proposed using submarine ballistic missiles for commercial space launches. Makeyev engineers claim that the Shtil 3 (SS-N-23) submarine-launched ballistic missile would be able to place a 670-kg. (1,470-lb.) payload into a 200-km. (124-mi.) orbit, or a 410-kg. (900-lb.) payload into an 800-km. (495-mi.) orbit. A volume of 3.6 cu. meters is available under the missile's shroud for the satellite. Two other versions of the Shtil are also available for launch, though they have lesser payload volumes available

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

MOSCOW

ENTERPRISE NAME: AEROSILA SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ENTERPRISE

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPP "Aerosila"

ADDRESS:

142800 Stupino, Russia

Aerosila Scientific Production Enterprise

Telephone: (011-7-264) 7-44-60; Telex: 911599 WINT SU; Teletype: N/A; Fax: N/A; E-Mail: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Aerosila designs and produces aircraft and helicopter propellers. It also develops auxiliary gas turbine engines in the range of 190 to 475 horsepower. In recent years the enterprise has developed propellers and prop-fans using polymer composite materials.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft propellers; SIC Code: 3724, 3728

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviaton Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total:N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS: N/A

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: World War-II

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Aircraft and helicopter propellers; auxiliary gas turbine engines.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Aircraft and helicopters propellers; auxiliary gas turbine engines; other aircraft units such as hydromechanical speed governors and ball-screw actuators.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ALL-RUSSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MATERIALS (VIAM)

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Vserossiyskiy institut aviatsionnykh materialov - VIAM, All-Union Institute of Aviation Materials

ADDRESS:

107005, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Radio, 17

All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM)

Telephone: (011-7-095) 261-36-24, 261-86-77, 366-72-56, 366-75-74; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 207814 FAGOT; Fax: (011-7-095) 267-86-09; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: VIAM has broad responsibility for research, development, testing, and certification of all metallic and nonmetallic materials used in the Russian aerospace industry. Over 90 percent of the materials used in Soviet aircraft and space vehicles were developed at VIAM.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aerospace, Materials; SIC Code: 3761

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 7,000; Date: 1990

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Academician Radiy Yevgenyevich Shalin, General

Director

Dr. Viktor V. Cherkassov, General Vice-Director

Yevgeniy Borisovich Kachanov, First Deputy

Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1932

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Development of new materials and advanced manufacturing methods; integrated testing, analysis, standardization, and certification of materials; manufacture of experimental lots of materials and semi-finished products; technical assistance for development and manufacture of aircraft and space vehicles.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Most of VIAM's military work is equally applicable to civil work. Civil applications include ceramic membranes for ultra and microfiltration, thermal-insulation ceramic material based on alumina fibers, carbon/aluminum composite material for aviation and space, carboplast UVT-4 composite structural material, silverless low-temperature solders, vacuum-plasma process for multi-component coating, high-temperature heatproof NI3-AL intermetallic base, structural materials for cast parts of turbine engine hot gas flow ducts and lightning protection for carbon-filled plastic structures.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Extensive work has been done in the areas of aluminum alloys, superalloys, titanium alloys, organic composites with aramid fibers, and graphite-thermoplastic. VIAM uses a liquid metal cooling process (LCM) for production of single-crystal turbine components.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: VIAM is actively seeking joint ventures with Western firms to market Russian materials technologies and products and to obtain Western materials technology. About half of VIAM's employees are scientists and half are production workers. In 1990 the staff included four academicians, a corresponding member of the academy of sciences, 50 doctors of science, and 400 candidates of science. VIAM was formerly part of a scientific production association (NPO).

ENTERPRISE NAME: ALL-RUSSIAN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY (VNIIKhT)

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: VNII khimicheskoy tekhnologii, VNIIKhT

ADDRESS:

115230, Moscow, Russia

Kashirskoye Shosse, 33

All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology

Telephone: (011-7-095) 324-87-59; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 111577 BASTION; Fax: N/A; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology is a long-established leader in the hydrometallurgical processing of low-grade ore and concentrates of rare, scattered, and radioactive elements. This institute had the first lithium refinery in the former Soviet Union, and provides isotope separation for the nuclear industry. It also conducts bioceramics research for dental applications, including ceramic-to-metal bonding research.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Metallurgy; SIC Code: 2819, 3843

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Medium Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

J. I. Skorovarov, Director

Boris Laskorin, Deputy Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Early 1950s

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Mineral extraction and rectification, and isotope separation for the nuclear industry.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Hydrometallurgical processing of low-grade ore and concentrates of rare and radioactive elements. Uranium extraction, installations for recovering volatile organic matter, installations for treating solid combustible waste by the pyrolitic method, autoclaves for producing ceramics, inorganic compounds.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ALL-RUSSIAN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMECHANICS (VNIIEhM)

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Vserossiyskiy nauchno-issledovatelskiy institut elektromekhaniki

ADDRESS:

111250, Moscow, Russia

Krasnokazarmennaya Naberezhnaya, 12

All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics

Telephone: (011-7-095) 208-84-67, 924-44-39, 923-69-54; Telex: 411390 METP; FAX: (011-7-095) 207-49-62

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics (VNIIEhM) designs and builds a series of automated satellites for ecological/geological/ meteorological observation. VNIIEhM developed the Meteor and Resurs-O series of satellites and operates them in concert with the Planeta Design Bureau. VNIIEhM continues to develop the Geosynchronous Orbit Meteorological Satellite (GOMS), whose launch was originally projected for 1992. In addition to satellites, the institute has developed the control and navigation systems, as well as analog computers, used on several meteorological satellites.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Satellite design and construction; SIC Code: 3663, 3691, 3694, 3711, 3761, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electrical Equipment Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 3,000; Date: ca. 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Dr. Vladimir I. Adasko, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Meteor-3, Resurs-O satellites.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Modifications to the Meteor-3 satellite, rockets.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Electric automobiles, medical diagnostic equipment

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: VNIIEhM formed a joint venture with General Electric to develop equipment for X-ray computer tomography in 1991. VNIIEhM is developing an X-ray tube using a rotating anode in a magnetic suspension as part of the development of the computer tomography equipment. The institute modified a Meteor-3 satellite to carry the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) under an arrangement with NASA to test the capabilities of the TOMS in 1991. VNIIEhM is building the rocket that will be used to orbit an Israeli communications satellite in March 1995.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ALMAZ SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Almaz"

ADDRESS:

125178, Moscow, Russia

Leningradskiy Prospekt, 80

Almaz Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 158-96-04, 158-94-26, 158-98-25; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 158-56-71; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Almaz is a large defense electronics research and manufacturing association which was involved in the design, development and production of the S-25, S-75, and S-125 (SA-2, -3, and -5) long-range air defense missile systems and continues work on the S-300 PMU (SA-10), a system similar to the US Patriot. Almaz makes missile navigation systems. The Association employs more than 50,000 people, including 7,000 engineers and designers, spread over 5 plants located in Moscow (2 plants), St. Petersburg, Omsk, and Ryazan. Each plant has its own design bureau. One of the Moscow plants, "TAPEM", is a modern test facility for integrated circuits, navigation systems for missiles, optical laser gyroscopes, dynamic inertial and mechanical electronic system temperature controls.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronics; SIC: 36XX

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Radio Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 55,000; Date: 1993

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Nicholson Polyjachev, General Director/NPO

Boris V. Bunkin, General Designer

Peter M. Kizillov, Director, Chief Director

Andrey A. Konstantinov, Plant Director,"TAPEM"

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled. Privatization is in the planning stage. Under the privatization plan, the government would retain 65% ownership in the enterprise and employees 35%. The government would be able to distribute a third of its ownership to outside investors.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Post World War II

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: The S-300 PMU air defense missile system, missile navigation systems, military electronic components, printed-circuit boards, integrated circuits, optical laser gyroscopes mechanically and electronically controlled, and accurate, compact, high strength power supplies.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Multi-layered printed-circuit boards; computer chips and other integrated circuits; semi-conductor production, measuring and test equipment; lasers for industrial and medical uses; computer-aided design systems; controllers for numerically-controlled machine tools; consumer goods, mainly television sets and tape recorders; medical diagnostic equipment; computer printers; automobile components, including electronic ignition systems, security receiver-transmitters, and engine-monitoring systems.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Almaz uses modern semiconductor production measuring and test equipment including a robotic integrated circuit test machine. It also uses special manufacturing technology for multi-layer printed-circuit boards (16 and 24 layers) and has an automated warehousing system.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Conversion projects under development include batteries for space power applications; medical diagnostic equipment, notably an ultrasonic scanning system; alarm systems; electronic banking equipment; computer-aided manufacturing equipment; and high density television technology (HDTV).

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Almaz is financing the conversion to civil production from its own resources but is also actively seeking foreign investment. It currently produces tape recorders in combination with a Canadian firm, and is discussing joint efforts in medical and communications equipment with firms in the United States, Austria, and Japan. Almaz has its own timber processing plant and brickmaking factory, and is considering the purchase of other facilities to ease problems of raw materials supply.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ALTAIR STATE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Gosudarstvennoye nauchno-proizvodstvennoye obyedineniye (GosNPO) "Altair", NPO "Altair"

ADDRESS:

111024, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Aviamotornaya, 57

Altair State Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 273-14-32, 273-34-46, 273-64-59; Telex: 112660 INDES; Fax: (011-7-095) 361-39-76

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Altair is the principal designer and producer of Russian shipborne air defense missile systems. Altair originated as an institute in 1939, became a scientific production association (NPO) in 1989, and more recently was designated a state enterprise (GosNPO). Despite this designation, Altair is undertaking a significant number of civil projects.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Missile system design and production; SIC Code: 3553, 3565, 3631, 3672, 3679, 3812, 3823, 3826, 3841, 3845, 7371

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Shipbuilding Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Sergey Klimov, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1939 (scientific research institute)

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: "Rif" (SA-N-6) long-range shipborne SAM system; "Shtil" (SA-N-7) medium-range shipborne SAM system; "Klinok" (SA-N-9) short-range shipborne air defense missile/gun system; "Kashtan" short-range shipborne air defense missile/gun system.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Medical equipment (such as electrocardiological equipment for automatic diagnosis of the heart; through-the-throat electrocardiostimulation equipment; electrical, thermal, vibrational, and vacuum acupuncture devices; vacuum and vibrational massage devices; portable operating lights; and universal spectacles with 2.5X magnification); production equipment (including equipment for manufacturing printed-circuit boards in laboratory conditions and automatic lines for packing granular objects into polyethylene bags); radioelectronic equipment (such as millimeter-wave and centimeter-wave phased-array radar systems, satellite TV systems, domestic microwave ovens, devices for noncontact temperature measurement in electric power transmission lines, and aircraft fire-alarm systems); woodworking equipment (including universal domestic woodworking machines, belt saws, and fretsaws); computer software (such as algorithms and programs for statistical processing of measurement data, for adaptive selection of moving-target-indicator filter parameters, for primary and secondary processing of air traffic control data, and for mathematical and physical simulation of moving-object control systems).

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Altair is seeking foreign participation in the following fields of research: navigation equipment (such as infrared systems for pilotage in complex ice conditions, for night navigation, and for coastal surveillance; precision direction-finding systems for pilotage in ports and narrows; navigation systems displaying ship location for pilotage in sea channels and river fairways; shipboard millimeter-wave high-resolution radars; and portable Doppler radars to measure speed of ships approaching a pier while mooring); medical equipment (including laboratory equipment for diagnosis of astronauts and athletes; electrocardio and ultrasound systems to diagnose heart muscle condition; nuclear-magnetic-resonance blood analyzers for early diagnosis of tumors; equipment for automatic diagnosis of heart rhythm and treatment by electrical stimulation; and equipment for determining biological activity of vaccines during production and storage); and laser equipment (such as shipboard water purification systems and devices for cutting obsolete ships and railroad rolling stock into scrap).

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Altair is seeking joint ventures with Russian and foreign partners. It offers its production facilities and specialist workforce for assembling-to-order electronic equipment (TV, audio-and video systems, radars, radio-command and other systems) at any level of technology. It also is seeking participants in the development of consumer goods and other products.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ALTERNATIVE ENERGETICS SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION COMPLEX

LAST UPDATE: August 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Nauchno-proizvodstvennyy kompleks alternativnaya ehnergetika, NPK IT "AltEhn".

ADDRESS:

142490, Ehlektrougli, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Pereulok Gorki, 1

Alternative Energetics Scientific Production Complex

Telephone: (011-7-096) 924-10-36 Extension 302; Telex: N/A; Teletype: N/A; Fax: N/A; E-Mail: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Alternative Energetics Scientific Production Complex specializes in the research, development, and production of lithium chemical power sources and continuous electric supply systems.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Production of electric current sources; SIC Code: 2819, 3621, 3691

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electrical Equipment Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 300; Date: 1994

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Boris Ivanovich Tumanov, Director

Aleksandr Rodionovich Zastavskiy, Deputy Director

OWNERSHIP: State-owned

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1965

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Lithium carbon-fluoride power sources.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Small-sized lithium batteries for computers; continuous electric supply systems; batteries for environmental monitors; batteries for maritime applications.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Assembly, technical, and testing equipment for production of lithium chemical power sources.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Creation of highly-automated production of small lithium batteries.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Alternative Energetics Scientific Production Complex is conducting research on developing lithium storage batteries and developing aluminum-air chemical generators for electric vehicles.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ANGSTREM CUSTOM DESIGN, LTD.

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: ANCUD, Firma "Ankad"

ADDRESS:

103482, Moscow (Zelenograd), Russia

Angstrem Custom Design, Ltd.

103460 Moscow (Zelenograd), Russia

1, Yunosti Square

Angstrem Custom Design, Ltd.

Telephone: (011-7-095) 532-96-49, 531-55-30; Telex: 412526 ELEX SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 531-27-56

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Angstrem is the largest computer chip (integrated circuit) manufacturer in Russia and is also one of the biggest producers of pocket calculators in Russia. It is part of the Scientific Research Institute for Precision Technology. Angstrem is located in Zelenograd, a special "silicon city" of 200,000 people 35km, northwest of Moscow.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Integrated Circuits; SIC Code: 3578, 3663, 3674

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 6,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yuri V. Romanets, General Director

Valeriy Dshkhunyan, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled. A joint stock company has been proposed, one-third of whose authorized capital would belong to an investment fund of Soviet companies and a foreign partner (BatteryMarch Corporation, USA), and two-thirds to Angstrem.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1963

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Integrated circuits

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) integrated circuits; CRYPTON-3 encryption boards and software to provide security for all data stored on hard or floppy disks or transferred by modem over telephone lines; MK-85M and MK-85S hand-held miniature encoders; pocket calculators.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Angstrem produces chiefly 100mm wafers in class 100 clean rooms, (but two 150mm production lines were being built as of November 1991). It has a class 1, fast-turn, mini-fab (cluster tool) facility for prototype integrated circuit (IC) production on 150mm wafers, with a potential for production on 200mm wafers.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Angstrem and a newly established investment fund of Soviet companies, whose investments will be controlled by the BatteryMarch Corporation, USA, intend to start production of integrated circuits for domestic and foreign markets. Angstrem has also provided Cypress Semiconductor Corporation (USA) with state-of-the-art chip designs which Cypress plans to produce using its modern process technology. In September 1992 Angstrem was prepared to offer for export semiconductors, packaged integrated circuits, chips, software, and technology licenses if a joint venture partner could be found. The partner would provide spare parts, gases for plasma etching, and plastic for packaging.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ANTEY CONCERN

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Kontsern "Antey," Antey Scientific Production Association, NPO "Antey"

ADDRESS:

121471, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Vereyskaya, 41

Antey Concern

Telephone: (011-7-095) 448-94-60, 448-91-67 (Chief, Information and Publicity Department); Telex: 411700 ANTEI; Fax: (011-7-095) 292-65-11

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Antey Concern specializes in the production of high-performance surface-to-air missile systems and sophisticated radio-engineering products. Antey is producing the most recent surface-to-air systems: the S-300V (SA-12) long-range anti-aircraft, anti-missile system and the Tor (SA-15) short-range battlefield system. Antey also specializes in the development and production of commercial refrigeration equipment, domestic radio electronic devices, and consumer goods. The Concern comprises two scientific research institutes and several large plants, including the Scientific Research Institute of Electromechanics (NIIEhM) and a machinery production plant in Volzhsk (Volzhskprodmash) that specializes in a wide range of refrigeration installations. Antey also reportedly includes a co-located plant that produces printed circuits and other electronic products on an experimental scale.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Missile electronics; SIC Code: 3585, 3651, 3672, 3812

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Radio Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 5,000 (NIIEM); Date: 1971

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yu. Badalov, General Director

Veniamin Pavlovich Yefremov, General Designer

B. Lyamin, Chief of Information and Publicity

Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Pre-1950

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: The S-300V long-range air defense system (designated the SA-12A Gladiator by NATO); the Tor short range surface-to-air missile system (SA-15); radar systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Commercial refrigeration equipment, domestic radioelectronic devices, and consumer goods.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: NIIEhM has a large computer center.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Antey has exhibited in the West newly developed medical and animal husbandry technology and instruments including, for example, an electromagnetic stimulator for use in cattle breeding.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Antey Concern's subsidiary in Volzhsk (Volzhskprodmash) is said to be the largest commercial refrigeration plant in the world. At capacity, it will manufacture 220,000 refrigeration units a year for storing farm products. The plant was built through a joint-venture with FATA of Italy, which provided the production technology and training of Russian managers. It had 2,700 employees in 1992. Antey also intends to continue to produce and, if possible, to export its Tor missile system.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ASTROFIZIKA SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Astrofizika," SPA Astrofizika

ADDRESS:

123424, Moscow, Russia

Volokolamskoye Shosse, 95

Astrofizika Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 491-30-67, 491-64-22, 491-91-89 (Vice Director General), 491-76-77 (External Economics), 490-90-41 (Astroinform Ltd.); Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 491-21-21 (External Economics)

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Originally established as the Luch Central Design Bureau, Astrofizika is one of Russia's foremost facilities devoted to laser research. It is conducting directed energy projects using both gas and solid-state lasers and is doing research on laser locators, metal optics, and ecological subjects. Astrofizika has sought to develop laser systems based on a wide range of technologies including carbon-dioxide and neodymium glass. As of late February 1993 it was still receiving support from the Russian government although that support was decreasing. Astrofizika has several spin-off enterprises including Astroinform Ltd (production and marketing of software), the Granat High Energy Laser Special Design Bureau (directed energy projects using gas lasers), the Ametist Special Design Bureau in Krasnodar, the Raduga Special Design Bureau at Raduzhniy in the Vladimirovskoye Oblast, the Astogermes Joint Stock Company at Bolshaya Polyanka, 22, in Moscow, the Moscow Nov Electrical Machinery Plant, and Cosmoten, a satellite tracking collective located in the North Caucasus mountains.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Lasers; SIC Code: 3663, 3674, 3699, 3812, 3845, 7371, 7372

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 10,000; Date: 1993

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

N. Belkin, General Director

Valeriy V. Abramov, Vice Director General

Ivan F. Lebedev, External Economics

Sergey D. Fomenko, General Director,

Astroinform Ltd.

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Directed energy laser systems, high-powered aircraft-carried laser system for theater missile defense; tactical electro-optical blinding laser systems on tracked vehicles; SDI-type technology using space-based lasers.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Surgical lasers, gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser sensors for measuring environmental pollution, laser measuring instruments, devices/equipment for hardening cutting-tool tips, radio sensing/measuring equipment, printed circuits, guidance/control devices for orbiting satellites, antennas. In addition, Astroinform, Ltd. produces computer software products including interactive environmental curricula for secondary school students, a vision diagnostic tool incorporating 3-D technology, guidance/control programs for positioning satellites for optimal TV coverage, and a "Windows-like" program to support multiple applications. Astrogermes is seeking ways to use defense technologies in plants which produce oil equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Carbon-dioxide lasers with power up to 30 kW, YAG-lasers with power up to 100 kW, and copper-vapor lasers with power up to 30 kW

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Industrial laser complexes based on high power lasers, medical equipment, metal cutting, heat treatment and surface alloying using laser technology

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Granat bureau was registered as an independent state enterprise in April 1992. However, it is still within the overall Astrofizika structure and staffed by individuals from the organization.

ENTERPRISE NAME: BARANOV CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MOTOR BUILDING

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: Tsentralnyy institut aviatsionnogo motorostroyeniya (TsIAM) imeni P.I. Baranova; Baranov Institute; Central Institute of Aviation Motors

ADDRESS:

111250 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Aviamotornaya, 2

Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motor Building

Telephone: (011-7-095) 261-71-53, 200-22-15, 267-14-87, 267-14-11, Telex: 411686 CIAM SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 361-22-73, 267-13-54

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Baranov institute (generally called TsIAM) is the primary organization for research and testing of air-breathing aviation propulsion systems. It conducts basic and applied scientific research in aviation engine design and maintains scientific tracking at all stages of aviation engine life, from conceptual development to use. It has been involved in the development of almost all Soviet aviation engines, for both civil and military aircraft.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Jet Engines; SIC Code: 3724

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 5,800; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Donat Alekseyevich Ogorodnikov, Director

Vladimir A. Sosunov, First Deputy Director

Mikhail Ya. Ivanov, Deputy Director

Aleksandr S. Rudakov, Deputy Director/Chief of

Department of Hypersonic Engines

Vladimir A. Skibin, Director of Lytkarino Test

Complex

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1930

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Researches and tests air-breathing propulsion systems. Developed and tested a SCRAMJET engine, displayed at the Moscow Aeroengine '92 Show.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Researches and tests air-breathing propulsion systems for civil uses.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: TsIAM has 400 test stands and other work areas for experimental scientific research, 10 stands with thermal high-altitude chambers for natural-condition testing, the industry's primary center for materials strength, a hypersonic wind tunnel capable of simulating conditions of Mach 3.5-7, a computer center, and a test production facility with a closed-loop feedback.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Research is focused on improving its engines to conform more to world standards, including fuel efficiency, improved service life, better reliability, and lower cost. TsIAM is also designing an agricultural machine to pick cotton.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: The institute operates a recreation facility and a kindergarten.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: TsIAM's center for scientific research is located in Moscow. A subsidiary center for experimental testing is located outside Moscow on a site of more than 60 hectares. TsIAM seeks joint ventures with Western partners and offers the services of its facilities and staff. The institute employs 8,000 scientific workers, engineers, and other staff, including more than 100 with the degree of doctor of science and more than 400 with the degree of candidate of science.

ENTERPRISE NAME: CENTRAL AEROHYDRODYNAMICS INSTITUTE (TsAGI)

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: Tsentralnyy aerogidrodinamicheskiy institut (TsAGI) imeni N.Ye. Zhukovskogo, Ramenskoye Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute

ADDRESS:

140160 Zhukovskiy 3, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Zhukovskogo,1

Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute

Telephone: (011-7-095) 556-41-53, 556-42-50, 556-42-24, 556-42-89, 556-42-13, 556-42-05; Telex: 412573 ZAKAT SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 271-00-19, 556-43-37

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI) is a major research and test complex involved in both basic and applied aerodynamic research. It is the world's largest aerospace center; it helped design and test every major Soviet fighter, airliner, and spacecraft.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 9,200; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

German Ivanovich Zagaynov, General Director

Vladimir Yakovlevich Neyland, Deputy Director

Elena G. Tolchennikov, Director of International

Business Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1918

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Basic, exploratory, and applied research of all types of aircraft--fighters, bombers, transports, reconnaissance aircraft, and spacecraft.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Basic, exploratory, and applied research of all types of civil aircraft.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: TsAGI has more than fifty aerodynamic test facilities, including a supersonic wind tunnel to test speeds up to Mach 1.7; a 24 meter subsonic wind tunnel; a 4,600 cubic meter thermal testing chamber that simultaneously checks temperature, pressure, and speed; and a 13.5 meter diameter, 30 meter long vacuum chamber for thermal strength testing.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Assembles special ovens for the lumber and ceramic industries, and has opened a shoe factory. TsAGI offers its technology for civil aviation and has tested a model for a major U.S. aircraft manufacturer.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Commercial bank, recreation facility, kindergarten.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: TsAGI is seeking foreign partners and has offered the services of its facilities. Many foreign delegations have visited the Institute to discuss joint projects including Boeing and British Aerospace. TsAGI, in concert with two other research institutions, founded the Moscow commercial Maxbank in June 1992 with a paid capital estimated at 60 million rubles. The address of the Moscow branch of TsAGI is 107005 Moscow, Ulitsa Radio 17, Telephone: 011-7-095-267-34-64.

ENTERPRISE NAME: CENTRAL DESIGN BUREAU OF SPECIAL RADIO MATERIALS

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: TsKB spetsialnykh radiomaterialov

ADDRESS:

111024, Moscow, Russia

Shosse Entusiastov, 11A

Central Design Bureau of Special Radio Materials

Telephone: (011-7-095) 361-45-04; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 113460 NIMFA; Fax: N/A; E-Mail: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Central Design Bureau of Special Radio Materials produces special materials and semi-fabricates for radio communications, radio broadcasting, and television.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Communications equipment; SIC Code: 3441, 3663, 3669, 3671, 3825

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Communications Equipment Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 330; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Oleg Nikolayevich Sidorov, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Special materials and semifabricates for military radio communications.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Special materials and semifabricates for radio communications, radio broadcasting, and television.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MACHINE-BUILDING (TsNIImash)

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Tsentralnyy nauchno-issledvatelskiy institut mashinostroyeniya (TsNIImash)

ADDRESS:

141070, Kaliningrad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Pionerskaya, 4

Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-Building

Telephone: (011-7-095) 581-92-66, 516-31-05, 516-37-31, 516-30-01; Telex: 411952 MCC SU; Teletype: 346758 STRELA; Fax: (011-7-095) 274-00-25; 187-15-66

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Central Scientific Research Institute of Machine-Building (TsNIImash) conducts analysis of both current and future rocket and space systems. It is one of the primary facilities for testing of spacecraft and spacecraft components for NPO "Energiya" and others. It is also involved in theoretical and experimental research in the areas of aerogasdynamics, heat transfer, thermal protection, and static and dynamic strength of boosters.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Space technology; SIC Code: 2819, 2821, 3443, 3511, 3569

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladimir Utkin, General Director

Viktor Surikov, Deputy Director in Science

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1948

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Missile booster design and testing; analysis of missile and space systems and concepts.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Design and testing of space vehicles and spacecraft components.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: TsNIImash has many test cells and laboratories, including transonic wind tunnels, supersonic wind tunnels, gas dynamic pressure chambers, vacuum chambers, and a 8,300 cubic meter space simulation facility that allows for experimentation in all areas of space technology, including endo- and exo-atmospheric flight.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ELECTRODE PLANT

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Elektrodnyy zavod, Moscow Electrode Plant

ADDRESS:

111123 Moscow, Russia

Shosse Entuziastov, 31

Electrode Plant

Telephone: (011-7-095) 176-14-32; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 114302 VYBROS; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Electrode Plant produces electrodes for military and civil use. It also produces composites and heat-resistant materials with applications in the missile and aero-space industries. The plant is co-located with the State Scientific-Research Institute of Grafite (NIIGRAFIT), a leading Russian developer of graphite-based materials.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Metallurgy; SIC Code: 2895, 3263, 3297, 3421, 3548, 3624, 3641

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Metallurgy

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 2,000; Date: 1993

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yuriy Fedorovich Gnedin

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Pre-1960

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Electrodes, heat-resistant materials for aero-space applications.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Welding electrodes; tableware

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Electrodes for civilian industry; tableware. A subsidiary of the South Korean firm Samsung has contracted with the Electrode Plant to commercialize carbon-carbon material production technology. It is part of a joint project between the Korea Academy of Industrial Technology (Kaitech) and the Russian State Scientific Research Institute of Graphite.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ELEKTRONIKA CENTRAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: TsNII "Elektronika," Elektronika All-Union Scientific Research Institute.

ADDRESS:

117415, Moscow, Russia

Prospekt Vernadskogo, 39

Elektronika Central Scientific Research Institute

Telephone: (011-7-095) 432-93-51, 423-92-23, 432-92-72; Telex: 411668 BIT SU; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Elektronika is responsible for providing information services to the electronics industry, as well as services involving the operation of control instruments and equipment for technological processes, laboratory equipment, measuring devices, and computer facilities. It also produces a variety of lasers and emitters.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronics; SIC Code: 3625, 3674, 3821, 3825, 3827, 3829, 7374

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yuriy Borisovich Mityushin, Manager

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: About 1968

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Lasers for military uses

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Miniature solid-state diode-pumped lasers which provide coherent infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light for use in metrology, computer science, and other areas of scientific research.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: In 1988 Elektronika reported that it had fabricated experimental vacuum integrated circuit field emission arrays to make flat panel fluorescent displays.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ELEKTROSTAL MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: PO "Mashinostroitelnyy zavod" (POMZ)

ADDRESS:

144000, Elektrostal, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Machine-Building Plant Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 176-47-70; Telex: 911639 ENERG SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 176-05-28; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Elektrostal plant produced bombs and other munitions before and during World War II. After the war, it produced pure uranium for use in nuclear weapons and also produced fuel elements for nuclear power stations. It operates internationally through the foreign trade firm Energiya, whose phone, telex, and fax numbers are given above.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Nuclear materials; SIC Code: 2819, 3841

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Medium Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 12,000; Date: 1980s

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Dr. Valery A. Mezhuyev, General Director

Stanislav Gelman, Public Affairs Officer/Bureau

head

S. Gorodkov, Director, Energiya Foreign Trade

Firm

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1916

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Uranium for nuclear weapons.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Fuel elements for nuclear power stations, equipment and precision instruments for producing nuclear fuel elements, small ferrite magnets.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Nuclear fuel elements were produced on five automated production lines which were developed with participation of German specialists.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Disposable needles for taking blood samples, medical equipment, magnets for radioelectronics, hard alloy tips for cutting tools, equipment for the agricultural and textile industries.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ENERGIYA SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Energiya" imeni akademika S. P. Koroleva

ADDRESS:

141070 Kaliningrad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Lenina Ulitsa, 4a

Energiya Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 284-53-98, 516-46-52; Telex: 411952; Fax: (011-7-095) 284-52-90

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Energiya was founded in 1941 as the Korolev Design Bureau and is Russia's oldest and most prominent space enterprise. Energiya is a major designer and production organization for space launch vehicles and manned-related spacecraft. It is the main production management authority for the Mir space station and the Buran space shuttle. The Association includes the Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine-Building (TsKBEM) in Kaliningrad, which designs spacecraft; an associated pilot production plant in Kaliningrad and facilities in several other cities.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Space vehicles; SIC Code: 3761

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 35,000; Date: 1991

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yuriy Pavlovich Semenov, General Designer

Valeriy Viktorovich Ryumin, Deputy General

Designer

V. P. Legostayev, Deputy General Designer

Isaac B. Khazanov, Chief Engineer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1974

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Space launch vehicles--SL-3, SL-6, SL-17; manned spacecraft--Salyut; Soyuz-TM; Progress-M; Buran space shuttle; Mir space station; communications satellites, and geophysical survey systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Artificial limbs: medical devices; food processing equipment, including dough-making machinery and bakeries; an ocean-going yacht; consumer goods; anti-corrosion lacquer coatings for aluminum alloys and steel.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Energiya's principal business remains rockets and space, and it is vigorously seeking US cooperation in the joint-development of space systems. In recent years, Energiya has added 34,000 square meters of production space for consumer goods and a new building with an area of 6,500 square meters for the production of household appliances including kitchen equipment and vacuum cleaners, using machinery imported from Japan. Energiya is charged with responsibilities for a master program of prosthesis production under conversion and has created an experimental center for prosthetics and personal training.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Lockheed and NPO Energiya signed an agreement to cooperate on future space programs and to investigate joint development of the Russian Soyuz spacecraft as the interim rescue vehicle on Space Station Freedom. NASA will consider using Energiya's heavy-lift launch vehicle to orbit space station components. In addition, NASA concluded a $1 million, one-year contract with the Russian Space Agency to begin the technical evaluations of Soyuz, the docking system and Mir, all of which are products of Energiya, after the June summit. Options include testing hardware which could raise the value of the deal to $10 million.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ENERGOMASH SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Energomash" imeni Akademika V. P. Glushko

ADDRESS:

141400, Khimki-1, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Energomash Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-071) 572-22-00, 572-83-73; 572-21-04; 572-21-35, 573-15-56; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 205677 PLAMYA; Fax: (011-7-095) 573-01-10; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: NPO Energomash is Russia's leading designer and producer of high-thrust liquid rocket engines. Engines developed here have powered all Soviet space vehicles from the Sputnik satellite to the Mir Space Station and the Buran shuttle launch vehicle, Energiya. Energomash has designed more than 50 different rocket motors and is responsible for all first stage engines now in use in Russian launch vehicles. Energomash has 4 sections: a design bureau for liquid fuel rocket engines, an experimental production plant for prototypes and serial production of the RD-170 liquid fuel engine, test stands, and a foundry. The facility was founded by Academician Glushko in 1929 as the Gas Dynamics Laboratory and became a rocket engine design bureau in 1946.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Rocket engines; SIC Code: 3764

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 12,000; Date: 1991

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Boris I. Katagorin, General Director and General

Designer

Vladimir F. Trofimov, General Manager and

First Deputy Chief Designer

Felix Yu. Chelkis, Chief Designer of RD-170

engine

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled. Energomash is in the process of becoming a joint stock company.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1929

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: N/A

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Rocket engines, including the RD-170, RD-171, and RD-253 used on the Energiya, Zenit and Proton boosters.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Energomash has more than 80 firing/test stands for engines up to 1000 tons of thrust including 4 for full-size (assembled) engines. It also has facilities for testing components (pumps, turbines, etc.).

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Energomash is developing a reusable twin-nozzle tripropellant rocket engine, the RD-170, which uses LOX, kerosene, and hydrogen to achieve single-stage-to-orbit. Other projects include production of civil goods, including cream separators, bakery furnaces, recreational sleds and automobile parts.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Employee housing, day care, kindergartens, vacation housing, medical clinics, sports facilities and other social facilities.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Pratt & Whitney has signed an agreement to market Energomash engines in the West.

ENTERPRISE NAME: FAKEL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN BUREAU

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Opytnoye konstruktorskoye byuro Fakel, OKB "Fakel," Fakel Design Bureau, NPO "Fakel"

ADDRESS:

236001 Kaliningrad, Russia

Moskovskii Prospekt, 181

Fakel Experimental Design Bureau

Telephone: (011-7-01122) 46-19-64, 46-15-74, 46-16-16; Telex: 262246 or 262104 ZENIT SU; Fax: (011-7-01122) 46-17-62

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Fakel Experimental Design Bureau is a leading center for the design of spacecraft attitude control thrusters and ion engines for Russian satellites. Fakel was formed in 1972 from the Ion and Nuclear Motors Department for Rocket Engine Design of the S.P. Korolyev Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machine Building. Fakel began transitioning in 1991 from designing space-oriented products strictly for the Russian space program, to openly marketing some of its products and designing medical equipment.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Spacecraft propulsion systems; SIC Code: 2819, 2836, 3541, 3761, 3829, 3841

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

A.S.Bober, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1972

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Electro-thermal hydrazine thrusters, electric propulsion systems, plasma and ion thrusters and sources for geostationary satellites.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: SPT (stationary plasma thrusters)-100 electric thrusters for communications satellites, and Fakel 01 argon plasma surgical scalpels.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: In February 1993, Russia's Fakel Experimental Design Bureau and the Moscow Applied Mechanics and Electrodynamics NII (Scientific Research Institute) formed a joint-venture, called International Space Technology, Inc. (ISTI), with the Space Systems/Loral Company of the United States. ISTI will use Russian-made advanced electric thrusters powered by Western electronics to develop new satellite propulsion systems.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Fakel was one of several Russian research and design institutes to develop the software and hardware for an integrated system for the individual computer-aided manufacturing of surgical implants.

ENTERPRISE NAME: GRANAT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN BUREAU

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: OKB "Granat", Granat High Energy Laser Special Design Bureau

ADDRESS:

123424 Moscow, Russia

Volokolamskoye Shosse, 95

Granat Experimental Design Bureau

Telephone: (011-7-095) 491-71-30; Telex: N/A; Teletype: N/A; Fax: N/A; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Granat conducts research and development of high-energy lasers. Although Granat split from NPO "Astrofizika" in 1992 and registered as an independent enterprise, it may still have some formal or informal links with Astrofizika.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Lasers; SIC Code: 3674, 3699, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 800; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Nikolay V. Cherburkin, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Directed high-energy laser systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: High-energy lasers.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ILYUSHIN AVIATION COMPLEX

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Aviatsionnyy kompleks imeni S.V. Ilyushina, AK "Ilyushin," Ilyushin Aircraft Association, AA "Ilyushin," Ilyushin Design Bureau, OKB imeni S. Ilyushina, Ilyushin Machine-Building Plant, Moskovskiy mashinostroitelnyy zavod imeni S.V. Ilyushina

ADDRESS:

125167 Moscow, Russia

Kramatorskaya Ulitsa, 15

Ilyushin Aviation Complex

125319 Moscow, Russia

Leningradskiy Prospekt, 45

Ilyushin Machine-Building Plant

Telephone: (011-7-095) 250-09-55, 155-33-37, 155-30-60, 155-33-25, 943-83-25, 943-81-21; Telex: 411956 SOKOL; Fax: (011-7-095) 221-21-32, 250-13-34

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Ilyushin Design Bureau is a major aircraft design enterprise, responsible for the development of civilian and military transport aircraft.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 6000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Genrikh V. Novozhilov, Director/General Designer

Vyacheslav Ivanovich Teren'tyev, Deputy General

Designer

Boris Aleksandrovich Gladkov, Deputy Director

V. A. Belyakov, Marketing Director

Yu. Yudin, Chief of Planning and Economic

Department

A. A. Shaknovich, Head of Public Relations

R. P. Paplovsky, Chief Designer

Igor Yu. Katyrev, Chief Designer of IL-96-300 and

IL-114

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1933

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designed Il-76 Candid transport aircraft; Il-78 Midas tanker; Il-76 Mainstay AWACs.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Developing Il-96, Il-114 passenger aircraft; Il-126 business jet to carry 5-10 passengers; Il-08 twin-turbofan executive jet powered by Lotarev DV-2 engine, in 9 and 15 passenger versions; Il-103 trainer.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Electronic flight deck with six CRT's onboard Il-96.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Equipment for preparing furs and hides; shoe manufacturing equipment; equipment for preparing and cutting fruits and vegetables; small vacation homes; private trainer aircraft.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Ilyushin Design Bureau has set up a business center with the US firm Satra Aerospace. It is working with Pratt & Whitney and avionics company Rockwell Collins to equip the Il-96M with Western engines and avionics. It has signed an agreement with Allied Signal Aerospace to provide bleed air equipment for Il-96. It has also been negotiating a deal with CFM International to re-engine 20 Il-86 aircraft. Ilyushin aircraft are being produced at plants in Moscow and Voronezh in Russia and Tashkent in Uzbekistan. The Ilyushin Design Bureau, together with the aircraft plant in Voronezh, has formed the Ilyushin Association. Bendix/King has an agreement to furnish integrated avionics systems for several new airliners including the Ilyushin-114.

ENTERPRISE NAME: IMPULS JOINT-STOCK COMPANY

LAST UPDATE: September 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Impuls Company

ADDRESS:

129626, Moscow, Russia

Prospect Mira, 102

Impuls Joint-Stock Company

Telephone: (011-7-095) 287-88-73; Telex: 417590; Teletype: 112734 CHELNOK; Fax: (011-7-095) 287-13-81; E-Mail: [email protected]

GENERAL OVERVIEW: SSDE "Impuls" is a highly diversified well equipped company with state-of-the-art research, technological and production potential and skillful staff capable of producing wide range of electronic equipment working in different parts of frequency spectrum such as radio frequencies, visual and IR radiation, ultrasonic waves. The products of Impuls are based on modern principles of signal processing wide use of microprocessor systems and microcomputers. Impuls top managers team considers conversion as the key to the company's future and is looking for those segments of civil market where its R&D potential could be most effectively used.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Radioelectronic equipment; SIC Code: 3229, 3483, 3533, 3557, 3663, 3699, 3812, 3823, 3825, 3826, 3829, 3843, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 1,600; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Alexandr V. Grigoriev, General Director

Igor A. Stasevitch, Deputy General Director

A.A. Osipov, Deputy General Director

OWNERSHIP: Public joint stock company

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1901

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Radioelectronic equipment for ground and airborne applications, TV guidance and hydroacoustic systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Microwave radio communications lines; satellite TV reception systems; small-scale TV cameras; digital thermovision devices; safeguard signalling systems; banknotes counting machines; consumer welding devices; humidity meters; portable medical equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Infrared, optics, radio, hydroacoustics

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Impuls has proposed nearly 40 conversion projects in the fields of oil and gas industry, atomic energetics, communication systems, medical equipment, technological equipment. Among these projects are creation of a diagnostic system which would detect hidden leaks in pipes, hot spots, and points of thermal stress; a complex of service equipment for use in the extraction, transport, and storage of oil and gas.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Company-owned medical service and voluntary medical insurance for all employees, sports facilities.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Impuls is possessed of solid business solvency, has no long-term liabilities, its current ration on Nov. 1, 1993 was 1.26. The company is profitable.

ENTERPRISE NAME: INSTITUTE OF SPACE RESEARCH (IKI)

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Institut kosmicheskikh issledovaniya (IKI)

ADDRESS:

117810, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Profsoyuznaya, 84

Institute of Space Research

Telephone: (011-7-095) 333-20-88; 333-43-02 (Laboratory), 333-52-79 (Chief Scientist); Telex: 411498 STAR SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 310-70-23

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Institute of Space Research (IKI) is Russia's primary research institute of the space sciences. It specializes in studies of the Earth's environment, near space science, planetary science including the planned missions to Mars, and deep space science. The Institute has a production plant in Bishkek that builds satellites, and a scientific research branch in Tarusa. An established researcher for both the military and civilian space industries, IKI now claims to receive less than one percent of its funding for defense work.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Space science research; SIC Code: 3663, 4899, 4841

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Academy of Sciences

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 1,300; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Albert A. Galeyev, General Director

Vyacheslav M. Balebanov, Deputy Director

Valentin S. Etkin, Chief Scientist

Victor Raizer, Scientist

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Space science research

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Space science research

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: IKI has departments of planetary physics, astrophysics, solar plasma, and applied space physics.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: IKI has directed more resources to the study of the Earth's environment, including a joint venture with an American firm for radio-physical studies of the Pacific Ocean. IKI has offered the "Regatta" solar activity satellite for sale to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for use as a solar storm-warning satellite. The "Regatta" uses a solar sail and rudders to maneuver in orbit instead of rockets. In addition, IKI has developed a comparably inexpensive encrypted video teleconferencing system renting satellite time through Intersputnik. The system has been operated commercially at a cost of $400 per hour. Prototype ground stations are in place at IKI in Moscow and at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: IKI is the primary organization involved in the planned October 1994 launch of the "Mars-94" mission, which will send a Phobos spacecraft to Mars carrying two Russian landers with US, Finnish, German, French, and Russian sensors and detectors. The US contribution to the mission, MOX (Mars Oxidant Experiment) will gather data for an evaluation of the composition of the Martian soil. IKI is also planning the "Mars-96" mission, which will send a surface rover to Mars.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ISAYEV DESIGN BUREAU OF CHEMICAL MACHINE-BUILDING

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: KB Khimmash imeni A.M. Isayeva

ADDRESS:

141070, Kaliningrad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Lesoparkovyy Tupik, 2

Isayev Design Bureau of Chemical Machine-Building

Telephone: (011-7-095) 516-30-64, 516-30-54; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 346757 FIALKA; Fax: (011-7-095) 516-06-62

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Isayev Design Bureau of Chemical Machine Building is one of the pioneers in the Russian rocket and space industry. It designs, develops, and manufactures liquid-fueled rocket engines ranging from large cryogenic rocket engines to small, pulsed liquid-fuel engines. It is responsible for the development of rocket engines for virtually all space systems -- including the Vostok, Soyuz, and Progress vehicles. It has also developed a line of high efficiency pumps and household heaters.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Rocket engines; SIC Code: 3443, 3561, 3634, 3764, 3842

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Nikolay Ivanovich Leontiev, General Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1943

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Liquid rocket engines for ballistic missiles (up to 50 tons thrust), engines for spacecraft using UDMH, nitrogen tetroxide propellants, and hydrozine propulsion including thrusters and fuel tanks.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Rocket engines for space launch vehicles, high-efficiency pumps, household electric heaters, rehabilitation equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Precision machine tool equipment, numerous test facilities, and laboratories used in the development of liquid-propellants.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Manufacture of household heaters and high- efficiency pumps for commercial applications

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: This design bureau works in concert with the Chemical Machine-Building R&D Institute located in Sergeyev Posad (formerly Zagorsk). The Sergeyev Posad facility carries out much of the testing required for the larger rocket engines designed at the Kaliningrad Design Bureau.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ISTOK STATE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION

CORPORATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: GNPP "Istok, Istok Scientific Production Association, NPO "Istok." Key facility: Istok Electronics Plant

ADDRESS:

141120 Fryazino, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Fryazina, Ulitsa Meshanskaya

Istok State Research and Production Enterprise

Telephone: (011-7-095) 465-86-66, 465-86-83; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 465-86-86

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Istok is a major producer of electronic components for space and military use, including parts for communications and laser equipment. It has also developed and manufactured consumer products for the national economy since the 1960s.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: electronics/ communications; SIC Code: 366

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 8,000; Date: 1994

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Aleksandr Korolev, General Director

Vladislav Sergeyevich Aleynikov, Department

Chief

Victor Ivanovich Masychev, Leading Research

Engineer

OWNERSHIP: Joint-stock

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1943

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Magnetrons; klystrons; high-powered vacuum tubes; carbon dioxide lasers; electro-optical devices; batteries; microwave devices; solid state electronics components.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Klystrons; magnetrons; backward wavetubes; traveling wavetubes; electrostatic amplifiers; radar speed sensors for locomotives; radar speed indicators for railway vans; medical lasers; computer display terminals; television picture tubes; other video graphics equipment; solar panels for satellites and spacecraft; carbon monoxide sealed-tube lasers, thermal vision devices for medical and industrial applications, high-power klystrons for accelerator technology, electron guns for welding.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED:

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Working on developing radio-communications equipment, hearing aids, microwave heaters.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: During the Electro-Optics and Laser Applications in Science and Engineering Conference held in Los Angeles, California on January 20-25, 1991, Istok offered carbon monoxide lasers for sale.

ENTERPRISE NAME: KAMOV HELICOPTER SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL COMPLEX

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Vertoletnyy nauchno-tekhnicheskiy kompleks imeni N. I. Kamova, Vertoletnyy NTK imeni N. I. Kamova, VNTK, Kamov Design Bureau.

ADDRESS:

140007, Lyubertsy, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa 8 Marta

Kamov Helicopter Scientific Technical Complex

Telephone: (011-7-095) 171-37-43, 550-32-04; Telex: 206112 KAMOV; Fax: (011-7-095) 550-30-71; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Kamov Helicopter Scientific Technical Complex includes the Kamov Design Bureau and its associated Ukhtomsk Helicopter Plant, which produces prototypes. It is a world leader for the development and production of coaxial-rotor helicopters for various military and civil applications. It also is developing a single-rotor fenestron (fan-in-fin) multipurpose civil helicopter.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Helicopter design and development; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 4,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Sergey Viktorovich Mikheyev, President, General

Designer

Veniamin A. Kasyanikov, Deputy General Designer

Vyacheslav G. Krigin, Chief Designer

Vyacheslav Stepanovich Savin, Director, Technical

Information Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1948

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Army combat helicopters (Ka-50 HOKUM); naval ship-based search and rescue and antisubmarine helicopters (Ka-27PS, Ka-28, Ka-29).

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Multipurpose and specialized helicopters for domestic economy (Ka-26, Ka-32, Ka-128.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Kamov makes extensive use of composite materials in new-model helicopters.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The Ka-62 is a 6,000-kilogram class, 14-16 passenger, multipurpose helicopter being developed for civil aviation. It incorporates a single main rotor and a fenestron tail rotor. The Ka-126 and Ka-226 are 3,000-kilogram class, 7-passenger, multipurpose civil helicopters with co-axial main rotors. The Ka-126 will use a single Russian engine, whereas the Ka-226 will use twin Western engines.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Kamov is actively seeking joint ventures with Western companies to develop and market helicopters. It has conducted discussions with Western companies regarding developing versions with Western engines and avionics.

ENTERPRISE NAME: KHRUNICHEV MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Mashinostroitelnyy zavod imeni M. V. Khrunicheva, Khrunichev Enterprise

ADDRESS:

121309, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Novozavodskaya, 18

Khrunichev Machine-Building Plant

Telephone: (011-7-095) 145-80-36, 145-89-54; 145-98-27, 145-83-43; Telex: 412427 MIR SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 142-59-00; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Khrunichev, one of the largest aerospace firms in Russia, produced over 15 types of aircraft before converting to missile and space products in 1962. It has produced the Proton heavy-lift launch vehicle, the manned orbital space stations Salyut and Mir, the LUNOKhOD unmanned lunar explorer vehicle, and the SS-19 intercontinental ballistic missile. Khrunichev continues to produce the Proton launch vehicle and some spacecraft, but has ceased production of ballistic missiles. Khrunichev also makes a wide variety of civil products for industry and the consumer, and recently organized a separate joint-stock company to sell satellite launch services to foreign bidders using the Proton launch vehicle. In June 1993, the Khrunichev Plant was combined with the Salyut Design Bureau to form the Khrunichev State Space Scientific Production Center with A.I. Kiselev as general director.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Space vehicles; SIC Code: 3761

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 12,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Anatoliy Ivanovich Kiselev, Director

Aleksandr V. Lebedev, Deputy Director

Andrey A. Romanov, Chief, International

Cooperation Bureau

Foreign Economic Relations Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1916

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Rocket boosters, space vehicles, Mir modules, and spare parts for M-4 Bison space-support aircraft.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Khrunichev produces the Proton space launch vehicle and maintains the capacity to produce manned and unmanned space craft. It produces the Almaz synthetic aperture radar satellite. It also produces equipment for the food industry, water purification equipment, medical equipment, and remote-controlled robots, pumps, and welding equipment. Products for the consumer market include kitchen furniture, pots and pans, pressure cookers, children's bicycles (220,000 units per year), ski poles, sleighs, and garden sheds.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Khrunichev has facilities for welding, casting, forging, heat treatment, electroplating, testing, and riveting. It also has multi-axis numerically-controlled machine tools and machining centers.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The main conversion project is a remote-controlled robotic machine for use in hazardous environments. Other projects underway or proposed include developing the "Priroda" module, an environmental earth monitor for the Mir space station; satellites for communications and navigation; cancer-radiation equipment using space technology; anti-air pollution devices; natural-gas converters for automobiles under an Italian license. Khrunichev is building the prototype of a light general aviation aircraft, the Molniya-1, with folding wings for transport on the highway.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Housing; day-care centers; pre-schools.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Khrunichev Enterprise is negotiating with the U.S. firm Motorola to launch space communications satellites, and is setting up a joint venture with the U.S. firm Lockheed to establish international marketing operations for collaboration in space.

ENTERPRISE NAME: KOMPOZIT SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Kompozit"

ADDRESS:

141070, Kaliningrad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Pionerskaya, 4

Kompozit Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 516-57-80, 516-81-72; Telex: 411204 NEX; Fax: (011-7-095) 516-61-12

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Kompozit is Russia's largest developer of advanced materials for the aerospace and other industries. It has specialized in the manufacture of metallic and non-metallic materials for spacecraft. Its metals and composites are developed to operate in hostile environments at extreme temperatures under complex loads. The plant has developed advanced materials for commercial products, including medical equipment and artificial limbs. Kompozit's work ranges from the manufacture of these alloys and composites to the construction of equipment to produce them. Major divisions include Metal (metal structural materials), Metallokomp (metal-matrix composite and bimetallic products, special coatings), Polimet (beryllium product manufacturing), Graker (rapidly-solidified powder metallurgy materials, ceramics), Polikomp (polymer composite materials), Karbokomp (nonmetallic materials), Precise Optics, and Kosmos (space materials). Kompozit incorporates the Central Research Institute of Materials Science (Kaliningrad, Moscow Oblast), the Institute of Composite Materials Technology (Perm), and the Malakhit and Orbita manufacturing facilities (Syvtyvkar, Komi Republic).

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Advanced materials; SIC Code: 3313, 3399, 3479, 3624, 3728, 3769, 3842

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 10,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Stanislav P. Polovnikov, Director General

OWNERSHIP: Joint-stock, in the process of privatizing.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Heat shields and materials for missile and space systems, including the Buran space shuttle.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Alloys used as heat shields on various space vehicles; leading edges for the Buran spacecraft; satellite dishes; telescopes; artificial limbs; hypodermic needles; self-propelled wheelchairs; bicycle frames; tennis rackets; castings based on beryllium, titanium, and superalloys; carbon-carbon composite articles; advanced ceramic products; polymer- and metal-matrix composite articles and units; steel and alloy semi-finished and finished products; various adhesives; anaerobic sealants; solid lubricants and greases; materials for bioimplants and medical tools.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Precision machine tools; autoclaves; machine tools for manufacturing precision mirrors; advanced metallurgical methods including rapid solidification processes.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The plant has converted some production capability to the manufacture of hypodermic needles. It is carrying out experiments designed to lead to the commercialization of materials production under microgravity in space.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Kompozit has joint ventures with Italian, German, Swiss, and Canadian firms. It is one of the founders of the Respublika Stock Company, of which its Director General is the President. The objective of Respublika is the development of the territories of the northern territories of the European part of Russia, and in particular the exploitation of bauxite and titanium ore deposits there.

ENTERPRISE NAME: KRASNAYA ZVEZDA SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Krasnaya zvezda"; Red Star Scientific Production Association. Key Facility: Electrical and Mechanical Equipment Plant (ZEMO).

ADDRESS:

115230, Moscow, Russia

Elektrolitnyy Proezd, 1-a

Krasnaya zvezda Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 113-23-09; Telex: 412748 SPACE; Teletype: 112785 SOBOL; Fax: (011-7-095) 113-34-88

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Krasnaya zvezda has been a general contractor for space nuclear power programs. In conjunction with the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, it developed thermo-electric reactor systems and the Topaz-1 thermionic reactor and also the methodology used by the government to verify the safety of each reactor. The firm also has extensive experience in heat pipe development and production, including commercial applications.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Satellite nuclear power systems; SIC Code: 2892, 3299, 3443, 3479, 3491, 3523, 3542, 3556, 3829, 3848

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Medium Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 3,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Georgiy Mikhaylovich Gryaznov, General Director

Yevgeniy V. Paneratov, Deputy Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Topaz space satellite nuclear power reactors.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Experimental nuclear reactors; space nuclear power reactors; temperature changing equipment based on low- and high-temperature heat pipes; ultra-dispersed metallic powders; metal-ceramic filters; voltage/current switches for high-temperature, high-radiation environments; medical products (artificial heart valves, surgical instruments, dental tool storage containers); food processing equipment (chicken deboning machine); machine tools with special coatings; flow control valves; expansion bellows; pressure accumulators; thermocouples.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Krasnaya zvezda's specialized tooling includes production and testing stands and equipment for building nuclear reactors; environmental testing chambers; thermovacuum and vacuum chambers; and a liquid metal loop for hydraulic flow tests of powders.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: New civil products being proposed or built by Krasnaya zvezda include unattended self-regulated nuclear thermoelectric power plants to provide combined heat and electric power in remote regions; "Mirage-M" nuclear reactor safety control systems; "Tacitron" plasma switches for operation under extreme temperature and radiation conditions; heating devices for growing gallium-arsenide monocrystals; other heat transfer devices based on heat pipes (for cooling spacecraft instruments, electronic equipment, human body parts, casting molds, and for freezing soil and creating ice); concrete mixing plants for manufacturing colored concrete and mortars; and equipment for production of herbal extracts for medical purposes.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Professional school, medical center

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Krasnaya zvezda officials have attended international nuclear energy conferences in the U.S. and are actively seeking joint ventures with Western businesses. The firm claims that its experience in developing, manufacturing, and testing space nuclear reactors and associated systems give it the capability to provide support to Western nuclear reactor programs. Krasnaya zvezda is also prepared to design and develop heat transfer devices according to customer specifications.

ENTERPRISE NAME: KRASNOGORSK PLANT STATE ENTERPRISE

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Krasnogorskiy Zavod State Enterprise, Gosudarstvennoye predpriyatiye "PO Krasnogorskiy zavod", Production Center S.A. Zverev Krasnogorskiy zavod PO, S.A. Zverev Production Association "Krasnogorsk Plant", Krasnogorsk Mechanical Plant, KMZ

ADDRESS:

143400 Krasnogorsk, Moscow Oblast, Russia

Ulitsa Rechnaya, 8

Krasnogorsk Plant State Enterprise

Telephone: (011-7-095) 562-04-37; Telex: 911608 KMZ-FZ-SOV; Teletype: 205345 or 205348; Fax: (011-7-095) 562-68-42, 562-82-75

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Krasnogorsk Plant State Enterprise is a major producer of military and civil optical equipment. Its military products include armored vehicle laser rangefinder sights, observation periscopes, night vision equipment, aerial cameras, satellite imaging systems, and satellite tracking systems. Known for its "Zenit" SLR camera line, the enterprise also produces movie equipment, medical equipment, and various types of industrial glass.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Optical systems; SIC Code: 3231, 3812, 3827, 3861

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 20,000; Date: 1991

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Aleksandr Ivanovich Goyev, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Tank laser rangefinder sights; tank commander's sights; remote observation periscopes; panchromatic periscopes for remote observation and photography; aerial cameras; night vision equipment; space satellite imaging systems; satellite tracking systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: "Zenit" SLR cameras; "Gorizont" panoramic cameras; camera lenses; movie equipment; infrared equipment; medical photographic equipment; medical lasers; microscopes; chemical analyzers; various types of industrial glass; sights for hunting guns.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: The Krasnogorsk Plant has built an average of 500 apartments annually for its employees and operates 20 kindergartens, other schools, a 600-person polyclinic, a youth camp, a vacation facility, and a hockey team.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Krasnogorsk Plant has sought foreign joint ventures. Plant officials have claimed that by 1991 its production of military products had declined to 20 to 30 percent of total output.

ENTERPRISE NAME: KRIOGENMASH SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Kriogenmash;" Balashikhinskoye NPO kriogennogo mashinostroyeniya; Balashikha Scientific Production Association of Cryogenic Machine-Building

ADDRESS:

143900, Balashikha, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Prospekt Lenina, 67

Kriogenmash Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 524-04-85, 521-17-74, 521-49-10; Telex: 412561 CRYO SU; Teletype: 346436 RUBIK; FAX: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: In 1939, Petr Leonidovich Kapitsa developed a method of liquefying large quantities of oxygen using a relatively simple technique. In 1943 he was involved in the creation of "Glavkislorod" (main oxygen), which subsequently evolved into the Kriogenmash Scientific Production Association. Kriogenmash consists of a design bureau and collocated production facility at Balashikha in the Moscow Oblast that specializes in the design and production of equipment for the production of cryogenic gases. The bulk of this equipment is delivered to metallurgical plants throughout the former Soviet Union. Kriogenmash has supplied cryogenic equipment to the Buran space program and to the Russian aviation industry. The cryogenic equipment for the Tokamak-15 thermonuclear complex was designed and built by Kriogenmash. An experimental complex designed to supply gas to villages located far from mainline piping is one of the Association's current projects. Kitchen sinks, thermos flasks, tableware and automobile exhausts are also among the products of the association.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Cryogenic technology; SIC Code: 3229, 3261, 3262, 3429, 3443, 3462, 3463, 3491, 3493, 3563, 3825, 3914

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Chemical Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 8,000; Date: 1991

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladimir Ye. Kurtashin, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1943

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Fueling equipment for missiles and space launch vehicles.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Machinery to produce and store cryogenic liquids, cryogenic vacuum technologies, cooling systems, automobile parts, tableware, kitchen sinks.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Kriogenmash designed, and has begun to manufacture a new generation of high-capacity air-fractionating installations. The new installations have a capacity of 70,000 cubic meters of oxygen per hour.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Kriogenmash was among the first Russian organizations to pass international standards certification administered by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Qualitat. Kriogenmash is part of a consortium known as the Kriogenika Concern. V.Ye. Kurtashin, the General Director of Kriogenmash, is also president of Kriogenika. Kriogenmash is installing a cryogenic pipeline in the first stage of an accelerator owned by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

ENTERPRISE NAME: LAVOCHKIN SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO imeni S. A. Lavochkina

ADDRESS:

141400, Khimki-2, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Leningradskoye Shosse, 24

Lavochkin Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 573-90-56, 573-27-04; Telex: 911721 IRBIS SU, 412721 IRBIS SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 573-35-95; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Lavochkin Scientific Production Association is a major design and production organization for planetary and scientific spacecraft. It is the main production management authority for unmanned missions to Mars. Organized in the 1960s on the basis of the Kryukov Design Bureau, a designer of fighter jet aircraft and surface-to-air missiles, NPO Lavochkin today includes the Babakin Engineering Research Center and a production plant.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Space vehicles; SIC Code: 3063, 3761

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 15,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Baklunov, General Director

Aleksandr A. Moysheyev, Deputy General

Designer

Roald Savvovich Kremnev, Director of Babakin

Engineering Research Center

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1937 (Kryukov Design Bureau)

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Reconnaissance satellites.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Planetary probes (Phobos, Mars orbiters); orbiting astrophysical observatories (Astron and Granat telescopes).

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: The NPO's many special facilities include a centrifuge facility and an anechoic shielded chamber for environmental testing.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Lavochkin is developing a system of communications satellites for a space-based air traffic control system; the "Bankir" communications space network to support the commercial banking system; and the "Plamya" satellite network that uses optics and electronics to detect forest fires. It has also started producing mountaineering equipment from titanium alloys, as well as other types of commercial goods, such as furniture, bathroom fixtures, and lighting fixtures.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Lavochkin Association is involved in the Arkos Joint Stock Company, which seeks to use SS-18 ICBMs to launch payloads into orbit for producing pure semi-conductor monocrystals and medical and biological preparations under conditions of microgravity. In 1989, the Conversion Company in Kaluga was established as an offshoot of Lavochkin. It designs and develops electromechanical equipment for agricultural, medical, and environmental uses such as food transportation and storage.

ENTERPRISE NAME: LUCH SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Luch". Key Facilities: Scientific Research Institute of NPO "Luch," Associated Expedition (Obedinennaya Ekspeditsiya) of NPO "Luch."

ADDRESS:

142100, Podolsk, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Zheleznodorozhnaya, 24

Luch Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 137-92-58, 137-93-39; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 137-93-84; E-Mail: [email protected]

GENERAL OVERVIEW: NPO "Luch" was founded as a research and production enterprise for rare earth metals for the nuclear industry and became an NPO in the late 1980s. It produces metals, alloys, and compounds of tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, beryllium, chromium, rhenium, and titanium for the nuclear, chemical, and electronic industries. It was one of the main developers of the Topaz-2 satellite nuclear power reactor and is developing thermionic fuel elements and other materials for the Topaz-3 nuclear power reactor. NPO "Luch" has also conducted extensive work on high-temperature cores for nuclear rocket propulsion, designed for space projects. The Associated Expedition of NPO "Luch", the enterprise's field test facility, is located at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Nuclear power reactors; SIC Code: 3443

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Medium Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Ivan Ivanovich Fedik, Director

Yuriy Semenovich Cherepnin, Director of

Associated Expedition

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1946

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Materials and components for nuclear reactors.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Most of Luch's military work on nuclear reactors is equally applicable to civil work. Civil applications include thermionic fuel elements, tungsten electric heaters, and monocrystal products for space nuclear reactors; sodium sulfide batteries; silicon carbide for super-large-scale integrated circuits; reflector sets for the LT1 technological laser; metallic reflectors from monocrystal molybdenum; and sintered tungsten blocks.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: The NPO's many specialized facilities include a welding laboratory, a creep testing laboratory, ceramics research facilities, and a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: NPO "Luch" is one of the founders of ASPECT Ltd., a commercial organization created in 1991 to help nuclear research, design, and production enterprises establish contact with partners in domestic and foreign markets. It is actively seeking joint ventures. It has signed a contract to participate in demonstration tests of the Topaz-2 nuclear power reactor in the United States.

ENTERPRISE NAME: LYUBERTSY SOYUZ SCIENCE PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: LNPO "Soyuz", NPO "Soyuz", Moscow Science and Production Association "Soyuz" (Union), MNPO "Soyuz"

ADDRESS:

140056, Dzerzhinsk, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Sovetskaya, 6

Lyubertsy Soyuz Science and Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 172-26-92; Telex: N/A; Teletype: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 175-24-94

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Lyubertsy Soyuz Science and Production Association (LNPO Soyuz) is located near the site of the historic Nikolo-Ugreshkiy Monastary in the small city of Dzerzhinsk southeast of the Moscow Ring Road. LNPO Soyuz is a leading research, development and production facility for both double-base and composite solid propellant rockets. In addition to offering solid rocket motors for civilian applications, LNPO Soyuz is commercially expanding based on its solid rocket propellant technology and a large variety of polymer products. The LNPO will provide the engineering, technology, service, and delivery of a variety of finished products.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Solid rocket propellant; SIC Code: 2099, 2833, 2834, 2869 2892, 3489, 3531, 3532, 3545, 3559, 3569, 3625, 3674, 3823, 3825, 3826

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Dr. Zinoviy P. Pak, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Solid rocket motor propellant and explosives.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Solid rocket motor propellant for geophysical and meteorological space rockets; nondestructive test equipment, mechanized equipment for packing, marking, loading, and unloading products; universal planetary mixers; four-channel feeding modules with microprocessor control systems; control system designing; development and manufacture of nonstandard measuring devices and scaling; metal separator equipment; pollution control equipment and technology; composite material products and technology; building materials; household chemical goods; powdered microcrystalline cellulose; superhard materials and tools; sorbents for ion chromatography; pectin production; pharmaceuticals such as stenocardia; industrial explosives made from obsolete solid propellants; aerosol fire extinguishing systems; pulsed liquid fire extinguishing devices; magnetohydrodynamic systems; gas generators; and pulsed solid propellant energy devices for geological research.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: In February 1993, LNPO Soyuz concluded a contract for the delivery of their products to the German company Metall Gesellschaft Dynamit.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: LNPO Soyuz is closely associated with the Complex Scientific and Technical Center in Moscow (formerly the Science Research Institute for High Temperature Combustion). The Complex Center designs and manages the solid rockets fueled by LNPO Soyuz.

ENTERPRISE NAME: MIKOYAN MIG AVIATION SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION COMPLEX

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Aviatsionnyy nauchno-proizvodstvennyy kompleks (ANPK) "M I G" imeni A.I. Mikoyana, Mikoyan Experimental Design Bureau, Mikoyan Design Bureau, OKB imeni A.I. Mikoyana, MIG OKB

ADDRESS:

125229, Moscow, Russia

Leningradskoye Shosse, 6

Mikoyan Aviation Scientific Production Complex

Telephone: (011-7-095) 155-23-15, 155-23-16, 158-24-52; Telex: 411700 MIGAIR; Fax: (011-7-095) 943-00-27

GENERAL OVERVIEW: "MIG" stands for Mikoyan and Gurevich - the design team of Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan and Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich - who, at the invitation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, founded the MIG Design Bureau on 8 December 1939. The bureau specializes in the design of fighter aircraft, and it garnered world renown with the advent of jet propulsion and the performance of its MIG-15 in the skies over Korea. There are currently more MIG-designed fighter aircraft in service with air forces throughout the world than any other type. MIG designs were also used for the AS-1, AS-2, AS-3, AS-4 and AS-5 large air-to-surface missiles in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1990, events have forced the MIG firm to broaden its focus to include the design of jet trainer aircraft and medium range cargo transports.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Fighter aircraft design; SIC Code: 3523, 3524, 3531, 3535, 3541, 3589, 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Rostislav A. Belyakov, General Designer

Anatoliy Belosvet, Chief Designer

Valeriy V. Novikov, Chief Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1939

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designs for the MIG-29 and MIG-31 fighters, design of the 1.42 (an advanced fighter incorporating low-observable technology, intended to counter the US F-22 Advanced Tactical Fighter), and improvements/modifications to MIG aircraft already in service world-wide.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Designs for mowers, devices for cutting pears, sidewalk-cleaning machines, conveyer lines for loose products, and leather-polishing equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Computer-aided design, composite materials, and exotic alloy metallurgy

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Designs for the MIG-18-50 (50 passenger, long-range transport), the MIG-SVB (medium-range passenger/cargo transport), and the MIG-110 (short/medium-range passenger/cargo transport)

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Mikoyan has an agreement with the Belgian firm "Promavia" to design the next upgrade to its Jet Squalus trainer, the ATTA 3000. The bureau is involved in the production of horizontal tail surfaces for the Dassault Falcon business jet. Mikoyan has entered into agreement with production facilities in Moscow (the Znamya Truda Aircraft Plant) and Nizhny-Novgorod (the Sokol Aircraft Plant) to form "MIG-Service," a firm to handle service and spare parts availability for MIG aircraft worldwide. The joint venture "Zenit" is contained within the structure of the design bureau and supports the firm "MIG-Service" with passenger/cargo air haulage both in Russia and abroad. Mikoyan is also a partner in the Dementyev Moscow Aviation Production Association (MAPO imeni Dementyeva) which is attempting to market MIG aircraft and other products manufactured at Moscow and Nizhniy Novgorod.

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOLNIYA SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Molniya"; Molniya Scientific and Industrial Association. Key facility: Molniya Design Bureau

ADDRESS:

123459, Moscow, Russia

Novoposelkovaya, 4

Molniya Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 493-33-35, 492-91-45, 493-92-44; 492-77-75 (Deputy Chief Designer); 492-94-86 (Chief Designer); 493-13-42, 497-13-95 and 492-83-31 (Chief, Heat Processes Division); Telex: N/A; Teletype: 113289 GNEZDO (Heat Processes Division); Fax: (011-7-095) 493-43-88; 492-93-71 (Heat Processes Division); E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Molniya Scientific Production Association is a large aerospace design and engineering enterprise which designed and tested the heavy launcher "Energiya" and the space shuttle orbiter "Buran". Molniya was formed from the Tushino Machine-Building Plant and its design bureau.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft and space vehicles; SIC Code: 3761

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 5,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Glen E. Lozino-Lozinskiy, General Director &

Chief Designer

D. Reshetnikov, Deputy General Director

Gennadiy Dementyev, Chief Designer

Dr. Aleksandr Tarasov, Chief Designer

Vladimir K. Shabanov, Deputy Chief Designer

Dr. Valery P. Timoshenko, Chief of Heat

Processes Division

A. Myasnikov, Manager Scientific-Industrial Center

"Informatika"

Dr. Mikhail P. Valashov, Deputy Chief of

Construction

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Space booster and shuttle designs

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Civil aircraft designs

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Carbon/carbon composite production facilities, 16 thermo-vacuum chambers, thermal tile production equipment.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Molniya is developing designs for a small 6-seat aircraft ("Molniya-1"), a twin-engine 6-seat passenger aircraft a 15-seat twin engine plane ("Molniya-2") as well as a large transport aircraft ("Hercules"). Other projects include a reusable 2-stage suborbital global passenger system with horizontal takeoff and landing, and a multipurpose aerospace system using the An-225 aircraft as a mobile launcher.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Molniya, along with the Moscow Aviation Institute and several Bulgarian electronics firms, has founded the Scientific-Industrial Center "Informatika" to facilitate the incorporation of space-sector electronics in civilian products. In late 1991 and early 1992 about 18 small businesses were set up in the plant to find and develop new business.

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW AVANGARD MACHINE-BUILDING PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: MMPO "Avangard"

ADDRESS:

125130, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa K. Zetkina, 33

Moscow Avangard Machine-Building Production

Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 450-73-11, 450-97-55; Telex: N/A; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Avangard has produced airframes for strategic surface-to-air missiles since the 1950s and is the lead production facility for the Fakel Design Bureau in Moscow.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Surface-to-air missile technology; SIC Code: 3229, 3429, 3448, 3523, 3552, 3646, 3728, 3949

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 20,000; Date: 1974

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Viktor Pavlovich Pasko, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1940s

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: SA-2 and later surface-to-air missiles.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Ski equipment; equipment for the agricultural and textile businesses; parabolic antennas for satellite communications; decorative fireplaces; wall panels; lighting fixtures; mirrors; door locks; flower vases; drinking glasses; sporting goods.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Avangard has recently converted to the production of ski equipment, equipment for the agricultural and textile industries, and to a full line of consumer goods.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW ELECTRIC LAMP PLANT PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: PO "Moskovskiy elektrolampovyy zavod", PO MELZ; Key facilities: Moscow Electrovacuum Instrument Plant, Khromatron Plant (Moscow), Voronezh Electrovacuum Instrument Plant

ADDRESS:

105023, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Elektrozavodskaya, 23

Moscow Electric Lamp Plant Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 369-73-97; Telex: N/A; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Moscow Electric Lamp Production Association has been a leader in the development and production of vacuum tubes for both civil and military use. It is a major producer of cathode ray tubes (CRT's) for color television receivers, and for many years was one of the largest producers in Russia of photoelectronic multiplier tubes (used in light sensing devices). The Association includes three major production facilities: the Moscow Electrovacuum Instrument Plant, which is co-located with the association; the Khromatron Plant, located elsewhere in Moscow; and the Electrovacuum Instrument Plant in Voronezh. The Moscow Electrovacuum Instrument Plant, with its two associated special design bureaus, specializes in developing and producing a variety of vacuum tube products (photoelectric cells, xenon and mercury tubes, gas-filled and gas discharge devices, photoelectronic multipliers and others). This plant dates back to before World War II, and was known, until 1972, as the Moscow Electric Lamp Plant (MELZ). The Khromatron Plant in Moscow and the Electrovacuum Instrument Plant in Voronezh, produce mainly CRT's for color television.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronic components; SIC Code: 3641, 3651, 3671, 3674

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 15,841; Date: 1991

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vyacheslav Gavrilovich Lapshin, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Pre-World War II

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: CRT's, photomultipliers and other vacuum tubes for use in military equipment; electro-optical converters for night vision devices.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Color TV picture tubes, light bulbs, lighting fixtures, flood lights, photoelectric cells, xenon and mercury tubes, gas-filled and gas-discharge tubes, color TV sets.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW INSTITUTE OF THERMAL TECHNOLOGY

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: Moskovskiy institut teplotekhniki (MITT), Nadiradze Design Bureau, Moscow Institute of Heat Technology, Moscow Thermotechnics Institute

ADDRESS:

127276 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Berezovaya alleya, d.10/1

Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology

Telephone: (011-7-095) 189-03-17; Telex: N/A; Fax: N/A; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology, previously one of the most secretive of Soviet design organizations, was responsible for design and development of land-based, road-mobile solid-propellant missiles. MITT is currently involved in developing and marketing the "START" space launch vehicle (SLV) based on ICBM technology for commercial gain.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Missile technology; SIC Code: 3761

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 5,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Boris Nikolayevich Lagutin, General Director/Chief

Designer

Gennadiy Alekseyevich Yasinskiy, Deputy General

Designer & Deputy Chief Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Missile design bureau established in 1948; became an institute by the late 1950s/early 1960s.

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Design and development of solid-propellant ICBMs in the former Soviet Union.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: This facility--or people associated with including Yu. S. Solomonov--is developing the START (sometimes referred to as START-1) space launch vehicle in conjunction with at least the Houston-based Space Commerce Corporation. The START SLV, a three-stage, solid-propellant design reportedly developed in less than nine months and based on SS-20 IRBM/SS-25 ICBM technology, is designed for launching small commercial payloads into earth orbit.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: The pilot production facility at MITT is not capable of producing an entire solid-propellant missile, but could do fitting and assembly of individual components. The Votkinsk Machine-Building Plant probably produced all of MITT's experimental missile designs. A dynamic test stand manufactured in England was assembled and tested by a German firm before installation at MITT. The computer center at MITT was equipped with several Soviet computers, including at least one SM-1045, one YES-1060, one or more SM-1420 computers, and several older computers equivalent to the SM-1420. Fortran, Pascal, and Assembler programming languages were acquired and installed in 1989/90. In 1989, MITT acquired 70 to 100 IBM XT-AT PCs with 3086 microprocessors. Training on the PCs was provided by Soviet-US joint enterprise.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: MITT advertises its START SLV as a product of conversion.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: The main MITT building was a 12-story structure with two attached two-story wings. The MITT dining facility is three stories tall, modern, and can seat 1,000 people. MITT has a dedicated medical facility.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: MITT was twice-awarded the Soviet Order of Lenin. MITT has longstanding ties with the Krasnoarmeysk Scientific Research Institute for Geodesy (NII-4); the Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology (NIKhTI); the Scientific Research Institute for Control Systems (NIISU); the Votkinsk Machine-Building Plant, and the Plesetsk Test Range.

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW KALIBR INSTRUMENT PLANT

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Moskovskiy instrumentalnyy zavod "Kalibr"

ADDRESS:

129110, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Godovikova, 9

Moscow Kalibr Instrument Plant

Telephone: (011-7-095) 215-36-76 (Deputy Director), 287-13-11 (Commercial Director), 287-04-61 (Sales Department); Telex: 411944; Teletype: 112700; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Moscow Kalibr Instrument Plant produces universal and specialized calibrating instruments for use by industrial plants and defense facilities, and has produced ordnance measuring devices for missile artillery organizations. The Kalibr plant is attempting to develop markets for its products in developing countries.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Measuring instruments; SIC Code: 3523, 3537, 3545, 3825, 3829

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Machine Tool and Tool Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 3,500; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Aleksey Matveyevich Nadvikov

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Pre-1950

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Ordnance measuring devices for missile artillery applications.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Instruments for atomic energy research, precision measuring instruments, and automatic machines for sorting ball-bearings.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW KOMMUNAR MACHINE-BUILDING PRODUCTION ENTERPRISE

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: Moskovskoye mashinostroitelnoye proizvodstvennoye predpriyatiye (MMPP) "Kommunar"

ADDRESS:

125124 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Pravda, 8

MMPP Kommunar

Telephone: (011-7-095) 257-77-42, 257-72-92, 257-03-21; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 257-07-68

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Moscow Kommunar Machine-Building Production Enterprise produces air-to-air missiles and launching systems for fighter aircraft and aircraft cabin instrument and components. It now also produces consumer electrical appliances, woodworking equipment, and industrial products.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Guided missiles; SIC Code: 3761

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 6,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Leonid Kozlovskiy, Director

Yuriy Chikin, First Deputy

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled. Plans to become a joint-stock company with 49% owned by the state and 51% owned by the enterprise.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1893

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Air-to-air missiles with launching systems; aircraft equipment assemblies; aircraft instruments.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: N/A

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Hot and cold pressing, investment casting, die casting, galvanizing, plastic injection molding.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Vacuum cleaners, sandblasting machines, multi-purpose woodworking machines, ornamental wood frames.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW MIKROPRIBOR PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: Moskovskoye PO "Mikropribor"

ADDRESS:

121170, Moscow, Russia

Kutuzovsky Prospekt, 8

Moscow Mikropribor Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 249-23-46; Telex: 113845 YUNGA; Teletype: 417567 GORIZONT; Fax: (011-7-095) 249-69-92

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Mikropribor designs and produces avionics equipment for military and civil aircraft, including control systems and auto-pilot systems for modern airliners. Defense orders have reportedly nearly completely ceased, and production is now limited to spare and replacement parts. Mikropribor has developed consumer products and medical equipment, based largely on its experience with electronic devices, and is also marketing patents and technology know-how.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronics; SIC Code: 3559, 3612, 3613, 3621, 3631, 3632, 3633, 3634, 3639, 3643, 3671, 3672, 3676, 3677, 3724, 3728, 3812, 5093, 5199

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Rudolf Fedorovich Pyatibrat, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Early 1930s

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Avionics systems and microelectronic assemblies for military aircraft

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Control systems and auto-pilot systems for the Il-96, Il-86, Tu-204, and Tu-154 aircraft; microelectronics components including electron tubes, printed circuit boards, semiconductors, capacitors, resistors, electronic coils and transformers, and connectors; aircraft engine parts; nonferrous metals scrap; motors and generators; household equipment including cooking equipment, refrigerators and freezers, laundry equipment, fans, vacuum cleaners, and sewing machines; souvenirs and gifts; artificial respirators; tire vulcanizing machines; power supply stabilization equipment

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Projects under consideration include computer games for children and various consumer, medical, and electronic products. Mikropribor is already producing artificial respirators.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW MIL HELICOPTER PLANT

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Moskovskiy vertoletnyy zavod (MVZ) imeni M. L. Milya. Key facility: OKB imeni M. L. Milya (Mil Experimental Design Bureau, Mil Design Bureau)

ADDRESS:

107113, Moscow, Russia

Sokolnicheskiy Val, 2

Moscow Mil Helicopter Plant

Telephone: (011-7-095) 264-90-83, 264-43-82, 264-37-91; Telex: 412144 MIL SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 264-47-62

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Moscow Mil Helicopter Plant includes a design bureau and an experimental production plant. The Mil Design Bureau is one of the world's leading developers of helicopters, with particular expertise in heavy-lift helicopters. It has developed both civil and military versions in a wide range of payload capacities (160-20,000 kg), including the world's largest, the Mi-26. Ninety-five percent of the helicopters in the former Soviet Union were built to Mil designs. Series production facilities for Mil-designed helicopters include Rostvertol in Rostov-na-Donu, the Kazan Helicopter Production Association, and the Ulan-Ude Aviation Production Association.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Helicopter design and development; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Mark Vladimirovich Vaynberg, General Designer

Marat Nikolayevich Tishchenko, Deputy General

Designer

Aleksey Gavriilovich Samusenko, Deputy Chief

Designer

A. V. Nekrasov, Deputy Chairman of the

Privatization Commission

Gurgen Karapetyan, Chief Test Pilot

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled. As of March 1993, Mil managers were planning to privatize the firm as a joint stock company, with 85 percent of the shares to be retained by plant employees and management and the remainder to be sold on the market.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1947 (Design bureau)

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designs for Mi-28 Havoc attack helicopter, Mi-26 Halo heavy-lift transport helicopter, and Mi-17 and Mi-8 Hip medium-lift multipurpose helicopters.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Civil variants of the Mi-26 and Mi-8 helicopters.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Mil has entered into a long-term contract with the Franco-German firm Eurocopter to jointly develop the Mi-38 medium-lift helicopter (30-passenger, 15,000-kg class). Mil is also developing the Mi-34 light (5- to 6-passenger) multirole helicopter with various engine options and the Mi-54 light (10- to 12-passenger, 1,000-1,300 kg cargo) multirole helicopter. Another new Mil design is the Mi-46, a heavy-lift helicopter proposed in both transport and crane configurations to replace the Mi-6 and Mi-10K.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: In 1992 Mil signed an agreement with the Brooke Group, an Anglo-American conglomerate, to provide spares, support, and technical services for Mil helicopters worldwide through its subsidiary Mil-Brooke Helicopters, headquartered in Miami, Florida. Previously, Mil itself had been the only qualified source of support for Mil helicopters. In addition to its new civil and transport helicopter designs, Mil has proposed a new military model, the Mi-40 "infantry combat vehicle" helicopter.

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW SALYUT MACHINE-BUILDING PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: MMPO "Salyut", Salyut Machine-Building Association

ADDRESS:

105118 Moscow, Russia

Prospekt Budennogo, 16

Moscow Salyut Machine-Building Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 369-80-01, 369-86-01; Telex: 112688; Teletype: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 366-12-21

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Moscow Salyut Machine-Building Production Association (MMPO "Salyut") is a leading commercial and military aircraft engine production association. Aircraft engine repairs and diagnostic services are also provided. Under conversion programs, Salyut produces a variety of commercial machinery and small engines. In addition, a new production line for free-standing electronic scales was planned for 1993.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft engines; SIC Code: 3519, 3523, 3559, 3594, 3596, 3599, 3639, 3724, 3728, 3829, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Georgiy K. Yazov, General Director

Vladimir I. Brylev, Deputy Director

Anatoly A. Nikolayev, Chief Engineer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: The AL-21F turbofan engine for the Su-24 Fencer and the AL-31F engine for the Su-27 Flanker.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Salyut produces civilian aircraft engines; chipping, shearing, splitting, and stamping machines; motorized cultivators; small boat engines; airfield ground-servicing equipment; measurement instruments; equipment and spare parts for the leather, fur and sewing industries; and multifunctional microprocessor medical units.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: At the 1993 Paris Air Show, Salyut displayed motorboat engines in an effort to demonstrate their peacetime conversion products. Recently, Salyut began production of artificial limbs to help Afghan War veterans, using material and components from NPO Energiya.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: MOSCOW SOYUZ SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Moskovskoye nauchno-proizvodstvennoye korporatsiya (MNPK) "Soyuz", Tumanskiy Design Bureau, Tumanskiy OKB

ADDRESS:

119048, Moscow, Russia

Luzhnetskaya Naberezhnaya, 2/4

Moscow Soyuz Scientific Production Corporation

Telephone: (011-7-095) 242-28-62, 242-94-68; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 207022 KABINA; FAX: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Moscow Soyuz Scientific Production Complex was founded by Aleksandr A. Mikulin as an experimental design bureau in 1943. Mikulin's wartime engine designs powered MiG-3 interceptors and Il-2 Shturmovik attack aircraft. Sergey Tumanskiy succeeded Mikulin as general director of the design bureau in 1956. As the Tumanskiy OKB, the bureau produced designs for the RD-9 (used in the MiG-19 Farmer), the RD-11/RD-13/RD-25 (used in the many variants of the MiG-21 Fishbed), the R-195 (used in the Su-25 Frogfoot), the R-15 (used in the MiG-25 Foxbat), the RU-19 auxiliary power unit, the R-27/R-29 (used in the MiG-23/27 Flogger), and the R-79 (intended as the main thrust engine in the Yak-141 Freestyle). The engines designed by MNPK Soyuz are built by the Ufa Motor-Building Corporation and other plants.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft engine design; SIC Code: 3721, 3724, 3728

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vasiliy K. Kobchenko, General Director and Chief

Designer

Aleksandr Girnov, Deputy General Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1943

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: R-79 vectored-thrust turbofan for the Yak-141 Freestyle, RDK-300-10 turbofan for use in UAV or cruise missile applications.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Designs for the GTE-400 turboshaft (intended for the twin-engined version of the Ka-118 NOTAR helicopter), TVD-450 turboprop (for the Sukhoy S-86, a 7-seat light transport), TV116-300 (under development, intended to power helicopters and light airplanes).

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Designs for the GTE-400 turboshaft, TVD-450 turboprop, and the TV116-300

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: MNPK Soyuz is attempting to continue development of the R-79 lift engine for the Yak-141 Freestyle utilizing funding from sources other than the Russian government.

ENTERPRISE NAME: MYASISHCHEV EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Eksperimentalnyy mashinostroitelnyy zavod (EMZ) imeni V. M. Myasishcheva, OKB imeni V. M. Myasishcheva, Myasishchev Experimental Design Bureau, Myasishchev Design Bureau

ADDRESS:

140160, Zhukovskiy, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Myasishchev Experimental Machine-Building Plant

Telephone: (011-7-095) 556-78-29, 272-60-41, 556-78-19, 556-76-94; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 556-55-83

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Myasishchev Experimental Machine-Building Plant includes a prominent design bureau and an experimental production plant. Myasishchev, known for its development of the M-4 Bison and M-50 Bounder strategic bombers, is now involved in development of high-altitude reconnaissance/research aircraft, light passenger and transport planes, and other developmental projects. Closed in 1960, the design bureau was later reopened and has functioned since the 1970s under the auspices of the Molniya Scientific Production Association. In support of Molniya, it participated in the design of the Buran spacecraft and converted the Bison bomber to transport the Buran and modules of the Energiya space launch vehicle.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft; SIC Code: 3366, 3523, 3531, 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yevgeny G. Koshelev, Director

Valeriy K. Novikov, Chief Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1951

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: M-17/55 Mystic reconnaissance aircraft

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: The M-17 Stratosfera (Mystic-A) and M-55 Geofizika (Mystic-B) high-altitude subsonic aircraft for a variety of reconnaissance and research uses; the Ganimed container for paradropping rescue and research teams; and the SL lightweight, multi-purpose transport aircraft.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Myasishchev is developing the Gzhel single-engine aircraft, the Delfin and Duet twin-engine executive aircraft, the Ekologiya dirigible, and automatic spreading and cutting machines. In cooperation with several other organizations, it is developing the Myasishchev/Aviaspetstrans Yamal amphibious passenger/freight transport. Also in development is the Evraziya helicostat and a 50-passenger aircraft.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Gzhel project is part of the Russian/Bulgarian Informatica joint venture. The 14-seat Duet twin-engine aircraft is being developed in collaboration with an Indian aircraft designer.

ENTERPRISE NAME: MYTISHCHI MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Mytishchinskiy mashinostroitelnyy zavod (MMZ)

ADDRESS:

141009, Mytishchi, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Kolontsov, 4

Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant

Telephone: (011-7-095) 582-57-20, 581-12-56; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 346511; Fax: N/A; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant has produced air defense vehicles for the military and has a design bureau for development of these weapons. It also makes products for the civilian automotive industry.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Military vehicles; SIC Code: 3711

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Automotive Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 10,000; Date: 1970s

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yuriy Aleksandrovich Gulko, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Vehicles for air defense systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Dump trucks, subway cars, lorries, spare parts for dump trucks, trailers, gear-making machines.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Many of the machine tools in the plant are numerically controlled and of foreign manufacture.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Production of a new line of subway cars is planned, and a building is being constructed for this purpose.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ORION SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Orion"

ADDRESS:

111123 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Plekhanova, 2

Orion Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 176-16-46, 176-16-79; Telex: N/A; Teletype: N/A; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Orion Scientific Production Association in Moscow is a major designer, developer, and manufacturer of high technology military and aerospace electronics. It also produces special electronics for the space industry, which are used in both space launchers and satellites. In 1991, Orion entered into an agreement with a Russian-French joint venture radio station to produce commercial stereo receivers.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronics; SIC Code: 3651, 3663, 3674, 3812, 3832, 3861

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladimir Khryapov, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1985

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Electronics, including photoconductive infrared detectors.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Orion products include a variety of electronics such as portable compact stereo receivers, radar systems, and sensors and detection equipment. It also produces electro-optical systems and photographic equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: In 1991, the Orion Science and Production Association signed an agreement with a Russian-French radio company joint venture to produce high-quality, compact portable stereo receivers with a fixed VHF frequency tuned to the popular radio station "Yevropa Plyus" (Europe Plus), which is owned and operated by the joint venture.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: POLYUS SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Polyus", Key facility: NII "Polyus"

ADDRESS:

117342, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Vvedenskogo, 3

Polyus Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 333-03-89, 334-20-66, 334-20-33 (NPO Polyus); 246-48-00, 333-02-56 (NII Polyus); 333-84-11, 334-20-47 (collocated factory); Telex: 411700 IZDELIYA (NII Polyus); Fax: (011-7-095) 200-22-16 (NII Polyus)

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Polyus Scientific Production Association (NPO Polyus) is closely associated with the Polyus Scientific Research Institute (NII Polyus), a small factory, and the Institute of Physics and Technology, all of which are located at the same address. NPO Polyus produces lasers and associated components, electronics articles, and electrovacuum devices. NII Polyus works in the field of quantum electronics and develops and manufactures experimental models in the areas of cryoelectronics, magnetism, and electrovacuum devices. NII Polyus has also developed missile laser technology, including laser gyroscopes for missile nose cone guidance, various other types of solid-state multi-purpose lasers, laser components, and electro-optic equipment, and has carried out global positioning system work with Aeroflot and MiG aircraft. It is marketing some of this technology abroad. NII Polyus oversees several laboratories and production enterprises. These production enterprises are located in the Moscow region, Tula, Ulyanovsk, and the Nizhniy Novgorod region.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronics and lasers; SIC Code: 3264, 3563, 3674, 3679, 3699, 3812, 3826, 3845, 3999

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: NII Polyus: 2,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Aleksandr Kazakov, Director, NII Polyus

Aleksandr Pavlovich Vinogradov, Dir. of collocated

factory

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Early 1970s

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Missile-related lasers and guidance systems

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Semiconductor lasers, including those for use in fiber-optic communication lines; gyroscopes and multimode lasers; radiation collectors; small solid state and gas lasers under 1000 watts for the electronic industry; monocrystals for lasers and other crystal products; lasers for agriculture; thyristors; transistors; cryoelectronics, involving the development and manufacture of experimental models of integrated devices; quantum electronics articles; development and manufacture of experimental models of ferrites and magnetic insulators; opto-electronic components; electro-vacuum devices, including development and manufacture of experimental models of ultra-high frequency electro-vacuum devices; light-sensitive devices; special industrial equipment, tools, and instrumentation; portable laser fingerprint detectors.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: In 1991, owing to a halt in government funding, NII Polyus ceased development of military lasers and is instead emphasizing development of lasers with medical, scientific, and technical applications.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: With the collapse of the Soviet Union, many of the employees of NII Polyus formed cooperatives to produce commercial products. The foreign trade firm "Polyus" sells the Polyus "Buyer's Guide '92" which contains information on Russian laser manufacturers and their products.

ENTERPRISE NAME: RADUGA MACHINE-BUILDING DESIGN BUREAU

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Mashinostroitelnoye konstruktorskoye byuro "Raduga," MKB Raduga.

ADDRESS:

141980, Dubna, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Zhukovskiy, 2a

Raduga Machine-Building Design Bureau

Telephone: (011-7-095) 268-17-76; Telex: 411700 DUBRAD; Fax: (011-7-095) 268-43-49

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Raduga is one of the leading research and development facilities for air-breathing and ramjet engines for cruise missiles in the former USSR, with expertise in both surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles. The collocated Dubna Machine-Building Plant produces much of the equipment that Raduga designs. Raduga, formerly known as the Bereznyak Design Bureau, traces its history back to 1942 and the development of the first Russian jet. Development efforts at Raduga are now focused on the space launch industry and the development of the "Burlak" aircraft-assisted satellite launch system.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Missile design; SIC Code: 3511, 3663, 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Igor Sergeyevich Seleznev, Chief Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Circa 1942

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designs of naval surface-to-surface missiles including the SS-N-22, and SS-N-2; and air-to-surface missiles including the AS-11, AS-15, AS-16 and AS-X-18; target drones for air defense crews.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Ultralight planes including motor hang gliders and commercial aircraft gliders, alternative power sources that derive power from the wind.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Raduga has many facilities for experimental testing of aviation equipment including environmental test laboratories and wind tunnels.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Raduga is the main designer of the "Burlak" Aviation Project, which is similar to the US Pegasus system. Burlak is a recoverable, liquid-propellant space launch vehicle that will place small payloads into lower earth orbit using a single stage earth-to-space vehicle launched from a modified Tu-160 Blackjack bomber. The Burlak is expected to be capable of placing a payload of up to 840 kg into equatorial orbits at altitudes of one thousand kilometers at an estimated cost of six to eight thousand dollars per payload kilogram. Burlak is expected to be operational in 1996.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

?OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Gruppa-Jet joint stock company was formed in 1992 to provide financing for the Burlak program. The Burlak Technical Association was formed to develop Burlak and includes Raduga and the Tupolev Aviation Scientific-Technical Complex, the designer of the Tu-160 Blackjack bomber.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ROTOR SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Rotor." Key facility: Moscow EMA Plant.

ADDRESS:

111123, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Aviamotornaya, 55

Rotor Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 273-38-76, 273-15-39, 273-17-50; Telex: 412296 ROTOR SU; Teletype: 411736 OKTAVA; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Rotor Scientific Production Association is a major center for the design, development, and production of electronics and guidance systems for the defense and commercial space industries. Since 1991, Rotor production has centered on surgical and medical instruments, automobile electronics, and food processing equipment. Rotor's products are marketed through Obshchemashexport, the foreign trade association for organizations formerly subordinate to the Ministry of General Machine- Building.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electronics; SIC Code: 3556, 3663, 3679, 3812, 3825, 3829, 3841, 3842, 3844, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A:

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yuriy Sergeyevich Sarymov, General Director

A.G. Korneyev, Commercial Director

Leonid Nikolayevich Shumov, Director, EMA

Plant

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Electronics, instrumentation, and guidance systems for missiles and spacecraft.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Rotor produces gyroscopic units and inertial systems for scientific and commercial spacecraft; medical equipment such as suturing devices, eye surgery apparatus, pneumatic knives for excising cataracts, pneumatic compression assemblies, assisted blood circulation devices, titanium neurosurgical instruments, titanium cardio-vascular instruments, radiographic and fluoroscopic electromedical equipment, and X-ray machines; automobile electronics; processing equipment for bakeries; and engineering, architectural, and surveying services.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The Rotor Scientific Production Association is one of several defense-related industries that are members of the joint stock company Space Industry. Space Industry was created as part of the Tekos commercial project, one of several commercial programs recently developed for conversion purposes by the Lavochkin Central Design Bureau. Space Industry intends to place in orbit a production satellite on which it will make preparations and materials such as medicines and gallium arsenide crystals, and also to make the satellite's facilities available for customer experiments. Rotor will specialize in techniques for producing biomedical preparations and protein crystals in space.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Obshchemashexport, the marketing company used by the Rotor Scientific Production Association, is located in Moscow (101444) at Ulitsa Krasnoproletarskaya, 9. Phone: (011-7-095) 258-66-56.

ENTERPRISE NAME: SATURN SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Saturn" imeni A.M.Lyulki, Saturn Design Bureau, Lyulka Engine Design Bureau

ADDRESS:

129301 Moscow, Russia

Kasatkina Ulitsa, 13

Saturn Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 283-94-93, 283-95-55; Telex: N/A, Fax: (011-7-095) 286-75-66; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Saturn Design Bureau is a new name for the Lyulka Design Bureau, originally named for its founder, A. M. Lyulka. The Saturn Production Association includes the design bureau and its co-located experimental engine plant. The Saturn Association is actively pursuing export markets in the West, and joint engine development with Western aerospace firms.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft engines; SIC Code: 3724

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 4,100; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Viktor Mikhaylovich Chepkin, President/General

Designer

Valentin Alekseyevich Gorelov, Deputy General

Designer

Boris Vasilyevich Shcheglov, Chief, Design Bureau

Yuvenaliy Pavlovich Marchukov, Director for

Conversion

Pavel S. Taraban, Head of Flight Testing and

Operations

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designs turbojet and turbofan engines for fighter aircraft; designed the AL-21F engine for the Su-24 Fencer and the AL-31F for the Su-27 Flanker.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Saturn designs auxiliary propulsion systems for spacecraft and launch vehicles, engines for passenger airlines, power units for gas pumping stations, and small engines for use in agricultural machinery; it developed a special furnace for manufacturing artificial ceramic human teeth; it modifies gas turbine aircraft engines for industrial purposes; and it is working on the AL-34 turboprop/turboshaft engine.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Powder metallurgy; formation of single-crystal turbine blades; ceramic coatings.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Saturn has developed power units for gas pumping stations; a 6-HP engine for mini-tractors and other agricultural equipment; and low-powered 2-3-4 cylinder diesel engines for compact passenger cars. It is also emphasizing engines for civil aircraft and attempting to market commuter aircraft engines in the United States. Rolls-Royce (UK) has begun engine development with Saturn for the Gulfstream - Sukhoy supersonic business jet.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Saturn operates a club, housing, and a kindergarten.

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION OF AUTOMATION AND INSTRUMENT-BUILDING (NPO AP)

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO avtomatiki i priborostroyeniya (NPO AP). Key Facilities: Scientific Research Institute of Automation and Instrument-Building (NIIAP) (also known as Pilyugin's Institute); NPO AP Plant (also known as NIIAP Plant); NIIAP Plant Branch in Sosenskiy Settlement, Kozelskiy District, Kaluga Oblast.

ADDRESS:

11342 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Vvedenskogo, 1

Scientific Production Association of Automation and Instrument-Building (NPO AP)

Telephone: (011-7-095) 330-65-70, 330-47-83; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 112635 ZAPAD; Fax: (011-7-095) 334-83-80

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Scientific Production Association of Automated Instruments develops guidance, navigation, and flight control systems for ballistic missiles, space launch vehicles, and spacecraft. It has produced systems for the Soyuz, Proton, N-1, and Zenit launch vehicles; the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Vega probes; the Buran space shuttle; and the intercontinental ballistic missiles.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Missile and space control systems; SIC Code: 2844, 3089, 3559, 3575, 3577, 3663, 3761, 3812, 3823, 3829, 3841, 3842, 3844, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 4,000; Date: 1993

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladimir Lavrentyevich Lapygin, General Director

Yuriy Novikov, Chief Engineer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1942

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Guidance and control systems for ballistic missiles, space launch vehicles, and spacecraft.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Industrial control systems including those for nuclear power plants, petroleum cracking and gas storage, metallurgy, and heating boilers; medical equipment such as precision electromechanical systems for eye surgery, artificial kidneys, blood circulation units, ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, screen and shutter devices for x-ray units, biological electrostimulators, patient handling equipment, and parts for a foreign-made neonatal incubator; personal computer keyboards; counterfeit money detectors; television remote controls; plastic video tape boxes; and lipstick holders.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: NPO AP's research institute, NIIAP, has entered into a joint venture with an American medical equipment company, Baxter International Inc., to produce surgical instruments for the Russian market. The project, known as MosMed, began operations in a refurbished wing of the factory in September 1993 and will employ about 100 workers.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: NIIAP's state defense orders reportedly accounted for only 10 to 15 percent of its total funding in 1993.

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION OF MACHINE-BUILDING (MASHINOSTROYENIYA)

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO Mashinostroyeniya

ADDRESS:

143952, Reutov, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Gagarina, 33

Scientific Production Association of Machine-Building

Telephone: (011-7-095) 302-40-35, 302-11-85, 302-04-55; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 302-20-01; E-Mail:

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Scientific Production Association of Machine-Building, a half-century-old organization founded by cruise-missile designer Vladimir Chelomey, is lead developer of space satellite systems, sea- and land-based cruise missile systems, and intercontinental ballistic missile systems. It developed the first maneuvering satellite, "Polet"; the "Proton" series of satellites; the manned space stations "Salyut-2", "Salyut-3", and "Salyut-5"; the "Almaz" series of automatic platforms for remote sounding of the Earth's land and ocean surfaces; and other space equipment. For the civil economy it developed equipment for the vegetable oil industry, the baking industry, and the petroleum industry, a system of controlled atmospheric storage of products, television satellite antennas, and pleasure boats.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Missiles and space systems; SIC Code: 3463, 3663

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 9,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Gerbert Aleksandrovich Yefremov, General

Designer & Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1944

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Reconnaissance satellites, space stations, sea- and land-based cruise missiles, intercontinental ballistic missiles.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: "Almaz" satellites for Earth reconnaissance (for hydrology, cartography, geology, agriculture, and environmental study); satellite equipment; equipment for food industries and the petroleum industry.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The Association is investigating prospects in non-traditional energy sources, long-term storage of agricultural products, space communications, and land development.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Association is seeking joint ventures with Western firms to develop and operate civil reconnaissance satellites. It is participating in a commercial venture with US companies for the marketing of reconnaissance satellite data.

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY (NIIAT)

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Nauchno-issledovatelskyy institut aviatsionnoy tekhnologii i organizatsii proizvodstva (NIIAT), Scientific Research Institute for Aviation Technology and Industrial Engineering, NIAT

ADDRESS:

103051, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Petrovka, 24

Scientific Research Institute for Aviation Technology

Telephone: (011-7-095) 200-10-34, 200-39-88, 200-76-01; Telex: 411700 PTB SU; FAX: (011-7-095) 292-65-11

GENERAL OVERVIEW: NIIAT is involved in the development of advanced production technologies for the aviation industry. It is also active in cryogenic engineering. It markets finished products in the form of numerically-controlled milling and welding machinery, melting and pouring equipment for magnesium and titanium alloy castings, liquid and gas storage tanks, several varieties of laser cooling systems, as well as alloy parts and manufacturing processes for composite materials prepreg manufacture. NIIAT is also willing to provide services such as mathematical modelling of physical-mechanical processes and optimization of technological processes.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Production processes, cryogenic engineering; SIC Code: 3341, 3364, 3369, 3399, 3559, 3679, 3699, 3724, 3728, 7371

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Oleg S. Sirotkin, Director

Aleksandr M. Alekseyenko, Deputy Director

Vasiliy Podkolzin, Deputy Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Cryogenic technology, composite materials, titanium-aluminum alloy metallurgy production processes, laser technology.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Cryogenic technology, composite materials, titanium-aluminum alloy metallurgy production processes, laser technology.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: NIIAT is attempting to convert by marketing its expertise in the development of advanced engineering techniques and specialized manufacturing equipment to foreign contacts.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: NIIAT is involved in a German-Russian joint venture to develop a cryogenic-fueled aircraft by the year 2000. The project is headed by Deutsche Airbus and includes Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm, Motoren und Turbinen Union, and nine other companies on the German side; the Russian side contains NIIAT, the Tupolev Aviation Scientific-Technical Complex, and the Kuznetsov Engine Design Bureau.

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL AND CONSTRUCTION MACHINES

LAST UPDATE: August 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Nauchno-issledovatelnyy institut khimicheskikh i stroitelnyykh mashin, NIIKHSM.

ADDRESS:

141300, Sergiyev Posad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Poselok Remmash

Scientific Research Institute of Chemical and Construction Machines

Telephone: (011-7-096) 546-80-91; Telex: N/A; Teletype: N/A; Fax: (011-7-096) 544-22-21; E-Mail: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Scientific Research Institute of Chemical and Construction Machines specializes in the testing of ground technical equipment for missile and space launch complexes. The testing includes shock, vibration, humidity, and temperature cycles.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Testing of missile support equipment; SIC Code: 2819, 2844, 2861, 2865, 2899, 3089, 3569, 3679

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 1500; Date: 1994

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Genrikh Ivanovich Matysyak, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-owned

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1960

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Documentation on the results of testing ground technical equipment for missile and space launch complexes.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Plastic products.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Testing processes; test stands as principal equipment; facilities for destruction of missile components.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Manufacture of (quartz) crystal vibrators; production of tanning agents for the leather and shoe industry; production of dyestuffs; production of decorative tiles.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL MACHINE-BUILDING

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NIIKhIMMASh

ADDRESS:

141300, Sergiyev Posad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Machine

-Building

Telephone: (011-7-095) 584-56-18, (011-7-09654) 6-33-20, 6-33-10, 6-33-32; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 846246 AGAT; Fax: (011-7-09654) 6-76-98

GENERAL OVERVIEW: NIIKhIMMASh is a leader in the field of rocket engine and propulsion system testing and evaluation. Founded in 1950, NIIKhIMMASh has tested most types of rocket engines and propulsion systems produced in the former Soviet Union. The institute conducts thermal vacuum testing of space vehicles under space-simulated conditions, ground-based development testing of reusable space rocket transportation systems. It is also involved in scientific research of high frequency combustion stability evaluation, thermal hydrodynamics of free flows, it develops advanced scientific and methodological concepts to support research and design efforts.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Rocket propulsion and space systems, thermal vacuum testing of space vehicles; SIC Code: 3569, 3841, 8734

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 6,000; Date: 1994

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Aleksander Makarov, General Director

Konstantin Denisov, Deputy General Director for

Science

Nikolay Afanasyev, Assistant Director for Vacuum

-Cryogenic Engineering

Stanislav Dymenko, Chief of Thermotechnics

Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1950

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Testing of rocket engines and propulsion systems, thermal vacuum testing of space vehicles.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Disposable and reusable needles for syringes, bioactive substances, tube electric heaters, cryogenic products.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: NIIKhIMMASh has more than 50 test stands to test rocket engines,propulsion systems and subsystems, two thermo-vacuum chambers for testing spacecraft systems including large assemblies.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The institute is constructing experimental facilities for development testing of equipment designed for petroleum and liquified hydrocarbons pipelines.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: NIIKhIMMASh is seeking joint ventures with foreign partners in the above specified field on mutually beneficial terms. Availability of well developed infrastructure, powerful energy supply systems, vacant indoor and outdoor areas, automobile and rail roads, immediate proximity to Moscow may be attractive for starting new production lines. The institute is "ready to consider any proposals."

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF INSTRUMENT BUILDING

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NII Priborostroyeniya, NIIP

ADDRESS:

140160, Zhukovskiy, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Building

Telephone: (011-7-095) 556-23-48; Telex: 346718 PRIBOR; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Building designs and develops tactical medium-range surface-to-air missile systems and weapons guidance systems for fighter aircraft.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Missile system design; SIC Code: 3571, 3575, 3651, 3663, 3674, 3721, 3728, 3761, 3812, 3823, 3825

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Radio Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS: N/A

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Development of tactical medium-range surface-to-air missile systems, such as the SA-11, and weapons guidance systems for the MiG-31 and SU-27 fighter aircraft.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: N/A

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The Institute offers the use of radiotechnical equipment, computers, and microwave technology for design and development of projects in any scientific and manufacturing field, based on its experience in developing military designs by its highly qualified team of specialists.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF PARACHUTE CONSTRUCTION

LAT UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NIIPS; Scientific Research Institute for Parachute Building; Scientific and Research Institute of Parachute Technology; Parachute Manufacturing Research and Design Institute.

ADDRESS:

107241 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Irkutskaya, 2

Scientific Research Institute of Parachute Construction

Telephone: (011-7-095) 462-13-19, 462-09-82; Telex: 411700 RYSEV SU, 911069 KLJEN SU; Teletype: Moscow 200-22-16 and 17 RYSEV 1378; Fax: (011-7-095) 432-52-33

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Scientific Research Institute of Parachute Construction (NIIPS) is the primary organization for the research, design, development, and prototype production of all parachutes and parachute technology in Russia. Consequently, NIIPS has played a major role in parachute design and development for the Russian Space Program, including recovery parachutes for Soyuz, Buran, and Energia booster rockets and the Progress return capsule. NIIPS also develops a variety of other products, including parachutes for both military and civilian applications, and equipment for the airline manufacturing and support industry.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Parachute manufacturing; SIC Code: 2211, 2399, 3429, 3721, 3728, 3812, 3825

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Oleg Vladimirovich Rysev, General Director

Oleg P. Perov, Head of Sales and Advertising

Department

Leonid A. Molchanov, Head of Sales, Foreign

Relations Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Low altitude free-drop parachutes; heavy rescue boat paradrop parachutes; cargo platform parachute systems; medium and heavy airdrop pallet parachutes; vehicle airdrop parachutes.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: NIIPS has primarily developed parachutes for the Russian Space Program, including unmanned re-entry capsule parachutes; manned spacecraft parachutes; and Buran space shuttle braking parachutes. The institute also develops civilian parachute harnesses; trapping nets; sport parachutes; motorized paraplanes; kite parachutes; aircraft instruments; and airfield and ground servicing equipment. In addition, NIIPS offers services in the area of parachute analysis; parachute testing; technology related to parachutes; and parachute training.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: On 29 June 1993, officials from the Scientific Research Institute of Parachute Construction signed a contract with the Spanish firm SIMSA and the Dutch firm Fokker to develop and produce a recovery system for the European Space Agency's Ariane-5 carrier rocket.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THERMAL PROCESSES (NIITP)

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NIITP

ADDRESS:

125438, Moscow, Russia

Onezhskaya, 8

Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes

Telephone: (011-7-095) 456-46-08, 456-66-26, 456-34-79; Telex: 411700 NIITP; Teletype: 207649 AKONIT; Fax: (011-7-095) 200-22-16, 456-82-28

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes (NIITP) currently conducts research and development in the areas of electrophysics, space instrumentation, propulsion, and power units. Prior to WW-II NIITP was known as the Research Institute for Jet Propulsion (RNII), and was responsible for the development of the Katyusha multiple rocket launcher. Like other organizations formerly subordinate to the Ministry of General Machine-Building, NIITP markets its products through Obshchemashexport.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Laser and propulsion technology; SIC Code: 2869, 3255, 3297, 3399, 3433, 3483, 3671, 3699, 3811, 3826, 3827, 3832

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Anatoliy A. Korteyev, General

Director

Miron S. Natanzon, Head of Department, Science

and Engineering

Gennady E. Dumnov, Head of Section, Department

of Gas Dynamics

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1933

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Space-based lasers and Katyusha multiple rocket launchers.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Unique ceramic products such as multilayer composite thermal insulation and refractory products, high-temperature crucibles and cells, super-refractory industrial ceramics, compact helical-tube heat exchangers, glass-to-metal seals, and the use of advanced technology facilities for conducting thermal-related experiments. Other products and services include Zvezda three-phase electric-arc plasma generators; cooled laser mirrors; gas heat generator units for homes; gas generator units for operations under vacuum conditions; the manufacturing of different porosity products from wire materials; pyrometer/photometer devices incorporating fiber-optic components for the measurement of surface temperatures; energy level measurement instruments and three-phase gas arc heaters (plasmotrons).

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: A universal potting-sealing complex, a universal vacuum diffusion bonding machine, technology for making metal-to-ceramic seals, and an integrated technology based on metal meshes.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: NIITP is actively seeking international projects in the areas of plasmotrons, gasification technology, powder metallurgy, plasma and solid fuel propulsion, and jet cleaning. Also, as part of a technology transfer agreement with the Taiwan-based National Science Council, NIITP is negotiating an exchange of products and technologies with Taiwan industrial firms.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Obshchemashexport, the marketing company used by NIIPT, is located in Moscow (101444) at Ulitsa Krasnoproletarskaya, 9. Phone (011-7-095) 258-66-56. (1-U)

ENTERPRISE NAME: STATE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION SYSTEMS (GosNIIAS)

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Gosudarstvennyy nauchno-issledovatelskiy institut aviatsionnykh sistem

ADDRESS:

125319, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Viktorenko, 7

State Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Systems

Telephone: (011-7-095) 157-75-22, 157-70-47; Telex: N/A; FAX: (011-7-095) 157-31-27

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The State Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Systems is a leading Russian avionics integration center. It carries out avionics and weapons integration for various types of aircraft. It is also a major developer of simulators, including flying testbeds, hardware-in-the-loop simulations and ground testing complexes. It has also developed software for computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) and is involved in the development of computer technology for application to air traffic control, banking, communications, medicine, and environmental control.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Systems integration and software development; SIC Code: 2835, 3577, 3674, 3812, 3841, 7371

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 8,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Yevgeniy Fedosov, Director

Valeriy A. Stefanov, Deputy Director

Boris I. Gavrilov, Chief, Department of Foreign

Relations

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: ca. 1952

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Avionics and weapons system integration, CAD/CAE systems for evaluation of military aircraft design configuration, guidance and control algorithms.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Computer software for applications in air traffic control, banking, and trade (bar coding equipment); medical diagnostic equipment (angiography); software for cargo and stock control; software for communications applications; micro-electronic circuitry design and software adaptation.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Computer software applications in communications, air traffic control, medicine, and commerce

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: In 1992, the Institute agreed to join Hughes Rediffusion to study the viability of joint development of training systems for Mikoyan military aircraft. The Institute is participating with Rockwell Collins in the adaptation of avionics for the Il-96M.

ENTERPRISE NAME: STATE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF GRAPHITE (NIIGRAFIT)

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Gosudarstvennyy NII konstruktsionnykh materialov na osnove grafita, NIIGRAFIT

ADDRESS:

111524 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Elektrodnaya, 2

State Scientific Research Institute of Graphite

Telephone: (011-7-095) 176-13-06; Telex: 412280 INKAR SU; Teletype: N/A; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The State Scientific Research Institute of Grafite is a leading facility for applied research and development of graphite-based material for military, industrial, and space use. Composites developed by the institute are used in the brake systems of military aircraft, and in the brakes, leading edges, and nosecone of the BURAN space shuttle. Grafite-based materials have been developed for laser mirrors and for static elements of gas turbine engines. The institute has 40 research laboratories and a pilot production plant at the Moscow location.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Metallurgy; SIC Code: 3297, 3299, 3624, 3728, 3791, 3823

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of Metallurgy

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 1,500; Date: 1989

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Valeriy I. Kostikov, Director

Aleksandr Viktorovich Demin, Deputy Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Pre-1961

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Develops composites for use in military aircraft brake systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Develops the following products: carbon and grafite fibers; composites, including carbon-carbon, ceramic matrix, metal matrix and polymeric matrix; electrodes for electrolytic production of non-ferrous metals.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Chemical vapor deposition processes.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: This institute is co-located with the Moscow Electrode Plant. The institute is pursuing joint efforts with South Korean and US aerospace firms for the joint development of carbon-carbon brakes for aircraft and for the marketing of materials developed by the institute.

ENTERPRISE NAME: STRELA PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: PO "Strela"

ADDRESS:

141070, Kaliningrad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ilicha Ulitsa, 7

Strela Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 519-55-01; Telex: N/A; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Strela Production Association is a major designer and producer of military missile systems. It includes the Zvezda Experimental Design Bureau (OKB), a serial production design bureau (SKB), the main Strela plant, and machine building plants in Kostroma and Bendery (Moldova). The Zvezda Experimental Design Bureau is part of the missile-industry grouping "Spetstekhnika" (meaning "Special Equipment," a Russian euphemism for weapons).

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Tactical missiles; SIC Code: 3761, 3812

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 24,000; Date: 1990

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladislav Anatolyevich Shapovalov, General

Director and Director of the lead plant

Vitaliy Vissarionovich Machenko, First Deputy

Chief Designer

Georgiy Ivanovich Khokhlov, Chief Designer,

Zvezda Experimental Design Bureau

Boris Pavlovich Buzdalin, Assistant to the Chief

Designer and Responsible for Consumer Goods

Production

Vitaliy Nikolayevich Timlev, Chief, Textile

Industry Department

Vitaliy Aleksandrovich Lazarev, Chief, Consumer

Goods Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Supersonic missiles, including anti-ship and anti-radar variants

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Textile dyeing machines, laundry mangles, electric kitchen appliances, aluminum alloy tea/coffee service sets, tennis and badminton rackets.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Zvezda design bureau has actively marketed its Kh-31 air-to-surface and Kh-35 naval cruise missiles at several airshows, notably the August 1992 MosAero '92 exhibit in Moscow.

ENTERPRISE NAME: STUPINO MACHINE-BUILDING PRODUCTION ENTERPRISE

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Stupinskoye mashinostroitelnoye proizvodstvennoye predpriyatiye, Stupino Machine-Building Production Association

ADDRESS:

142800 Stupino, Russia

Stupino Machine-Building Production Enterprise

Telephone: (011-7-264) 4-98-21; Telex: N/A; Teletype: N/A; Fax: N/A; E-Mail: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Stupino Machine-Building Production Enterprise produces aircraft propellers and turbine blades.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Propellers; SIC Code: 3571, 3724, 3728

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS: N/A

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: World War-II

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Aircraft and helicopter propellers; aircraft engine turbine blades.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Aircraft and helicopter propellers; aircraft engine turbine blades; personal computers.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: The plant is currently engaged in discussions with Hamilton Standard, together with the Stupino Aerosila firm, to design and produce propellers for the proposed export version of the IL-114.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: SUKHOY DESIGN BUREAU AVIATION SCIENTIFIC-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Aviatsionnyy nauchno-promyshlennyy kompleks (ANPK) "OKB Sukhogo," Sukhoy Design Bureau, OKB imeni P.O. Sukhogo

ADDRESS:

125284, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Polikarpova, 23A

Sukhoy Design Bureau Aviation Scientific-Industrial

Complex

Telephone: (011-7-095) 945-65-25; Telex: 414716 SUHOI SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 200-42-43

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Pavel Osipovich Sukhoy was invited to form the design bureau which bears his name in 1939. The bureau was closed on Stalin's orders in 1949 and Sukhoy was assigned to work in the Tupolev bureau. After Stalin's death, Sukhoy requested, and was allowed, to reopen his design bureau. The skill and versatility of the Sukhoy bureau is evidenced by the variety of aircraft designs (which include fighters, ground attack aircraft, light bombers, aerobatic sport aircraft, the T-100 experimental Mach 3 intercontinental strategic bomber, and Wing-in-Ground-Effect craft) they have created.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: High-performance aircraft; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 17,000; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Mikhail Petrovich Simonov, General Designer

Aleksander I. Blinov, Deputy General Designer

Vladimir Petrovich Babak, Chief Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled. Sukhoy has been given permission to privatize over a three-year period. It is planned that 30 percent of the available stock will be made available for purchase in 1993 and 20 percent in 1994.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1939

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designs for the Su-27 interceptor, Su-24 light bomber, Su-25 ground attack aircraft, Su-35 advanced interceptor, Su-37 multi-role aircraft, and the S-32 Advanced Tactical Fighter.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Designs for Su-26/29 aerobatic sport aircraft, refrigerators, washing machines, high-speed boats, carbon-plastic bicycle wheels, and an artificial heart.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Computer-aided design capability, carbon-graphite composites, exotic alloy metallurgy.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Designs for the S-80 multi-role STOL aircraft; the S-86 6-8 passenger business aircraft; the S-51 50- passenger supersonic business jet; and the A-90-150, a 100-150 passenger Wing-in-Ground-Effect craft

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: In March 1992, Sukhoy, along with aircraft factories in Tbilisi and Ulan-Ude and the Ufa engine factory, formed the "Sukhoy Sturmoviks Consortium" in an effort to facilitate marketing the Su-25 ground attack aircraft and its variants. Sukhoy also has an exclusive world-wide distribution contract with Pompano Air Centre of Pompano Beach, Florida to market the Su-26/29. In March 1992 Sukhoy formed the Russian Aviation Trading House (RATD) in cooperation with the Mikoyan and Yakovlev design bureaus. RATD will function as a trade financing consortium whose operations will include manufacture, crediting, stockpiling, and brokering the aviation products produced by the consortium members. Gulfstream has withdrawn from the Gulfstream-Sukhoy project to develop a supersonic business jet because of export licensing and marketing problems.

ENTERPRISE NAME: TEKHNOMASH SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: November 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Nauchno-proizvodstvennoye tsentr "Tekhnomash," NPO "Tekhnomash." Key facility: Scientific Research Institute of Machine-Building Technology (NIITM)

ADDRESS:

127018 Moscow, Russia

3rd Proyezd' Marinoy Roschi, 40

Tekhnomash Scientific Production Center

Telephone: (011-7-095) 289-92-08, 289-70-04; Telex: 411351 TENT SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 289-73-45

GENERAL OVERVIEW: NPO Tekhnomash specializes in the production of equipment and technology for the manufacture of rocket systems.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Metallurgy; SIC Code: 354

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 2,700; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vyacheslav Vasilyevich Bulavkin, General Director

A.E. Mayevskiy, Deputy Director

Vadim B. Glebov, Engineering Manager

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1938

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designed equipment used in the production of the Mir space stations, the Energiya space launch vehicle, and the Buran shuttle.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Designed ceramic products manufactured on basis of alumina and silicon oxide; acoustic topographical devices; heat resistant cutting tools; electronic beam welding for use in aluminum alloy construction; ultrasonic solderizer; fittings for oil pipelines.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Multi-layer cellular and finned titanium alloy constructions in aerospace engineering; non-ferrous alloy super-thin walled castings for frames; shielding units for electron-beam welding gun; aluminum alloy electron beam welding technology for longitudinal and circular welding; laser, electron beam plasma technology; membrane and capillary technology; plasma deposition of ceramics to allow manufacturing of thick-walled components; robotic tank manufacture; seamless vessel production process with stainless steel, titanium, niobium, alloys, high-strength steels; thermoemission cathode welding for titanium, and aluminum alloys; high-vacuum pumps; brazing process of metal-ceramic assemblies; vacuum brazing process for aluminum radiators; astra welding heads for argon-arc orbital welding; small-sized welding head for tungsten arc welding.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Ceramics products for civil uses; containers used in food industry as utensils for mixing dough, meat, or stuffing; unspecified fabrics; planned production of 500 new products, including 250 for medicine; developing self-contained machinery centers that machine, weld, assemble and test in same location.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Apartments; shopping facilities.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Tekhnomash was, in 1990, the co-founder of the Kompomash Concern, which develops and produces products, including consumer goods, using new and promising materials and technologies used in rocket and space equipment. It also created the Association of Radio Electronics Technologists (ASTREM) along with other major firms. Lesinvest, a Soviet-Swiss joint venture, formed an information and commercial center, "Energiya-Buran" which will run barter deals with Tekhnomash's unused equipment, surplus materials, and parts. Tekhnomash has a joint venture with American Welding Society to market welding products developed by Paton Electronic Welding Institute in Kiev. Tekhnomash is also involved in a joint venture with an Australian enterprise, Technovest to develop Kert ceramic technology.

ENTERPRISE NAME: TOCHPRIBOR SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Tochpribor", Scientific Production Association for Precision Instruments, NPO "Tochniye Pribory" (precision instrument)

ADDRESS:

127490 Moscow, Russia

Proyezd Yurlovskiy, 1

Tochpribor Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 181-03-70; Telex: 411700, 007133 RENTA SU; Teletype: 111814, 417805 RENTA; Fax: (011-7-095) 404-79-66

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Tochpribor Scientific Production Association of Moscow is a major center for the design and production of communication satellites, satellite components and household consumer goods. Tochpribor previously was responsible for the design of military communication satellites now available commercially.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Satellites and satellite components; SIC Code: 2899, 3545, 3548, 3572, 3577, 3651, 3661, 3663, 3669, 3679, 3812, 3825, 3829, 3841, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladimir A. Gorkovoy, General Director

Aleksander N. Khromov, Chief of Department

Yuriy A. Kozko, Chief of Division

Aleksander S. Pletnev, Deputy Division Chief

Victor V. Saveliev, Department Chief

Vladimir N. Elisyev, Laboratory Head

Tomas G. Musinyanz, Laboratory Chief

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Communication satellites

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Tochpribor produces many space-related products including on-board and ground-based automated control systems for spacecraft; receiving, processing, and recording systems for digital signals from space probes; on-board and ground-based radiotechnical units for satellite communication systems; satellite systems for TV broadcasts; equipment for friction welding and cold welding; hot and cold test chambers and radioelectronic biomedical equipment. Other products by Tochpribor include computers; computer systems and networks; radios; stereo tape recorders; TV and radio receivers; nuclear and radioisotope instruments; and medical instruments.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: TORIY SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Toriy"

ADDRESS:

117393 Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Obrucheva, 52

Toriy Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 332-29-41, 322-92-36, 322-95-97; Teletype: 417560 OFIT; Telex: 911522 TORIY SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 248-28-88, 332-64-66

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Toriy Scientific Production Association produces microwave tubes for use in radars, communications systems, television broadcasting electron accelerators (pulsed amplifiers), and nuclear reactors systems (gyrotrons) as well as medical equipment, and consumer goods. The association also produces linear accelerators, and claims to be the world's only producer of new high voltage vacuum control tubes (Titrons) for use in electron-beam welding installations and computer-based tomography. The association includes the Titan Scientific-Research Institute, the main developer of microwave tubes and linear accelerators, and several smaller facilities located in and outside Moscow that produce medical equipment, vacuum pumps, and vacuum tube components.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Electron tubes; SIC Code: 3313, 3399, 3541, 3563, 3567, 3625, 3631, 3663, 3671, 3699, 3826, 3829, 3841, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 7,000; Date: 1991

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Igor Grigoryevich Artyukh, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Microwave tubes for radar (such as, klystrons, magnetrons and travelling wave tubes).

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Microwave tubes, microwave plasma equipment, linear accelerators, hydrogen furnaces, microwave ovens, diffusion welding equipment, high-vacuum turbo-pumps, surgical hemostats and other medical equipment, reversible step motors, mass spectrometers, microwave equipment for thermal treatment of textiles, and for the production of ultra-dispersed powders and oxides, and tungsten gas phase deposition equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Technologies for precision metal fabrication including laser welding, tungsten deposition, electro-discharge and electro-chemical machining.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Microwave therapy systems, magnetron facilities for drying bricks, and devices for thermal silk processing.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: TRANSPORT-CHEMICAL MACHINE-BUILDING DESIGN BUREAU

LAST UPDATE: August 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Konstruktorskoye byuro transportno-khimicheskogo mashinostroyeniya

ADDRESS:

105187, Moscow, Russia

Ulitsa Kirpichnaya, 32

Transport-Chemical Machine-Building Design Bureau

Telephone: (011-7-095) 365-31-66; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 417673 LYUSTRA; Fax: (011-7-095) 365-07-36; E-Mail: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Transport-Chemical Machine-Building Design Bureau specializes in the development and production of experimental models of refueling systems for rocket fuels as well as systems for controlling and maintaining temperature and humidity regimes.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Chemical-transport machine-building; SIC Code: 2819, 2869, 3069, 3412, 3443, 3491, 3492, 3585, 3594, 3629, 3714, 3822, 3829

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of General Machine-Building

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 800; Date: 1994

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Mikhail Ivanovich Stepanov, Director and Chief Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-owned

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1943

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Refueling systems for rocket fuels and compressed gasses; systems for controlling and maintaining temperature and humidity.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Thermostatic systems for maintenance of temperature and humidity; units for membrane separation of liquids; containers for storage and transportation of special liquid products; pneumatically-operated equipment; hydraulic equipment; units for thermal cleaning of wastewater and gasses.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Facility for design and experimental production of equipment for mechanical metal processing.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Thermostatic systems for weaving-mill shops and vegetable storage facilities; containers for transport of corrosive and toxic liquids for civil requirements.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The Design Bureau receives partial financing of conversion programs from the State budget.

ENTERPRISE NAME: TUPOLEV AVIATION SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL COMPLEX

LAST UPDATE: September 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Tupolev Design Bureau, Tupolev OKB, Tupolev Company, Tupolev Corporation, Tupolev Joint Stock Company

ADDRESS:

111250 Moscow, Russia

Naberezhnaya Akademika Tupoleva, 15

Tupolev Aviation Scientific-Technical Complex

Telephone: (011-7-095) 261-2436, 261-7161; Telex: 412439 YAUZA SU; Fax: (011-7-095) 261-7141, 261-0868

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Tupelov built the world's first metal-bodied aircraft, the ANT-2, between 1922 and 1924. This bureau has designed at least 10 military aircraft--including the Tu-160 Blackjack, the Tu-95 Bear H, and the Tu-22M Backfire bombers. It also designed the USSR's only supersonic passenger aircraft, the Tu-144 Charger. More than 1600 Tu-134 and Tu-154 passenger aircraft have been built, and these are backbone of the fleets of Russia and many other CIS countries' airlines. The bureau is currently working with foreign partners to develop the Tu-204 and Tu-334 passenger aircraft and the Tu-155 experimental cryogenic aircraft. The Tupolev Design Bureau is associated with plants in Kazan', Samara, Taganrog, and Ul'yanovsk. In 1992, the Tupolev Complex and the Samara, taganrog, and Ulyanovsk plants formed the Tupolev Corporation.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft design; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 11,200; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Valentin Tikhonovich Klimov, General Director

Yuliy Nikolayevich Kashtanov, First Deputy,

Technical Director

Vyacheslav Vasilievich Soulimenkov, First Deputy,

Science

Aleksey Andreyevich Tupolev, General Designer

Chief Designers & Program Mangers;

Aleksander Sergeyevich Shengardt, Tu-154M

Yuriy Vasilievich Vorobiev, Tu-204-200

Lev Aranovich Lanovskiy, Tu-204

Igor Stepanovich Kalygin, Tu-334

Valentin Ivanovich Bliznyuk, Tu-330

Boris Yevdokimovich Levanovich, Tu-22M,Tu-145

Leonid Tikhonovich Koulikov, UAVs

OWNERSHIP: Joint-stock (44% State controlled)

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1922

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Designed Tu-series bomber aircraft, including the Tu-160 Blackjack, Tu-95 Bear H, Tu-22M Backfire, and UAVs.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Designed the Tu-154M, Tu-204 (series production), Tu-204-200 (prototype), Tu-234, Tu-334 (prototype), and Tu-330.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Cryogenic fueled and supersonic aircraft.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Space and civilian design work accounts for 92 percent of the total work. Airliners are designed with Western engines and avionics. Tupolev is also engaged in a joint venture with Deutsche Airbus GmBH in a cryogenic fueled project known as the "CRYOPLAN," based on the A310/A300.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Nurseries, a technical college, a branch of the Moscow Aviation Technology Institute, apartments, shopping facilities, holiday homes, etc.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The original head of the Tupolev Design Bureau, A. N. Tupolev, was co-founder and first head of the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI) in 1918. His son, A. A. Tupolev, took over the design bureau from his father; he retired in 1992. The Moscow-based Tupolev design bureau has the capability to manufacture design prototypes. British Russian Aviation (Bravia) is a new joint venture firm created by Flemmings (a UK merchant banker), the Aviastar aircraft plant in Ul'yanovsk, and Tupolev to deal with production and sales of the export model of the Tu-204 (which has Rolls- Royce engines and US avionics). Tu-334 series production is planned to be done in Kiev. Tupelov has 8,000 employees in Moscow, including 4,000 designers; 7,000 others are employed at six other branches, including Zhukovskiy Flight Test Center outside Moscow, Kazan', and Voronezh. Deutsche Aerospace and Tupolev will explore hydrogen propulsion systems for commercial transport. Honeywell will provide the avionics for the Tu-204.

ENTERPRISE NAME: VEGA-M SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "VEGA-M". Key Facilities: Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Instrument-Building (MNIIP); "Elektromash" Plant and its "Gorizont" Design Bureau in Nizhniy Novgorod

ADDRESS:

121170, Moscow, Russia

Kutuzovskiy Prospekt, 34

VEGA-M Scientific Production Association

603603, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia

Ulitsa Fedoseyenko, 64

"Elektromash" Plant

603603, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia

Ulitsa Fedoseyenko, 64

"Gorizont" Design Bureau

Telephone: VEGA-M: (011-7-095) 249-07-04, "Elektromash" Plant: (011-7-8312) 23-23-28, "Gorizont" Design Bureau: (011-7-8312) 23-69-62; Telex: VEGA-M: 412268 VEGA-M SU; Teletype: "Elektromash" Plant: 151337 GRIPH, Fax: VEGA-M: (011-7-095) 249-94-12

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The VEGA-M Scientific Production Association is a leading enterprise in development and production of radioelectronic equipment for various purposes, and is well known for its airborne warning and control systems and airborne and space-based synthetic aperture radars. It also developed and produces a ground-based air surveillance radar. The headquarters of VEGA-M is collocated with the Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Building.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Airborne and spaceborne radars; SIC Code: 3571, 3575, 3663, 3728, 3812

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Radio Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 8,000 (MNIIP); Date: 1979

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladimir Karpeyev, Deputy General Manager,

VEGA-M

Leon B. Neronskiy, Chief Scientist, VEGA-M

Yuriy A. Beloborodov, Chief

Engineer/"Elektromash" Plant

Nikolay P. Pestov, Chief, Scientific & Technical

Department, "Gorizont" Design Bureau

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Prior to World War II

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: "Shmel" airborne early warning and control radar system on the A-50 (Mainstay) aircraft; "Shtyk" side-looking radar in Su-24MR reconnaissance aircraft; "Periskop-VM" ground-based air surveillance radar.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: "ECOR-A" high-resolution synthetic aperture radar on the "Almaz-1" artificial earth satellite; side-looking synthetic aperture radar for airplanes or helicopters; microwave radiometer for remote earth sensing from airplanes or helicopters; MC12101M general purpose space-qualified microcomputer.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Together with NPO Mashinostroyeniya, VEGA-M proposes to conduct radar surveys of the earth's surface using the "ECOR-A" satellite radar, to include all-weather remote sounding and ecological monitoring of land and water areas, estimating damage caused by ecological disasters and natural calamities, assistance in safe navigation via ice reconnaissance, monitoring of pollution, and investigation of natural resources.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: VEGA-M officials have participated in various international space conferences and exhibitions. They offer to sell licenses for their own technology and are actively seeking investors to introduce new technologies. Among the projects undertaken by VEGA-M's facilities in Nizhniy Novgorod was the modernization of the "Periskop-V" system to the "Periskop-VM".

ENTERPRISE NAME: VILS SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "VILS." Key facility: Vserossiyskiy institut legkikh splavov (All-Russian Institute of Light Alloys)

ADDRESS:

121596, Moscow, Russia

Gorbunova Ulitsa, 20

VILS Scientific Production Association

Telephone: (011-7-095) 448-27-64, 448-31-44; Telex: N/A; FAX: (011-7-095) 446-18-01

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The VILS Scientific Production Association consists of the All-Russian Institute of Light Alloys, the Light Alloy Works, and the Zubtsov Engineering Plant. It is one of several metallurgical organizations which developed and manufactured semi-finished products from steel, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, nickel and super alloys for the former Ministry of the Aviation Industry. VILS is attempting to market extrusions, forgings and semi-finished metallurgical products as well as laminated and composite materials, special coatings for tools, and designs for metallurgical equipment.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Metallurgy; SIC Code: 3339, 3365, 3369, 3399, 3463, 3469, 3479, 3679, 3714, 3827, 3944

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Professor Boris Bondarev, General Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Extrusions and die forgings from steel, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, nickel, laminated and composite materials, powder metallurgy components for aircraft, rockets and missiles.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Nickel-based and titanium powder metallurgy components used in airframe and engine parts, impellers for pumping active and cryogenic components, church bells, laser mirrors and skillets.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Computer-controlled hot-isostatic presses

CONVERSION PROJECTS: VILS is attempting to market its core capabilities to new markets as well as adapting proven materials technologies to new applications (such as manufacturing wheel discs for Zhiguli and Lada automobiles from a material developed for the landing gear of the Buran space shuttle).

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: VILS has established a joint venture with the German company Handelsgesellschaft MBH & Co. to produce aluminum, titanium, nickel, copper products and other alloys.

ENTERPRISE NAME: VYMPEL INTERSTATE JOINT STOCK COMPANY

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Mezhgosudarstvennoy aktsionernoy kompaniey (MAK) "Vympel," Central Scientific Production Association Vympel, TsNPO Vympel, VIMPEL International Corp.

ADDRESS:

125319 Moscow, Russia

4 Ulitsa 8 Marta, 3

Vympel Interstate Joint Stock Company

Telephone: (011-7-095) 152-94-95, 152-95-95, 152-27-34; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 152-93-34

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Vympel corporation designs, develops, and produces missile attack warning systems and space control systems, and is involved in the production of anti-ballistic missile systems. It includes the Scientific Research Institute of Radio-Instrument Building, the Specialized Scientific Center, the Radiotechnical Institute, the Scientific Research Institute of Long-Range Radio Communications in Moscow, the Radio Plant in Gomel (Belarus) and the Machine-Building Plant in Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine). It is currently seeking to apply its high-technology resources to civil applications. The corporation includes five major R&D centers, the Radio Plant in Gomel', Belarus, and the Machine Building Plant in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Radars; SIC Code: 3812

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Radio Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 18,300 (in the four institutes and centers); Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Nikolay Vasiliyevich Mikhaylov, General Director

Vasiliy Pavlovich Bakhar, Deputy General Director

Igor A. Karelin, Chief Production Engineer

OWNERSHIP: Joint stock. Share of ownership: 60 percent held by Russian State Property Committee; 34 percent held by Ukrainian State Property Fund; 5 percent held by Committee for Control of State Property of the Belarus Council of Ministers.

YEAR ESTABLISHED: Joint-stock. Company established in 1992 on basis of existing central scientific production association and under tri-lateral governmental agreement.

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Ballistic missile early warning systems; over-the-horizon radars, space control systems and radars; anti-ballistic missile systems.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Radiometric security complex for area and object control; automatic complex for controlling noise at airports; food processing equipment; refrigerators, microwave ovens; tape recorders; digital telephone systems; industrial refrigeration equipment; various consumer electronic products. Developing medical equipment, such as automated electronic cardio-diagnosis and forms of laser therapy.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Ground based equipment for Global Satellite Telecommunication systems (Energya-Marathon, NORD, PAMIR), cellular telephone systems in amps and GSM standards; software for control, telecommunication systems, system design, including software for artificial neural network; automatic and data processing systems; satellite and cable television systems; radars for surveillance and control (dual use technology); medical equipment; security systems; systems for ecological monitoring and purification equipment; and microelectronics, microwave equipment.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The open joint-stock company was established with a charter capital of 3.22 billion rubles in the prices of 1990. Vympel's employees include over 60 people with the degree of doctor of sciences and 800 with the degree of candidate of sciences, as well as several academicians and corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

ENTERPRISE NAME: YAKOVLEV DESIGN BUREAU

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Opytno-konstruktorskoye byuro imeni A.S. Yakovleva, Yakovlev OKB, Skorost Design Bureau, Yakovlev Aviation Corporation

ADDRESS:

125315, Moscow, Russia

Leningradskiy Prospekt, 68

Yakovlev Design Bureau

Telephone: (011-7-095) 157-17-34; Telex: N/A; Fax: (011-7-095) 157-47-26

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Yakovlev Design Bureau has designed many aircraft systems, including training, sport, passenger, and military V/STOL aircraft. Today Yakovlev is working on several projects including the 168-seat high economy Yak-46 airliner, the supersonic Yak-141 Freestyle VTOL fighter, and light aircraft such as the 4-seat Yak-112 and 6-seat Yak-58.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 25,000; Date: 1991

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Aleksander N. Dondukov, General Designer

Arkadiy I. Gurtovoy, Deputy Chief Designer

Nicholas N. Dolzhenkov, Chief Designer

K.F. Popovich, Deputy Chief Designer

Vladimir A. Sukhorukov, Deputy General Designer

Anatoly S. Ivanov, Deputy Chief of Export

Department

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1927 (Yakovlev Design Bureau)

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Yak-141 Freestyle supersonic vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) fighter, Yak-44 carrier-based AEW aircraft (similar to the Grumman E-2C Hawkeye), Yak-UTS tandem-seat training aircraft for the Russian Air Force, "Shmel" remotely piloted vehicle for day/night surveillance.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Various civil aircraft, including passenger and sports aircraft.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: New aircraft projects include production of Yak-3 replica aircraft and development of the Yak-112 light utility aircraft, the Yak-58 6-seat passenger aircraft and the Yak-54 2-seat aircraft. Non-aircraft civil products include can-stacking machinery, dry milk packaging equipment and development of a high-speed train.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Yakovlev is seeking to re-engine the Yak-40 regional trijet with western aircraft engines, to up-date Yak-42 airliners with western avionics systems and redesigned Russian engines, to co-produce the Yak-112 light utility aircraft with South Africa and Brazil, and to export the Yak-55M aerobatic aircraft to South Africa. Yakovlev has proposed a joint venture with the Tajikistan firm "Tadschiko" to develop a 50-seat regional transport aircraft similar to the Dornier-328. Yakovlev, together with the Saratov and Smolensk Aircraft Plants, the Progress Engine Design Bureau, and the Zaporozhe (Ukraine) Motor Plant, formed the "Skorost" industrial association to produce new Yak-42M airliners. In March 1992 Yakovlev and the Smolensk plant formed the Yakovlev Aviation Corporation to market and build various Yakovlev designs.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ZAGORSK OPTICAL-MECHANICAL PLANT

LAST UPDATE: June 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: Zagorskiy optiko-mekhanicheskiy zavod; ZOMZ

ADDRESS:

141300, Sergiyev Posad, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Ulitsa Krasnoarmeyskaya, 212

Zagorsk Optical-Mechanical Plant

Telephone: (011-7-254) 4-12-45; 6-92-00; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 846214 SHKALA; Fax: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: The Zagorsk Optical-Mechanical Plant, a producer of precision optical equipment for the military, has increased the proportion of its civilian production, and adapted some of its military products, such as night vision devices, to civilian use.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Optics; SIC Code: 3229, 3523, 3827, 3843, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Defense Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: N/A

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Leonid Fedorovich Sochilov, Director

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Precision optical devices, active infrared night vision devices and binoculars.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Binoculars, fluorographic cameras, x-ray image intensifiers, ophthalmological laser instruments, optical-mechanical instruments, optical sights, medical high-speed drills, medical equipment and spare parts, spare parts for optical instruments, and tractor parts.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Light-amplification night sights for hunting rifles

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: The city of Zagorsk reverted to its pre-Soviet name of Sergiyev Posad in 1991.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ZENIT SCIENTIFIC INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION

LAST UPDATE: September 1994

ALTERNATE NAMES: NPO "Zenit"

ADDRESS:

103489 Zelenograd, Russia

Zenit Scientific Industrial Corporation

Telephone: (O11-7-095) 535-16-20, 535-14-30; Telex: N/A; Teletype: 205255 SISTEMA; Fax: (011-7-095)534-59-16; E-Mail: N/A

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Zenit specializes in the development of quantum electronic devices including lasers and laser-based instruments and equipment, as well as other light sources. It also produces various types of vacuum tubes. The Association includes the Zenit Scientific Research Institute.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Lasers; SIC Code: 3641, 3671, 3699, 3845

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Electronics Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: 4,000 1994

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Boris Alekseyevich Konstantinov

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: N/A

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: N/A

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Lasers, laser-based instruments and equipment, laser apparatus for medicine and agriculture, xenon ultra high pressure gas discharge tubes, receiving tubes and other types of electronic vacuum tubes, and incandescent lamps and other lighting articles.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: N/A

CONVERSION PROJECTS: N/A

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: N/A

ENTERPRISE NAME: ZNAMYA TRUDA MACHINE-BUILDING PLANT

LAST UPDATE: November 1992

ALTERNATE NAMES: Moskovskiy mashinostroitelnyy zavod "Znamya Truda," Banner of Labor Machine-Building Plant, Znamya Truda Aircraft Plant. Part of: Moskovskoye aviatsionnoye PO (MAPO) imeni P.V. Dementyeva (Dementyev Aviation Production Association)

ADDRESS:

125040 Moscow, Russia

1st Botkinskiy Proyezd, 7

Znamya Truda Machine-Building Plant

Telephone: N/A; Telex: N/A, Fax: (011-7-095) 252-89-14 (Commercial Department)

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Znamya Truda was Russia's first aircraft factory. It was established in 1893 as the Duks Plant and has built aircraft since 1909. It currently produces the MiG-29 fighter, and since 1990 has been working to introduce the Il-114 turboprop airliner into production.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aircraft; SIC Code: 3721

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 20,444; Date: 1992

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Vladimir Vasiliyevich Kuzmin, General Director

Fyodor Mikhaylovich Timofeyev, Director of

Foreign Economic Relations

Aleksandr Nikiforovich Bezrykov, Commercial

Director

Viktor Mikhaylovich Puzanov, Chief Engineer

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1893

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: Fighter aircraft. Most recent product, the MiG-29 Fulcrum.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: MIA-890 ultralight aircraft; food processing equipment.

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: Capability to produce forgings, sheet metal parts, machined parts, premium castings, large composite structures, and piece parts.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Plans to build the IL-114 64-passenger airliner. Consumer products, including meat grinders; food processors; spice racks; milk pails; lawn chairs; pillows; hubcaps; toys.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: Apartments for employees; child care centers; kindergartens; elementary schools; vacation beach houses.

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Located on over 250 hectares of floor space. The assembled aircraft like MiG-29s are transported on flatbed trailers to the associated plant at Lukhovitsy airfield for flight testing. Znamya Truda has recently organized and joined, along with other Mikoyan-associated enterprises, into the Moscow Aviation Production Association.

ENTERPRISE NAME: ZVEZDA SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION ENTERPRISE

LAST UPDATE: April 1993

ALTERNATE NAMES: Nauchno-proizvodstvennoye predpriyatiye (NPP) "Zvezda"

ADDRESS:

140070, Tomilino, Russia (Moscow Oblast)

Gogolya Ulitsa, 39

Zvezda Scientific Production Enterprise

Telephone: (011-7-095) 553-92-01; Telex: 206123 STAR SU; FAX: (011-7-095) 557-33-88

GENERAL OVERVIEW: Zvezda researches, designs and produces life-support systems for aviation and space applications. It has been developing ejection seats for fighter aircraft since 1952. The products of the enterprise today cover the entire spectrum of aviation-related requirements for life support, from clothing (flying suits, anti-gravity suits, space suits, helmets) to ejection systems, oxygen systems, and survival kits. Zvezda is the sole developer of aviation/space-related life-support systems in the former Soviet Union.

PRIMARY BUSINESS: Branch: Aviation life-support/survival systems; SIC Code: 3443, 3569, 3728, 3841

FORMER MINISTRY SUBORDINATION: Ministry of the Aviation Industry

APPROXIMATE EMPLOYMENT: Total: 3,500; Date: 1993

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS:

Dr. G.I. Severin, General Designer

Vitali I. Svershchek, Deputy General Designer

OWNERSHIP: State-controlled

YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1952

MILITARY PRODUCT LINES: K-36D series ejection seats (the K-36DM is modified for fighters, the K-36DM series II is unique to the SU-27, the K-36DM series 2-06 is adapted for side stick control, the K-36BM has modifications for auto ejection, the K-36RB was modified for the Buran space shuttle, and the K-37 is modified for helicopters); air-to-air refueling equipment; anti-gravity suits; flight suits; helmets; space suits; oxygen support systems; survival gear; aircraft fire extinguishing systems; and bullet-proof vests.

CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Oxygen systems, inflatable escape chutes, crash-test dummies

KEY TECHNOLOGIES/EQUIPMENT EMPLOYED: The facilities at Zvezda include a supersonic wind tunnel capable of simulating speeds equivalent to Mach 2.2, an altitude chamber, centrifuge, and load impact test capabilities. The staff at Zvezda include medical personnel specializing in aerospace medicine.

CONVERSION PROJECTS: Zvezda is attempting to expand its focus and market its products to aviation firms world wide. As a conversion project the firm has developed an ecologically safe machine to eradicate the Colorado Beetle.

HUMAN RESOURCES SUPPORT: N/A

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION: Zvezda has supplied ejection seats to the U.S. Department of Defense for evaluation, and testing is currently underway. Zvezda has teamed with Fiat Spazio to compete in a bid for the contract to supply ejection systems to the European Space Agency's Hermes manned spaceplane.




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