21 May 2008 The Czech Republic formally approves a deal that would allow part of a U.S. missile defense system to be placed on Czech territory .
1 February 2008 Poland agrees in principle on installing a U.S. missile defense system on Polish territory .
14 July 2007 The Russian Federation announces that it is formally suspending participation in the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty.
4 January 2002 Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld announced this
week the redesignation of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) as the Missile Defense Agency (MDA).
16 December 2002 President Bush signs NATIONAL SECURITY PRESIDENTIAL DIRECTIVE/NSPD-23 directing the United States to, "make progress in fielding a new triad composed of long-range conventional and nuclear strike capabilities, missile defenses, and a robust industrial and research development infrastructure." New missile defense systems are to be developed and deployed by 2004 and 2005 to protect the U.S. and its allies. Cooperation in missile defense is to be promoted, and participation by our friends and allies is to be encouraged.
16 December 2001: Voice of America, US: Abandoning ABM Treaty Won't Damage Relations with Moscow
16 December 2001: Transcript: Powell Says U.S. Withdrawal from ABM not Creating Crisis or Arms Race
15 December 2001: Consequences of US ABM Withdrawl - Russia criticized the U.S. decision to pull out of the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty, but President Vladimir Putin also said it poses no threat to Russia.
14 December 2001: As widely predicted, the United States Thursday announced its withdrawal from a 1972 arms control treaty in order to pursue development of a new missile defense system. Washington made the decision despite objections by Russia and concerns expressed by some close allies.
14 December 2001: Russia's lower house of parliament has rejected a motion condemning the U.S. withdrawal from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic missile treaty.
13 December 2001: Key Democrats in the U.S. Senate are expressing concern about President Bush's plans to withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
13 December 2001: Russian President Vladimir Putin
has criticized the U.S. decision to pull out of the 1972
Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty. President Bush announced the
U.S. withdrawal earlier Thursday, paving the way for development of
an American missile defense system. President Putin also called
again for cuts in nuclear weapons stockpiles.
10 December 2001: Transcript: Powell, Ivanov Remarks Following their Meeting in Moscow
5 November 2001: Russian media quoting
Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov said Monday there has been progress
on bringing the Russia and the United States closer together on the
issue of amending the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty.
State Department Noon Briefing:, U.S. Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, 12 July 2001 -- Can you talk about reports of a memorandum sent to US diplomatic posts around the world about how we might come into conflict with the ABM treaty during upcoming missile tests?
State Department Noon Briefing - ABM Treaty:, U.S. Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, 09 May 2001 -- Q: No, Mr. Rumsfeld yesterday ambitiously reached to all - new frontiers. It's not quite clear what he's reaching. It's not clear what he intends to do in space, in the upper atmosphere. But, you know, there's been a whole history of gradually closing down weapons activities for the good of the planet in certain areas.
1 May 2001: Presidnet Bush delivers a speech at National Defense University arguing that "...we must move beyond the constraints of the 30-year-old ABM Treaty..."
30 January 2001: Ukraine ratified a momorandum of understanding that identifies that it is a successor state to the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. The Ukrainian parliament ratified the MOU in a vote of 294-1 on 11 January and President Kuchma signed the legislation on the 30th.
PUtin, Yakovlev Differ Over Approach To ABM?, RFE/RL Newsline, Vol. 4, No. 222, Part I, 15 November 2000 -- One day after Commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces General Vladimir Yakovlev proposed an "ABM index", which he suggested would accommodate U.S. plans to deploy a limited national missile defense system. a senior Russian Foreign Ministry official denied that Moscow is backing down from its opposition to such a system.
Russia, EU Oppose Any Changes To ABM Treaty, RFE/RL Newsline, Vol. 4, No. 211, Part I, 31 October 2000 -- Speaking at a press conference after the EU-Russia summit, French President Chirac stressed that the two sides are strongly opposed to the U.S.'s making any changes to the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
REMARKS BY PRESIDENT CLINTON AND PRESIDENT PUTIN, THE WHITE HOUSE, Office of the Press Secretary, 06 September 2000 -- PRESIDENT CLINTON: The decision that I made last week on our missile defense will create an opportunity for President Putin and the next American President to reach a common position.
Transcript: U.S. Arms Control Advisor on National Missile Defense 27 June 2000 -- John Holum, President Clinton's senior advisor for arms control, said that in consultations with the Russians, the United States has "laid down ideas for specific amendments" to the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in accordance with the proposed deployment of the NMD system against threats from so-called countries of concern, such as North Korea.
Booster Phase Interceptors Vs. Ground-Based Interceptors ADA Magazine 16 June 2000 -- U.S. Secretary of Defense and Russian Defense Minister Air Opposing Views on Missile Defense. The United States considers boost phase interceptors theater missile defense systems that would b unable to adequately defend the United States or Europe from long-range missile attacks.
DoD News Briefing
Thursday, June 15, 2000 -- I can tell you that lawyers have analyzed deployment timetables and they have analyzed the construction requirements for the radar in the Aleutians on Shemya Island. They have come up with a number of options. And the president at the appropriate time will review their legal analysis and their options and make a decision.
U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing THURSDAY, JUNE 15, 2000 -- We haven't made a determination yet as far as when work on an ABM radar might violate the ABM Treaty. This kind of analysis is obviously necessary to inform the decision that needs to be made on missile deployment for national missile defense.
Presenter: Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen June 13, 2000 -- We are prepared to work on a joint basis in looking at theater missile defense systems, which is what President Putin also suggested, as well as this new theory or concept about putting a shield or an umbrella over those "rogue nations". We have to make sure that our homeland is always protected against that type of attack.
Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen June 13, 2000 - President Putin wanted our experts to get together to study the issue in terms of boost phase. They seemed to indicate that they were talking about something they had under development. We are interested exploring boost phase technology, but it appears to us that the timeframe in which that might be available is beyond that in which we see the threat emerging.
Cohen Cautious on Russian TMD Counterbid, Seeks More Detail By Jim Garamone American Forces Press Service June 12, 2000 -- Russian President Vladimir Putin last week presented his own theater missile defense idea, but it would cause problems for the United States, Defense Secretary William Cohen said June 9 in Brussels, Belgium.
Presenter: Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen June 12, 2000 -- Frankly, the Russian proposal is very vague. It has no concrete dimension to it at this point. Because of the vagueness of the proposal, the fact that it was not even raised during the summit but only in a press statement or interview with a journalist, leaves much to be desired in the way of definitiveness.
Top Russian Military Official Outlines European ABM Plans Moscow RIA 11 June 2000 --
Eventually, Ivashov said, a conception of a pan-European nonstrategic
ABM system would be drawn up jointly. The content would be specific:
the creation of a multilateral early warning centre, development of
existing radar centres and missile launchers and joint work on new ones.
Transcript of Press Conference With Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov, Russian Federation Foreign Ministry, 09 June 2000 -- "At the same time we put forward a concrete and constructive alternative to the plans of the United States in the missile defense field. We are referring to further reduction of strategic offensive weapons, the strengthening of non-proliferation regimes, including through the creation of a global system of monitoring non-proliferation of missiles and missile technologies. "
Presenter: Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen June 9, 2000 -- Minister Sergeyev said that the system he has in mind would be a theater missile defense system according to the parameters of the so-called "Demarcation Agreement" signed by Russia and the U.S. in 1997 and would therefore not need any modification of the ABM Treaty. This means, in effect, it would have the capability only against attacking missiles with ranges less than 3,500 kilometers.
NATO / DEFENSE MINISTERS Voice of America 09 June 2000 -- NATO Defense Ministers met with their Russian
counterpart in Brussels Friday to get more details on Moscow's proposal for a joint European anti-missile defense system.
Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen - DoD News Briefing Thursday, June 8, 2000 -- We're not quite sure what President Putin has in mind; that was not really raised during the summit, but prior and then subsequent. However, there has been very little detail given on what he is proposing. So we will have to wait to see exactly what the details are.
DoD News Briefing - Walter Slocombe, Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Thursday, June 08, 2000 -- It’s important to look at any constructive suggestion to see if it’s a serious suggestion. But, at this stage, we know very little about what, if anything, the Russians have in mind at a detailed technical level, and we will look at any reasonable proposal. I want to make the point, though, that we see no prospect that any system of this character, whatever it is, and by definition it doesn’t exist now, could be deployed nearly as fast as the system which we are working on, for which our target for deployment is 2005.
RUSSIA / U-S ANTI MISSILE SYSTEM Voice of America 08 June 2000 -- Russians are against it, and so,
according to U-S newspapers, are many European nations. Some European officials believe such an anti-missile system could lead to a new nuclear arms race.
RUSSIA MISSILES Voice of America 08 June 2000 -- Defense Secretary William Cohen hopes to learn more about a new missile defense plan for Russia and Europe at Friday's meeting with Russian Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev.
U.S. Will Study Russian Missile Defense Proposals By Jim Garamone American Forces Press Service
June 7, 2000 -- Russian leaders agreeing there is a threat of missile attack from rogue states marks a “significant change in the attitude and understanding” of the U.S. push for a national missile defense, Defense
Secretary William S. Cohen said.
Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen -Media availability en route to Belgium June 7, 2000 -- There's a lot of vagueness involved in his proposal, devils always reside in details, and they have yet to become clear. It could be a constructive proposal but it could be simply a tactic to divide the European members of NATO from the United States. I have no idea what they have in mind. It's always hard to even respond.
PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MOSCOW MEETING Voice of America 06 June 2000 -- The Russian leader did not agree to amend a treaty the system appears to violate, but there were some modest
gains on nuclear disarmament.
NMD System Hinders Nuke Disarmament People's Daily Monday, June 05, 2000 - The United States' development of a missile shield would upset the world strategic balance and hinder the process of international nuclear disarmament, Sha Zukang, director-general of the Department of Arms Control and Disarmament of China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs said.
PUTIN / ROME Voice of America 05 June 2000 -- Russian President Vladimir Putin has renewed a proposal to work with Europe and NATO on a joint anti-
missile defense system that would not violate the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
RUSSIA AND THE UNITED STATESOnline NewsHour: June 5, 2000 -- JOHN PIKE, Federation of American Scientists: It was clearly a failure in terms of the way the Clinton administration has defined its strategy on dealing with Russia over the last several years.
PRESS BRIEFING BY DEPUTY SECRETARY OF STATE STROBE TALBOTT June 4, 2000 -- The two Presidents instructed their experts to develop a series of cooperative measures whereby the United States and Russia can jointly address the problem of ballistic missile proliferation. The United States and Russia are going to need to work cooperatively to adapt the ABM Treaty to meet the emerging ballistic missile threat. How exactly we're going to do that is still at issue. The Russians are concerned that phase one will not only lead to phase two, but will lead on and on and on.
CLINTON - RUSSIA Voice of America 03 June 2000 -- U-S officials are encouraged by comments Mr. Putin made in an American television interview earlier this week in which he spoke about joint cooperation to reduce the global missile threat.
RUSSIA/CLINTON Voice of America 03 June 2000 -- Putin has threatened to pull out of all arms
control agreements if the United States moves ahead unilaterally. However, there has been talk of a possible Russian counterproposal involving Russian and European participation in the nuclear shield.
Unilateral Move Is Unwise By Samuel R. Berger USA Today June 2, 2000 -- As we consider a limited national missile defense aimed at the emerging ballistic-missile threat, we are far more likely to avoid tensions with Russia and enhance our security if we seek to preserve the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and continue the process of negotiated arms control.
PUTIN MISSILES Voice of America 02 June 2000 -- Russian President Vladimir Putin says he will
propose a joint missile defense system when he meets this weekend in Moscow with President Clinton.
US - RUSSIA ANTI-MISSILE Voice of America 02 June 2000 -- Clinton administration officials are cautiously welcoming comments by Russian President Vladimir Putin about joint cooperation aimed at reducing the global missile nuclear threat.
CHINA RUSSIA Voice of America 01 June 2000 -- Two top U-S Defense officials say there is more rhetoric than reality to Russian and Chinese objections to U-S missile defense efforts.
DoD News Briefing June 1, 2000 -- The president has spoken about efforts that we are willing to take to protect countries that subscribe to arms control regimes and nonproliferation regimes. Those were the -- he used the term "responsible." He also used the term "civilized."
Transcript: Berger Press Briefing on Clinton-Schroeder Talks 01 June 2000 -- Schroeder expressed Germany's concern "that this not be done at the expense of the arms control regime or without regard to its impact on others. And, of course, those are all factors the President has said that he will take into consideration" when deciding whether to go forward with the system.
PRESS CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENT WILLIAM CLINTON May 31, 2000 -- I don't think that we could ever advance the notion that we have this technology designed to protect us against a threat to other civilized nations who were completely in harness with us on a nonproliferation regime, and not make it available to them.
Transcript: U.S. Official Sets Scene for Clinton-Putin Summit 30 May 2000 -- Clinton will also argue that "the problem that the ABM Treaty was meant to solve -- that is, preventing conflict between Russia and the United States -- has in many ways been solved. And there are new threats that have to be dealt with.
CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT STARTS SECOND PART OF 2000 SESSION Press Release DCF/394 - 26 May 2000 -- Ambassador Vasily S. Sidorov (Russian Federation) said that the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty should be preserved and other topics of missile proliferation negotiated without altering that agreement.
PRESS BRIEFING BY NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR SAMUEL BERGER May 25, 2000 - I think they have to decide whether they want to
reach an agreement now that will assure them that a limited NMD system will
take place within -- bounded by -- within a ABM treaty that continues to
maintain strategic stability, or whether they want the possibility that a
future President might go forward with an NMD system, perhaps even more
Star Wars-oriented NMD system, that would be more threatening to the
Russians in the absence of an ABM treaty.
U-N / NUCLEAR WEAPONS Voice of America 25 May 2000 -- Russia warns that efforts by the United States to modify the anti-ballistic missile treaty will jeopardize efforts for further reductions in nuclear weapons.
RUSSIA / U-S NUCLEAR Voice of America 24 May 2000 -- With such formidable opposition, and the wide gap in interests, most observers agree it will be impossible to reach a breakthrough arms deal before President Clinton comes to Moscow next month to meet Russian President Vladimir Putin.
NATO MINISTERS Voice of America 24 May 2000 -- NATO foreign ministers meeting in Italy have
expressed concern about a proposed U-S missile defense system.
RUSSIA / U-S Voice of America 19 May 2000 -- Both
countries are trying to downplay expectations of a breakthrough when President Clinton visits the Russian capital next month.
Mission To Moscow By Henry Kissinger, Washington Post May 15, 2000 Pg. 23 -- An ABM system aimed at North Korea also will be useful against a threat from China, and a strategic defense against China that omits Russia implies a definition of national security priorities that will profoundly affect all other international relationships.
Arms Control: U.S. Chided On NMD 'Political Costs'; 'Big Five' Blamed For NPT 'Limbo' Issue Focus - Foreign Media Reaction 10 May 2000 -- U.S. plans for a limited national missile defense (NMD) system and related efforts to modify the ABM Treaty continued to meet with sharp criticism overseas, particularly in European, East and South Asian and Canadian media outlets. While few critics drew any distinction between the Clinton administration's proposal for a limited NMD and the more expansive one favored by some Republican politicians, many were quick to decry the infusion of partisan politics into the election year debate over NMD/ABM.
THE ARMS CONTROL DEBATE Voice of America 08 May 2000 --
The problem is many scientists feel the system will not work, and it could abrogate the 1972 Anti
Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union, now honored by Russia.
Russian Criticizes U.S. Missile Plans By David Hoffman Washington Post Friday, May 5, 2000; Page A21 -- An outspoken Russian military leader declared today that the latest U.S. proposals for amending the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty are a dead letter and cannot be negotiated further.
ARGUING MISSILE DEFENSE Voice of America 03 May 2000 -- U-S Congress members were
emphatic that the system would be built. Russians
were just as firm in declaring the system a mistake
that would jeopardize relations between the two
RUSSIA/ARMS CONTROL Voice of America 29 April 2000 -- A top Russian Defense
Ministry official, General Leonid Ivashov, said a
U-S missile defense shield would be aimed at
combating Russian and Chinese intercontinental
BUSH STOKING NUCLEAR RUN-IN WITH RUSSIA BY LARS-ERIK NELSON Daily News April 28, 2000 - "In the Cold War, the arms race at least had a larger national purpose: to defend us from a Soviet threat," says John Pike of the Federation of American Scientists. "The idiotic thing about this proposal is that it would be an arms race about itself, with no larger purpose."
Clinton's Missile Defense Plans Under Fire, Reuters, 28 April 2000 -- resident Clinton's plans for an umbrella against missiles fired by ``rogue'' states came under fresh attack Friday when documents were leaked detailing his negotiating position in arms talks with Russia.
CLINTON-RUSSIA ARMS Voice of America 28 April 2000 -- President Clinton
intends to pursue further nuclear arms reductions and
an accommodation with Moscow on missile defenses --
this, despite opposition from a powerful Republican
Senate committee chairman.
ARMS CONTROL: U.S. Assailed On NMD/ABM; Outlook Dim For NPT Meeting Issue Focus - Foreign Media Reaction 27 April 2000 -- Monday's opening of the NPT Review Conference, coupled with the Russian Duma's back-to-back ratification of START II and the CTBT, put the world press spotlight squarely on the U.S. national missile defense (NMD) plan, capping a spate of criticism of U.S. arms control and defense policy not seen since last fall's Senate defeat of the CTBT.
Transcript: Albright, Ivanov Joint Press Briefing at the State Dept. 27 April 2000 -- Ivanov said "We believe, and it has been stressed at the highest level, the ABM Treaty of 1972 should remain a cornerstone of the strategic stability and the basis for strategic stability in the world. We are confident that this corresponds to the interests of both Russia and the United States of America."
Cohen Decries Russia's Tying START II Ratification to NMD By Susan Ellis Washington File 27 April 2000 -- Defense Secretary Cohen told a Senate Appropriations
subcommittee that, although he commends Russian President
Vladimir Putin for "getting the Duma to ratify" START II (Strategic
Arms Reduction Treaty), he believes that tying ratification to "no
deployment for national missile defense (NMD) is simply unacceptable.
U-S / RUSSIA TALKS Voice of America 27 April 2000 -- Foreign Minister Ivanov said Russia remains opposed to changes in the ABM treaty.
COHEN ARMS CONTROL Voice of America 27 April 2000 -- Defense Secretary William Cohen says the
Clinton Administration is pressing ahead with arms
control efforts, in spite of fierce criticism from
Moscow and a powerful member of the U-S Senate.
U-S - RUSSIA ARMS Voice of America 26 April 2000 -- Senator Helms says he
fears President Clinton wants to conclude an arms
accord with Moscow in his final months in office that
would impede the United States' ability to develop a
RUSSIA'S AFFIRMATION OF ARMS CONTROL Voice of America 26 April 2000 -- Mr. Putin has warned that Russia would not implement,
and might even withdraw from, all arms-control pacts
with the United States if Washington goes ahead with
RUSSIA-US Voice of America 26 April 2000 -- Russia's Foreign Minister has been holding
talks in Washington today (Wednesday) to push Moscow's
opposition to any changes in the 1972 A-B-M anti-
U-N-IVANOV ON MISSILE DEFENSE Voice of America 25 April 2000 -- Russia's Foreign Minister Igor Invanov warn s
(Tuesday) that U-S plans to develop a national missile
defense system could jeopardize the entire structure
of nuclear disarmament agreements.
CLINTON - IVANOV Voice of America 25 April 2000 -- Ivanov
took a softer approach to the issue, telling reporters
that security would be better protected if the ABM
Treaty was kept intact, but also saying that Moscow is
ready to listen to any suggestions.
New US radar site threatens ABM treaty
Julian Borger The Guardian (London) April 25, 2000 ; Pg. 11 -- John Pike, director of the Space Policy Project at the Federation of American Scientists, said yesterday: 'One of the standard parts of creating a cover story for an intelligence operation is that the story is plausible and this cover story was not.
Missile Defense, With Peace In Mind
Sen. Joseph R. Biden Wall Street Journal April 24, 2000 -- Even a national missile defense deployed in compliance with a modified ABM Treaty risks precipitating a nuclear arms race in Asia.
PRESS RELEASE April 19, 2000 --
In accordance with the Cologne agreement between the presidents of Russia and the US, a Russian-American meeting of experts to discuss START-3 and the ABM Treaty was held in Geneva on April 17-18, 2000.
Transcript: U.S., Ukrainian Foreign Ministers Press Availability 14 April 2000 -- I think we have made very clear the importance of the ABM treaty. That is something we believe and our discussions with the Russians have been not about withdrawing but about adjusting the treaty which has been done before in order to accommodate the possibility, because there has been no decision made on deployment on NMD.
Transcript: Avis Bohlen Identifies Key Arms Control Priorities 12 April 2000 -- Key U.S. arms control priorities currently include U.S.-Russian discussions in Geneva on the 1972 ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) Treaty and on START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) III, says Ambassador Avis Bohlen, Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control.
Transcript: Arms Control Advisor Holum on Non-Proliferation 05 April 2000 -- Beijing, Holum conceded, is "vocally and actively opposed to any adjustment to the ABM Treaty, and to any U.S. deployment of a national missile defense." While the United States can make the case to Russia that the proposed NMD "would not have any capability against their strategic forces," Holum said, "that case is harder to make with respect to China."
Transcript: U.S. Official Discusses Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty 23 March 2000 -- It is in Russia's interest "to avoid putting a U.S. President in a position where he has to choose between defense and the [Anti-Ballistic Missile] Treaty," U.S. State Department official John Holum said. "We can find a third way," Holum suggested, "which is to continue the [ABM] Treaty with modest amendments to allow the defense to proceed."
TEXT OF A LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT March 17, 2000 -- I hereby certify that the United States Government is not implementing the Memorandum of Understanding Relating to the ABM Treaty entered into in New York on September 26, 1997.
3 March 2000 Presentation by the Honorable John D. Holum Senior Adviser for Arms Control and International Security on National Missile Defense and the ABM Treaty. Any amendments to the ABM Treaty will require the cooperationa and support of the Russian Federation.
Ballistic Missile Defense Congressional Policy Advisory Board March 1, 2000 -- We cannot adequately develop, test or deploy such defenses as long as we adhere to the ABM treaty, which prohibits effective missile defense. The President should promptly either invoke Article XV of the treaty and give notice of withdrawal, or clearly announce that the treaty is no longer legally binding on the U.S.
Text: Speech by U.S. Envoy Robert Grey to Conference on Disarmament USIA 17 February 2000 -- U.S. Ambassador Robert Grey said the first priority for the United States in this session will be negotiating a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT). The ambassador also put the U.S. effort to adapt the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty into context.
Bohlen Sees CTBT, Missile Defense as Arms Control Priorities By Ralph Dannheisser USIA 16 February 2000 -- Avis Bohlen, assistant secretary of state for arms control, told a dinner meeting of Women in International Security February 15 that work toward a presidential decision on deploying a National Missile Defense (NMD) system rank highest on the list of priorities.
Transcript: Holum WorldNet on Arms Control, Non-proliferation USIA 15 February 2000 -- In explaining America's motivation to amend the ABM Treaty, Holum noted that it was negotiated almost 30 years ago when the strategic environment was "dramatically different." "No one could envision that there would be the danger of developments of ICBM capabilities and weapons of mass destruction capabilities in third countries, additional countries, that might not be affected by traditional rules of deterrence," he said. "So we need to continuously look at the changing security environment."
Transcript: Albright, Ivanov Press Availability in Moscow USIA 31 January 2000 -- Albright said she and Ivanov spent a considerable amount of time discussing how to maintain "the long-standing strategic benefits" of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty while permitting both countries "to answer growing missile threats from unpredictable
U-S / RUSSIA ARMS Voice of America 27 January 2000 -- Secretary of State Madeleine Albright will discuss proposals for deep cuts in the U-S and Russian nuclear arsenals during her upcoming trip to Moscow. Albright also will seek changes in the U-S Russia treaty that bans anti-missile defense systems.
Spokesperson on the US NMD experiment Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Jan 20, 2000) We have always maintained that the US is the strongest military power in the world and that its violation of the missile defence system in the ABM Treaty will do no good to the global and regional strategic balance and stability.
RUSSIA / U-S Voice of America 23 December 1999 -- U-S Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbot said from his point of view, progress is being made. "We now have reached the stage where high-level experts, including military experts, are grappling with the problem in military/technical specifics."
Transcript: Albright, Ivanov Remarks Before Bilateral in Berlin USIA 17 December 1999 -- We believe that the situation has changed in terms of threat and while the United States has made no decision as yet on national missile defense, we believe that if such a system is put into place, that because of the new threats, it may be necessary to have changes in the
Arms Control -- A Review of 1999 and a Look Ahead to the Year 2000 John Holum, Senior Adviser to the President and Secretary of State for Arms Control, Nonproliferation, Disarmament - Foreign Press Center Briefing Transcript Thursday December 9, 1999 -- It is an accurate statement to say that Russia, as of this point, has not shown overwhelming interest in amending the ABM Treaty. But I think, over time -- I'm hopeful that over time, Russia will see it in its interest, as well as our interest, in not putting the United States in the position of having to choose between a defense against real threats that can be done without defeating the purposes of the ABM Treaty, or leaving the ABM Treaty, in which case there'd be no constraints on the kind of program we would build.
Subject: Defense Ministerials, Dec 2-3, 1999 at NATO Headquarters Background Briefing, December 2, 1999 -- Our position now is that we believe that there is no reason why we should have to face that choice or why the Russians should have to face the consequences of that choice. But that our position and our goal and, indeed, our expectation is that we will be able to reach a resolution of this issue by negotiation.
Arms Control Official on Theater Missile Defensive (TMD) Xinhua 25 November 1999 - "China does not reject the whole concept of TMD". What China opposes is the advanced TMD system which could be employed during National Missile Defensive, Sha Zukang, director of the Arms Control Department of the Foreign Ministry, said, adding that "this will undermine the strategic balance."
Background Briefing Subject: Secretary Cohen's Trip to Europe , November 24, 1999 - You will recall that the ABM Treaty itself has the provisions for missile defense. And you will recall that the Russians have their missile defense. So it can't be the case that having missile defense -- the principle is inconsistent with arms control because the very treaty that people are talking about, has that also.
U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing MONDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1999 -- QUESTION: Is there any reaction to the comments by Colonel - General Vladimir Yakovlev who has said that if a commission were set up between the United States and Russia to examine the threat from rogue states, then it could be discussed in more detail the need to create national anti-missile systems. ... we reject the linkage and we've made very clear we are not going to link the subject of Chechnya to the subject of ABM or the subject of Iraq or any other subject.
EDITORIAL: MEETING THE MISSILE THREAT Voice of America 12 November 1999 -- The U.S. believes that the A-B-M treaty can be modified to permit deployment of a limited national missile defense - by the U.S. and by Russia, too, if it wants to guard against similar threats from rogue states.
ALBRIGHT / MISSILES Voice of America 11 November 1999 -- The U-S secretary of state is issuing a new appeal to Moscow to accept Washington's proposal to modify the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
Official Says U.S. Missile Shield Would Shift Balance of Power By John Pomfret, Washington Post November 11, 1999 -- Sha Zukang, the Foreign Ministry's arms control director, asked "Does this mean that the United States will negotiate treaties only for others, that the United States will expect others to honor all treaty obligations while the United States is free to do anything it wants? Should we assume that the United States monopolizes all the truth in the world?"
Press Center of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia November 10, 1999 -- As it was noted by the President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin, rejection of the key restrictions imposed by the ABM treaty is fraught with the danger of derailing the process of limiting and reducing nuclear weapons. Russia would not want to be a participant of this.
Transcript: Holum, Wolf Worldnet on Nuclear Non-Proliferation 09 November 1999 -- Holum said the amendments the United States seeks will strengthen
rather than weaken or undercut the treaty "because they demonstrate
that this treaty that was negotiated in 1972 can be adjusted, can be
modified to account for new realities, for threats that weren't
contemplated at the time the treaty was negotiated.... What we've
determined from the beginning of this process is that we wouldn't try
to play negotiating games with Russia, that we wouldn't come in and
jack up our negotiating position in order to be able to give away
concessions later on in the process."
Research, deployment of ABM System UnpopularPeople's Daily Sunday, November 07, 1999 -- The research and deployment of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) system goes against the will of the people, according to Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhu Bangzao.
U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing 05 November 1999 -- RUSSIA - We think it is possible to make modest adjustments to the ABM Treaty in such a way that Russia's deterrent is not threatened; that they will still have the capability that their deterrent requires; and it would be possible for us to deploy a system capable of defending the United States against this third-country threat, in a way that allowed the United States and Russia to continue to support a modified ABM Treaty.
DRAFT RESOLUTION CALLING FOR COMPLIANCE WITH 1972 ABM TREATY APPROVED IN DISARMAMENT COMMITTEE BY VOTE OF 54-4-73 Press Release GA/DIS/3161 -- 5 November 1999 -- The United States representative, who had opposed both the draft and the amendments, said an obsolete Treaty did not produce stability; it only created the illusion of stability. The draft resolution on the preservation and compliance with the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems -– the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty was approved by a recorded vote of 54 in favour to 4 against, with 73 abstentions. Against: Federated States of Micronesia, Israel, Latvia, United States.
DRAFT TEXTS IN FIRST COMMITTEE Press Release GA/DIS/3160 - 4 November 1999 -- The representative of France said it was well known that a decision had been taken by certain States to plan for programmes of anti-ballistic national defence. His country was “seriously concerned” by such ballistic proliferation, and was participating in all efforts to combat that tendency, but projects for anti-missile defence were not an appropriate response.
On the ABM Treaty-related Messages by the Russian President November 3, 1999 -- The message by the Russian President draws attention to the alarming situation, fraught with serious negative consequences in the field of international security, that the latest U.S. moves in the ABM field and the real threat to preservation and implementation of the ABM Treaty create.
BACKGROUND BRIEFING BY SENIOR ADMINISTRATION OFFICIAL November 2, 1999 -- Prime Minister Putin provided President Clinton with the signed copy of a letter that President Yeltsin had sent on arms control issues. While on one hand, there have been some strong statements in the press by Russia about their differences and disagreement with an ABM system, at the same time, there's also been serious dialogue.
Russia Says "No" to ABM Treaty Revision People's Daily [Beijing] 28 October 1999 - When US-Russian talks were still being held during the first day at Moscow, people have already come to be aware that the talks were bound to failure.
DoD News Briefing October 26, 1999 -- Our system is not designed and could not in fact counter any attack by the Russians. We assume the Russians will not attack us. They should assume we won't attack them. This is a system that's designed against a totally different threat. We believe the Russians face a similar threat. After all, they are closer to North Korea than we are. They are closer to Iraq than we are.
U-S / RUSSIA Voice of America 26 October 1999 -- U-S Secretary of State Madeleine Albright says Russian officials are overreacting to an administration proposal that would allow the United States to build a new missile defense system.
U-S-RUSSIA MISSILES Voice of America 26 October 1999 -- The Clinton Administration says it intends to pursue dialogue with Russia on a proposed U-S missile-defense system, despite some tough rhetoric from Moscow about the implications of the program.
PRESS BRIEFING BY JOE LOCKHART October 26, 1999 -- I would discourage you from jumping to the conclusion that a statement or two represents the Russian position. We are talking to them at the appropriate levels, and those conversations are ongoing.
China Against Attempt to Amend ABM Treaty People's Daily [Beijing] 22 October 1999 - China voiced strong opposition to any attempt by the US to amend the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, which remains a cornerstone for the maintenance of global strategic balance and stability in the world today.
REVIEW OF THE START-3 AND ABM TREATIES October 22, 1999 -- The Russian side has proceeded from the assumption that further strategic arms cuts are only possible on the condition that the ABM Treaty, which is essential to the entire disarmament process, remains inviolable and that if this Treaty is broken, all the START talks will become meaningless.
TEXT CALLING FOR PRESERVATION OF ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSLE TREATY INTRODUCED IN FIRST COMMITTEE BY RUSSIAN FEDERATION
21 October 1999 Press Release GA/DIS/3150 -- The representative of the Russian Federation introduced a draft resolution by which the General Assembly would call for renewed efforts by the Russian Federation and the United States to preserve and strengthen their 1972 Treaty that limits the development of anti-ballistic missle systems. Under draft resolution A/C.1/54/L.1, there should be no deployment by either party to the Treaty of anti-ballistic missile defence systems for a defence of their territory and no provision of a base for such defence, and that there should be no transfer by the parties to other States of anti-ballistic missile systems or their components limited by the Treaty. It was a false notion that the Russian Federation was ready to discuss review of the ABM Treaty, much less its core provision, article I. According to article I, the parties undertook not to deploy ABM systems for a defence of the territory of their countries and not to provide a base for such a defence. The representative of China said that in seeking its own absolute security and strategic advantage, a State party to the Treaty was not only vigorously pursuing its own national missile defence programme, but was pressing rapidly ahead with its joint theatre missile defence development programme with some other countries. Certainly, once an amendment had been made, there could be many more to come as a result of so-called changes in the situation, he said. Ultimately, that would render the Treaty virtually ineffective and “empty talk”.
PRESS BRIEFING BY JOE LOCKHART October 21, 1999 -- We believe that the ABM treaty is the cornerstone of our strategic strategy. It is a very important treaty. We also believe that, due to the development and increasing threat of rogue states with ballistic missiles, that we need to move forward or to look at the feasibility of a national missile defense.
U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing
THURSDAY, OCTOBER 21, 1999 -- Our view is that the ABM Treaty remains a cornerstone of strategic stability. We are committed to work with Russia to negotiate changes to the ABM Treaty required for possible deployment of a National Missile Defense, and to make progress on further strategic arms reductions.
DoD News Briefing Thursday, October 21, 1999 -- We've talked to [the Russians] about a range of possible cooperative ventures that we think would do two things: one, would prove to them that our national missile defense system is not aimed at them, it's aimed at an entirely different, and much smaller, threat than the Russians would present if they were to threaten us; and two, we're trying to convince them that we can both benefit by cooperating in dealing with this threat because it's a threat against them as well as against us. What we are worried about are so-called rogue nations -- or terrorists that might not be subject to the same persuasive powers of deterrence that have worked with Russia and the United States for so long.
U-S-RUSSIA ARMS Voice of America 21 October 1999 -- The Clinton Administration says it is not giving up its efforts to persuade Russia to agree to modify the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty despite Moscow's chilly response to U-S overtures on the issue.
PRESS BRIEFING BY JOE LOCKHART October 20, 1999 -- We have made clear, I think, since the beginning of talking about
national missile defense -- in the Reagan administration there was a sense
that this was an effort that should be cooperative to allow -- particularly
when you're dealing with the threat from rogue states.
USIA Foreign Press Center DoD News Briefing Wednesday, October 20, 1999 -- We think the ABM treaty is a fundamental building block of arms control. We want the treaty to continue, but the treaty allows for review and for change and we believe that some changes are appropriate to allow us and Russia to address new threats. We think that Russia faces some of the same threats we do from emerging nuclear powers, who may not respond to deterrence in the same way that Russia and the United States have.
TRANSCRIPT OF PRESS BRIEFING Press Center of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, October 20, 1999 -- As for the concrete Russian position regarding that key international document, the 1972 ABM Treaty, I would like to stress that Russia is not engaged in any bargaining over this treaty. We are not conducting any negotiations on any amendments to the ABM Treaty, especially amendments that would alter its key provision banning any deployment of national ABM defenses or creating any basis for such defenses.
U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing 19 October 1999 -- In recent discussions regarding our National Missile Defense program and its implication for the ABM Treaty, we have put forward a number of ideas for discussion, relating to practical US-Russian cooperation in the area of missile defense and the ABM Treaty.
Transcript: Albright Interview on CNN Sunday on Foreign Policy USIA 17 October 1999 -- Secretary of State Madeleine Albright said the United States believes it is time to take another look at the ABM Treaty and "the possibility of adjusting it slightly in order to be able to have a National Missile Defense, because we are concerned about the potential threat from some of the rogue states."
U.S. Seeking to Renegotiate a Landmark Missile Treaty By MICHAEL R. GORDON The New York Times 17 October 1999 -- The United States is now offering to help Russia complete a large missile tracking radar at Mishelevka, 60 miles northwest of Irkutsk. Washington has also suggested that it might upgrade a Russian-controlled radar at Lyaki in Azerbaijan. But the proposal has yet to be negotiated with the Government of Azerbaijan, and key details about American access to Russian radar data have not been worked out. Other proposals include Russian visits to American early warning radar stations and, perhaps, access to their data. American officials have also proposed joint computer simulations of antimissile systems and collaboration in deploying satellite systems.
Preservation of and compliance with the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty Draft Resolution A/C.1/54/L.1 14 October 1999 - Calls for renewed efforts by each of the States parties to preserve and
strengthen the ABM Treaty through full and strict compliance and, in this
context, reiterates that there shall be no deployment of anti-ballistic
missile systems for a defence of the territory of its country and no
provision of a base for such defence, and that there shall be no transfer
by the parties to other States of anti-ballistic missile systems or their
components limited by the Treaty;
PRESS CONFERENCE BY THE PRESIDENT October 14, 1999 --
I do not want to throw the ABM treaty away. I do think it is the responsible thing to do to continue to pursue what appears to be far more promising than many had thought -- including me a few years ago -- in terms of missile defense.
RUSSIAN FEDERATION WARNS OF RETURN TO ‘COLD WAR’ DIALOGUE, AS FIRST COMMITTEE CONTINUES DISARMAMENT DEBATE Press Release GA/DIS/3142 --
13 October 1999 -- SERGEY V. LAVROV (Russian Federation) said the process of strategic arms reduction and limitation would have the most promising prospects under conditions of strategic stability. He said all those achievements and prospects were directly connected to the observance of the central element of the ABM Treaty -- not to deploy an ABM system on the territory of either country and not to create a base for such a defence. Attempts to revise and infringe that central provision would, in fact, undermine the Treaty. In such a case, the observance of the START I and START II would become impossible. The representative of China said that the vigorous development and proliferation of advanced missile-defence systems would “poison the atmosphere” and risk a more advanced arms race.
Statement of the Russian Foreign Ministry Representative October 7th, 1999 -- On October 2, 1999 the United States carried out a flight test of an anti-missile against a Minuteman strategic ballistic missile with a dummy warhead within the framework of its program of creating a national ABM system. This test is a step that runs counter to the 1972 ABM Treaty in which Article 1 bans the very creation of a basis for such a defense.
U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing 04 October 1999 -- I don't think we're prepared to discuss in public right now precisely what changes we'd need to make. So there are a number of issues related to the location of the initial deployment if the decision is made and a number of other issues that have to be addressed.
Dole's Top Priority: Missile Defense By David Von Drehle Washington Post September 28, 1999 -- Dole said it is time to abandon the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which restricts the development of defensive systems.
A Deal With Russia On Arms Control? By Sam Nunn, Brent Scowcroft, and Arnold Kanter Boston Globe September 13, 1999 -- Missile defenses against the weapons of mass destruction threat posed by rogue states can be made perfectly consistent with the spirit and purposes of the ABM treaty. Our missiles defenses not only would not be aimed at Russia, they are not even about Russia. Even if we wanted to, we could not now deploy the kind of highly effective missile defenses that actually could render the Russian deterrent impotent.
These changes include relaxing treaty constraints on sensors (especially space-based sensors) and on research and development so that sea-based, space-based, and mobile missile defenses can be thoroughly assessed. Finally, the duration of the ABM treaty needs to be set for a fixed period of time rather than remain in force indefinitely.
Subject: SecDef's Trip to Russia September 10, 1999 --
That general process of engagement on the needed modification of the ABM Treaty to accommodate limited NMD deployment should the United States decide to proceed with such deployment has been resuming over these last few weeks and will continue in the weeks ahead.
Transcript: Albright, Ivanov Press Conference in New Zealand, 9/10 USIA 10 September 1999 -- U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright told reporters that they would be covering a broad range of "vital" topics during their discussions, including meeting the threat of missile attacks by rogue nations, maintaining the strategic benefits of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, and reducing the size of each side's nuclear arsenals.
U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing 09 September 1999 -- It is now clear that deployment would require changes to the ABM treaty. We anticipate that any initial national missile defense deployment would be Alaska-based and we have made no decisions regarding the location of a second site, but our long-term goal includes a second site along with additional interceptors and radars.
RUSSIA / U-S ARMS (L ONLY)Voice of America 08 September 1999 --
Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott is in
Moscow for preliminary talks on arms reduction
agreements. Negotiations will focus on reducing nuclear
stockpiles and a U-S request for changes in the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
U.S. To Go Slowly On Treaty By Bradley Graham
Washington Post September 8, 1999 -- President Clinton has decided to ask Russia to agree initially to relatively modest changes in the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. Administration officials said the gradual approach would improve the chances of reaching an agreement before presidential elections next year in both countries. As the missile threat is perceived to grow and as U.S. technologies improve, officials said, the United States would seek further treaty amendments.
RUSSIA / U-S Voice of America 20 August 1999 -- An influential Russian general has accused the
United States of dictating terms to Russia on proposed
changes in the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty. Colonel-General
Leonid Ivashov suggested U-S arrogance could doom a new round of strategic arms talks.
PRESS BRIEFING BY NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR SANDY BERGER June 20, 1999 -- The two Presidents agreed that they will resume discussions on START III and on the ABM Treaty in the fall. Now, this is very significant because for the first time the Russians have agreed to discuss changes in the ABM Treaty that may be necessitated by a national missile defense system were we to decide to deploy one. And President Yeltsin said he wanted the ministers to report back to the Presidents by July 30th; that if we left things only to the experts, nothing would get done, and he wanted to maintain personal control of this.
RUSSIA / MISSILE DEFENSE Voice of America 18 March 1999 -- RUSSIA HAS DENOUNCED A U-S PROPOSAL TO BUILD A MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM. A FOREIGN MINISTRY STATEMENT SHARPLY CRITICIZED THE U-S LEGISLATION AUTHORIZING A NATIONWIDE DEFENSE AGAINST A LIMITED
BALLISTIC MISSILE ATTACK.
Resurrecting ABM Pam Holt Christian Science Monitor FEBRUARY 4, 1999 -- The US is confronted with a particularly difficult trade-off: accept the threat of proliferation or upset relations with two major powers. Either of these powers is more important than any half dozen of the countries against which the ABM is aimed.
U-S MISSILE DEFENSEVoice of America 01 February 1999 -- PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE 1972 ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE TREATY SIGNED BY THE UNITED STATES AND THE
FORMER SOVIET UNION. THE PROPOSAL HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF PUBLIC
DEBATE AND EDITORIAL OPINION IN AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS.
ALBRIGHT/RUSSIA UPDATE Voice of America 26 January 1999 -- RUSSIAN LEADERS HELD THEIR GROUND IN
OPPOSING A U-S REQUEST TO AMEND THE 1972 ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE TREATY.
RUSSIA / ALBRIGHT Voice of America 26 January 1999 -- ALBRIGHT'S TALKS HAVE REVEALED A STARTLING NUMBER OF RUSSIAN MISPERCEPTIONS ABOUT U-S POLICY, ESPECIALLY ON THE REQUEST TO OVERHAUL THE 1972 ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE TREATY.
RUSSIA/ALBRIGHT WRAP Voice of America 26 January 1999 -- DESPITE MS. ALBRIGHT'S BEST EFFORTS, RUSSIAN OFFICIALS REMAIN ADAMANTLY OPPOSED TO A U-S REQUEST TO OVERHAUL THE ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE TREATY. FOREIGN MINISTER IGOR IVANOV SAID AMENDING THE
ACCORD COULD UNDO THE ENTIRE ARMS CONTROL PROCESS.
RUSSIA/ALBRIGHTVoice of America 25 January 1999 -- A SENIOR RUSSIAN DEFENSE OFFICIAL MONDAY ACCUSED THE UNITED STATES OF VIOLATING BOTH THE A-B-M TREATY AND THE "START ONE"
NUCLEAR ARMS REDUCTION AGREEMENT.
missile defense plan draws global fire Jonathan S. Landay , Christian Science Monitor, January 25, 1999 -- While disarming Republicans of an issue they have long championed and wanted to use against Vice President Al Gore's presidential bid, Clinton has ignited new frictions with Russia and China that some experts warn could undermine nuclear-arms control efforts.
RUSSIA / ALBRIGHT Voice of America 25 January 1999 -- RUSSIAN LEADERS ARE ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT THE U-S REQUEST TO RENEGOTIATE THE 1972 ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE TREATY.
RUSSIA / ALBRIGHT Voice of America 24 January 1999 -- PRESIDENT CLINTON LAST WEEK REQUESTED AN OVERHAUL OF THE A-B-M TREATY TO ALLOW FOR A MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM SIMILAR TO THE STAR WARS IDEA PROPOSED BY FORMER PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN. THAT
REQUEST WAS SEEN BY MANY ANALYSTS IN MOSCOW AS A SIGN THE UNITED
STATES HAS ABANDONED HOPE THAT RUSSIA'S PARLIMENT WILL EVER
RATIFY THE START TWO ACCORD.
TRANSCRIPT: HOLUM SAYS U.S. WANTS TO ADJUST ABM ACCORD USIA 21 January 1999 -- Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs John Holum says the United States views the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty "as a flexible, living document that should be susceptible to modification as the international environment changes."
CLINTON / YELTSIN / ABM Voice of America 21 January 1999 -- PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS WRITTEN TO RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN TO LET HIM KNOW THE UNITED STATES IS CONSIDERING FUNDING AN ANTI-MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM TO PROTECT AGAINST A MISSILE
ATTACK BY A ROGUE NATION.
"Toward A New Nuclear Policy: Reducing The Threat To American Lives" Senator Bob Kerrey (D-NE) Prepared Text -- Speech to the Council on Foreign Relations -- 17 November 1998 -- " ... our old policies of arms control and deterrence no longer work and may be increasing the danger, both by making nuclear threats worse and by diverting money and resources ... The policy of Mutual Assured Destruction, or deterrence, protected us from the old threat -- deliberate attack. But it does not protect us from these new ones. In fact, I will argue, it makes them worse. The underlying assumption of deterrence is rational behavior on the other side. None of these potential new nuclear powers ... can be counted on to respond rationally to the threat of retaliation.... the president should agree with Republican leadership to build a defined, rigorously tested strategic missile defense. He should make clear to Russia's leaders we would build it for accidental and rogue nation threats."
FINAL SET OF ABM-TREATY RELATED AGREEMENTS SIGNED IN GENEVA By Wendy Lubetkin USIA 13 October 1998 -- Completion of a final set of agreements related to the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty may help pave the way for START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) II ratification by Russia's
parliament the Duma, according to a U.S. official.
Overcoming the ABM Treaty: Paths to National Missile Defense Joseph Keenan, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL - JUNE 1998 - Some of the most heated debates taking place on Capitol Hill surround a proposed American national missile defense system. The debate is not new. For twenty years, the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and its underlying acceptance of mutual assured destruction (MAD) enjoyed widespread support among U.S. leaders. Events of the early 1990s shook support for America's "no missile defense" posture to its very core. The fall of the Soviet Union, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missile technology, and the Gulf War presented new challenges to existing strategic doctrine. As a result, a renewed push for a U.S. National Missile Defense (NMD) system began in earnest, and a new round of debates began over the utility of the bilateral ABM Treaty in a multilateral post-Cold War international environment
ARMS CONTROL / BERGER 05 May 1998 - Voice of America -- PRESIDENT CLINTON'S NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR SANDY BERGER IS URGING THE U-S SENATE TO RATIFY SEVERAL ARMS CONTROL TREATIES -- WARNING THAT DELAYING ACTION WOULD PROMPT RUSSIA TO STALL FURTHER CUTS IN STRATEGIC WEAPONS.
Report on the Helsinki Joint Statement April 23, 1998 -
TEXT OF A LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT TO THE CHAIRMEN AND
RANKING MEMBERS OF THE SENATE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES
AND THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY
Victor Koltunov on the ABM and TMD Issues Yaderny Kontrol Digest No.7. Spring 1998.
CONGRESS / NATO THERE IS LANGUAGE IN THE BILL THAT MIGHT CREATE PROBLEMS FOR THE WHITE HOUSE -- MOST NOTABLY, A PROVISION THAT CALLS INTO QUESTION THE FATE OF THE ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE (A-B-M) TREATY. IT SAYS THIS IS A BILATERAL TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA, AND THERE IS NO NEED TO BRING IN OTHER FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS. SUPPORTERS OF WHILE THE REST OF THE BILL WOULD BE BINDING ON THE PRESIDENT, THIS SECTION WOULD NOT. Voice of America 4/24/97
SENATE MAJORITY LEADER HOLDS REGULAR NEWS BRIEFING APRIL 10, 1997 SPEAKERS: U.S. SENATOR TRENT LOTT (R-MS) From: Melinda Lamont-Havers Subject: Lott Press Conference Thu, 10 Apr 1997 16:51:42 -0400 "LOTT: ..... they were going to send up two of the three treaties, the conventional forces in Europe treaty, the demarcation issue with regards to ABM. They still don't agree with us on multi-lateralization where the former Soviet Union countries have been, you know, involved. But they are separate countries now. We think that the Senate should consider that since there are additional countries being involved not just Russia. So, we'll continue to discuss that one but they are indicating they are going to send two out of three."
[EXCERPTS] Remarks as Delivered Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen Navy League Exposition Washington, D.C. Thursday, March 27, 1997. The secretary outlined some of the security decisions made by President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin at their recent summit in Helsinki, including decisions involving START II and START III, and the ABM Treaty. He noted that "both Presidents reaffirmed the significance of the ABM Treaty and they reached an agreement that gives a green light to the deployment of theater missile defenses that we need to protect our troops in the field from ballistic missile attacks."
[LETTER FROM BERGER TO LOTT] "... the Administration is prepared ... to agree to seek Senate advice and consent to the "Part 1" ASD following signature in the SCC. A "Part 2" demarcation agreement on "higher velocity" TMD systems (i.e., those with missile interceptor speeds above 3 km/sec) will be completed in the SCC based on the Helsinki Summit Joint Statement. ... the Administration is prepared now to assure you that we will also submit the "Part 2" demarcation agreement for the advice and consent of the Senate once it is signed." March 25, 1997
White House Denies GOP Charge Missile Pact Will Hurt U.S. By Bill Gertz THE WASHINGTON TIMES, page A6 Tuesday, 25 March 1997 "The Clinton administration yesterday defended its summit agreement with Russia on missile defenses from Republican critics who say it will slow efforts to build systems that knock out short-range missiles fired at U.S. troops overseas."
[EXCERPTS] TRANSCRIPT: COHEN, MILLON 3/25 PRESS BRIEFING Washington -- Secretary of Defense William Cohen said March 25 that at the Helsinki summit between President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin, the United States "did not give up anything that would impede" its ability to conduct theater missile defense testing systems.
WHITE HOUSE DAILY BRIEFING, MARCH 24, 1997 PRESS BRIEFING BY MIKE MCCURRY. "MCCURRY: ...the specificity that you just heard [from Bob Bell] on some of the questions related to arms control issues, the ABM and TMD issues in particular, will be something the President will address as he talks to the [Congressional] leadership."
Review & Outlook Another ABM Giveaway? The Wall Street Journal -- March 24, 1997 "Bill Clinton returned from the Helsinki summit Saturday claiming significant achievements. On closer inspection, they are not altogether evident. The most important issue discussed with Russian President Boris Yeltsin was nuclear missiles and missile defense, and it is here that the agreement reached was the most ambiguous."
JOINT STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILE TREATY President Clinton and President Yeltsin, expressing their commitment to strengthening strategic stability and international security, emphasizing the importance of further reductions in strategic offensive arms, and recognizing the fundamental significance of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty for these objectives as well as the necessity for effective theater missile defense (TMD) systems, consider it their common task to preserve the ABM Treaty, prevent circumvention of it, and enhance its viability.
[EXCERPTS] BACKGROUND BRIEFING BY A SENIOR ADMINISTRATION OFFICIAL THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary (Helsinki, Finland) March 21, 1997
The senior official also indicated that a few issues remained unresolved regarding Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty issues, and that President Yeltsin put forth "certain ideas" regarding anti-ballistic missile and theater-missile defense (ABM-TMD) "that we basically could not accept."
[EXCERPTS] PRESS BRIEFING BY SECRETARY ALBRIGHT AND NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISOR SANDY BERGER The Briefing Room THE WHITE HOUSE March 18, 1997 BERGER: "We believe that START II ought to proceed to ratification in the Duma without regard to any lingering disputes with respect to ABM-TMD demarkation ... ....... we've made it very clear that we believe that the theater missile systems that we are developing are consistent with the ABM treaty, and that we intend to proceed with those systems, and that we don't believe that they do violate the ABM treaty."
Study Opposes Widened Accord Clinton administration efforts to expand the number of signers of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty will create a "roadblock" to building a national missile-defense system within the treaty, U.S. and Russian experts told a Senate panel yesterday. By Bill Gertz THE WASHINGTON TIMES - PAGE A6/ FRIDAY, MARCH 14,1997