Many international bodies are actively working on biosecurity issues and often provide a fresh perspective. Any solutions aimed at minimizing the risk of research being used for malevolent purposes require collaboration with foreign governments and the international biological research community. These organizations provide information on their efforts to prepare for public health emergencies associated with biological agents as well as information on biosecurity and international efforts to control bioweapons proliferation.
Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy
Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7503 8857
"The Acronym Institute works with policy makers and non-governmental organisations to promote non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament by disseminating information and maximising negotiating opportunities in all available fora. When arms control measures become blocked, as at present on treaty ratification and the proposed ban on the production of fissile materials, the Acronym Institute will work to promote constructive dialogue and alternative approaches."
"The Australia Group is an informal arrangement which aims to allow exporting or transshipping countries to minimise the risk of assisting chemical and biological weapon (CBW) proliferation." "The principal objective of members of the Australia Group is...to ensure, through licensing measures on the export of certain chemicals, biological agents, and dual-use chemical and biological manufacturing facilities and equipment, that exports of these items from their countries do not contribute to the spread of CBW."
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Website
The website is "a factual compendium of information on the BTWC [Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention], its Review Conferences and the ongoing efforts to strengthen the regime. Deliberate disease - whether against humans, animals, or plants - is totally prohibited by this Convention. The ongoing efforts to strengthen the regime would over time increase transparency and build confidence between States Parties that they are in compliance with the obligations of the Convention."
BioWeapons Prevention Project
Avenue de Secheron 12
Telephone: +41 (0) 22 908 5834
"The BioWeapons Prevention Project (BWPP) is a new global civil society activity that aims to strengthen the norm against using disease as a weapon. It was initiated by a group of non-governmental organizations concerned at the failure of governments to act. The BWPP tracks governmental and other behaviour that is pertinent to compliance with international treaties and other agreements, especially those that outlaw hostile use of biotechnology. The project works to reduce the threat of bioweapons by monitoring and reporting throughout the world. BWPP supports and is supported by a global network of partners."
| British American Security Information Council
The Grayston Centre, 2nd Floor
28 Charles Square
London N1 6HT
Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7324 4680
"BASIC is a progressive and independent analysis and advocacy organization which researches and provides a critical examination of global security issues, including nuclear policies, military strategies, armaments and disarmament. BASIC assists in the development of global security policies, policy-making and the assessment of policy priorities, and promotes public awareness and understanding of these policies and of policy-making in Europe and the US." The strategic goal of BASIC's Biological Weapons Program is "to increase public awareness in the United States and Europe of the problems and dangers of BW proliferation and the opportunities for developing national, regional and global responses."
| Crisis and Risk Network
Center for Security Studies
CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Telephone: +41 (0) 44 632 07 55
"The Crisis and Risk Network CRN (the former Comprehensive Risk Analysis and Management Network) is an initiative for international dialog on security risks and vulnerabilities, risk analysis and management, emergency preparedness, and crisis management. Through the interchange of views, the CRN helps to promote a better understanding of the complex challenges and opportunities confronting the risk community today and serves to establish a collaborative relationship and exchange among likeminded experts." CRN's Handbook on Biodefense Policies compares how select countries and international organizations politically and strategically approrach biodefense.
| European Group for Non-Proliferation Studies
Albert Peeterslei 53
Telephone: +32 (0) 3 677 2517
"The European Group for Non-Proliferation Studies is an independent research group committed to monitoring bio-security regulation and bio-safety standards within the European Union...As an independent, policy based group, the EGNPS provides research support for biological security policy to academics, decision-makers, policy analysts, government and industry experts. Specializing in biological weapons policy and non-proliferation issues, the EGNPS will bring together a core group of specialists to regularly review European bio-safety and security policy, report on non-compliance and areas of bio-safety concern."
| European Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General
DG Health and Consumer Protection
Telephone: +32 (0) 2 299 9696
"The Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General is pleased to present the Health-EU Portal (the official public health portal of the European Union) and the wide range of information and data on health-related issues and activities at both European and international level. The main objective of this thematic Portal is to provide European citizens with easy access to comprehensive information on Public Health initiatives and programmes at EU level. The portal is intended to help meet EU objectives in the Public Health field, it is an important instrument to positively influence behaviour and promote the steady improvement of public health in the 25 EU Member States."
| Gene Watch UK
The Mill House
Derbyshire SK17 8LN
Telephone: +44 (0) 12 9887 1898
"GeneWatch UK believes that it is only with increased awareness of the potential abuses of genetic technologies amongst both scientists and civil society that the development of biological weapons can be avoided. As well as general awareness, institutional scrutiny to avoid possible abuses has to be cemented in international law."
Avenue de la Paix 11a
Telephone: +41 22 908 5932
"The Geneva Forum is a joint initiative of the Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva (QUNO), the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), and the Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies (PSIS) of the Graduate Institute of International Studies. Our overarching objective is to contribute to international peace and security by building partnerships among and between governments, international organisations and NGOs on disarmament and arms control issues of common concern. The work of the Geneva Forum comprises three main tracks: building agendas around new and emerging issues in arms control and disarmament; supporting ongoing arms control and disarmament negotiations; [and] promoting the implementation of arms control and disarmament agreements."
|Harvard University and
University of Sussex
Harvard Sussex Program on Chemical and Biological Warfare
SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research
University of Sussex
BN1 9QE, UK
Telephone: +44 (0) 12 7367 8172
"The Harvard Sussex Program (HSP) exists in order to increase the contribution of scholarship to the formation of public policy on issues involving chemical/biological warfare (CBW) and its underlying technologies. University-based research, publication, other forms of international communication, and training of young people are the means HSP uses to this end. HSP also promotes frameworks of study, both national and international, that bring together scientists and other scholars with officials of governmental and intergovernmental bodies."
|InterAcademy Panel on International Issues
Strada Costiera 11
Telephone: +39 040 2240-680
"IAP is a global network of the world's science academies, launched in 1993. Its primary goal is to help member academies work together to advise citizens and public officials on the scientific aspects of critical global issues. IAP is particularly interested in assisting young and small academies achieve these goals and, through the communication links and networks created by IAP activities, all academies will be able to raise both their public profile among citizens and their influence among policy makers." The organization's "biosecurity initiative focuses on the potential impact of biosciences research on our global society and, particularly, on the risks associated with the misuse of such research. In 2004 the IAP appointed a working group on biosecurity. This group was asked to develop a statement of principles that could guide IAP member academies and other scientific bodies in developing appropriate biosecurity codes of conduct."
| International Coalition of the Red Cross
19 avenue de la Paix
CH 1202 Geneva
Telephone: +41 (0) 22 734 6001
"The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral and independent organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance." According to the ICRC, "developments in biotechnology have the potential to benefit people world-wide. Yet they may also be put to hostile uses as weapons of war or weapons which spread terror. The ICRC initiative on Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity was prompted by the need to reduce the risk that biotechnology will be used to the detriment of humanity. It is intended to promote serious reflection on the risks, rules and responsibilities related to advances in this area."
| International Council for Science
51 Bd de Montmorency
Telephone: +33 (0) 14 525 0329
"In order to strengthen international science for the benefit of society, International Council for Science (ICSU) mobilizes the knowledge and resources of the international science community to: identify and address major issues of importance to science and society; facilitate interaction amongst scientists across all disciplines and from all countries; promote the participation of all scientists...regardless of race, citizenship, language, political stance, or gender...in the international scientific endeavour; [and] provide independent, authoritative advice to stimulate constructive dialogue between the scientific community and governments, civil society, and the private sector."
| International Institute for Strategic Studies
13-15 Arundel Street, Temple Place
London WC2R 3DX
Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7379 7676
"The IISS was founded in 1958 in the UK by a number of individuals interested in how to maintain civilised international relations in the nuclear age...The Institute grew dramatically during the 1980s and 1990s, expanding both because of the nature of its work and its geographical scope. Its mandate became to look at the problems of conflict, however caused, that might have an important military content. This gave fresh impetus to the Institute as it began to cover more comprehensively political and military issues in all continents. As this mandate developed, the Institute worked hard both to provide the best information and analysis on strategic trends, and to facilitate contacts between government leaders, business people and analysts that would lead to the development of better public policy in the fields of international relations and international security."
| International Peace Bureau
41, Rue de Zurich
Telephone: + 41 (0) 22 731 6429
"The International Peace Bureau (IPB) is an international non-governmental peace organisation. It exists to serve the cause of peace by the promotion of General and Complete Disarmament; the non-violent solution of conflicts; and international cooperation. Members of the IPB commit themselves to working together as a network; to sharing ideas, information and resources; and to the creation of joint projects."
| International Science and Technology Center
9, Luganskaya Ulitsa
Telephone: +7 (0) 09 5797 6010
"The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the nonproliferation of weapons and technologies of mass destruction. Founded in 1992 by International Agreement by the European Union, Japan, Russian Federation, and the United States of America, the ISTC coordinates the efforts of numerous governments, international organizations, and private sector industries, providing weapons scientists from Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States new opportunities to redirect their talents towards peaceful scientific research."
200, quai Charles de Gaulle
Interpol "facilitates cross-border police co-operation, and supports and assists all organizations, authorities, and services whose mission is to prevent or combat international crime." Directly resulting from "a grant of nearly one million dollars from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Secretary General Ronald K. Noble has been able to create a dedicated unit at the Interpol General Secretariat in Lyon, France. This unit will develop a programme to build national and international capacity to counter the threat of bioterrorism. This bioterrorism programme will: raise awareness of the threat; develop police training programmes; strengthen efforts to enforce existing legislation; promote the development of new legislation; [and,] encourage inter-agency co-operation on bioterrorism."
| NATO Security through Science Programme
Public Diplomacy Division
Bd. Leopold III
Telephone: +32 (0) 2 707 4111
"The NATO Programme for Security Through Science offers support for international collaboration between scientists of the countries of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council or the Mediterranean Dialogue. Awards are made following consideration of applications received from individual scientists in these countries. The aim of the Security Through Science programme is to contribute to security, stability and solidarity among nations by applying cutting-edge science to problem solving. Research topics supported are in areas of Defence Against Terrorism, or Countering Other Threats to Security; partner-country priorities are also taken into account."
|Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
International Futures Program
2, rue Andr Pascal
F-75775 Paris Cedex 16
Telephone: +33 1 45 24 82 00
"The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is a unique forum where the governments of 30 market democracies come together to address the economic, social and governance challenges of the globalising world economy, as well as to exploit its opportunities. The Organisation has been actively involved in biotechnology for more than 20 years." Created by the
International Futures Program of the OECD, this site "is dedicated to providing an active resource of global information on oversight mechanisms - particularly codes-of-conduct for the biosciences research community to help advance these efforts and promote responsible oversight of the biosciences."
| Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
P.O. Box 19121
1000 GC Amsterdam
Telephone: +31 (0) 20 5510700
"The Academy's mission is to ensure the quality of scientific research in the Netherlands. The main functions of the Academy include: advising the government on matters related to scientific research; assessing the quality of scientific research (peer review); providing a forum for the scientific world and promoting international scientific cooperation; and acting as an umbrella organisation for the institutes primarily engaged in basic and strategic scientific research and disseminating information." This Academy and other national academies of sciences around the world endorse the InterAcademy Panel Statement on Biosecurity.
| Royal Society
6-9 Carlton House Terrace
London SW1Y 5AG
Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7451 2500
"Pursuing excellence in science by encouraging and supporting the best individual scientists to practise and communicate, and by providing the highest quality independent scientific advice" is the mission of the Royal Society. "How to reduce the threat from biological weapons has been of longstanding importance to the Royal Society, and recent global events have caused it to rise on the list of both public and Government priorities. Information on a range of issues associated with biological weapons, including the role that science and scientists play, international agreements, providing countermeasures and tools for monitoring" is available here."
| Russian American Nuclear Security Advisory Council
1025 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: (202) 332-1412
The Russian American Nuclear Security Advisory Council (RANSAC) has been renamed the Partnership for Global Security. Click the above link to see the new entry.
| Russian BW Monitor
27 Colmore Row
Birmingham B3 2EW
"The principal mission of the Russian BW Monitor is to make a critical contribution to global security by reducing the threat posed by biological weapons proliferation in the Former Soviet Union. The Russian BW Monitor seeks to disseminate independent news and analysis relating to historical biological weapons programmes and associated international threat reduction initiatives in the Former Soviet Union. Access will be provided to a range of primary source material which has been accumulated by Monitor researchers in the past two decades. This includes the provision of extended summaries of historical documents relating to civil and military biopharmaceutical programmes, sourced from the Russian archives."
| Security and Defence Agenda
137 rue Belliard
Telephone: +32 (0) 2 737 9148
"The Security and Defence Agenda (SDA) has established itself as the only regular forum in Brussels where NATO and the EU, industries and academia, political figures and journalists gather to discuss the future of European and transatlantic defence policies. The SDA also serves as a networking centre of defence-related think tanks around Europe."
| Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
SE-169 70 Solna
Telephone: +46 (0) 8 655 9700
"The objectives of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's research are: to promote transparency in security and arms control; to contribute to conflict prevention and resolution; [and] to disseminate information to the broader public." Its "CBW Project studies developments relating to actual, alleged or potential uses of chemical and biological methods of warfare and the associated weapons and technologies...The aim of the project is to advance efforts to establish and maintain effective and fair measures to prevent the hostile use of biological and chemical technologies, whether by states or by terrorist and criminal organizations."
| United Nations and Global Security
United Nations Foundation
1225 Connecticut Ave. NW
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: (202) 887-9040
"The United Nations Foundation (UN Foundation) - as a chief supporter of the UN and its mission - has launched an initiative with a number of partners worldwide, United Nations and Global Security," that aims both to support fresh intellectual contributions to the dialogue surrounding the challenges facing the UN and to enlarge the circles of informed citizens who actively follow and contribute to that debate."
| United Nations
Department for Disarmament Affairs
Monitoring, Database, and Information, DDA
S-3151 United Nations
New York, New York 10017
Fax: (212) 963-1121
"The Department [for Disarmament Affairs] promotes the goal of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and the strengthening of the disarmament regimes in respect to other weapons of mass destruction, chemical and biological weapons. It also promotes disarmament efforts in the area of conventional weapons, especially land mines and small arms, which are the weapons of choice in contemporary conflicts." The site also includes the resource "Status of Multilateral Arms Regulation and Disarmament Agreements," which contains the text and current status of significant treaties.
| United Nations
Institute for Disarmament Research
Palais des Nations
1211 Geneva 10
Telephone: +41 (0) 22 917 3186
"The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) - an inter-governmental organization within the United Nations - conducts research on disarmament and security with the aim of assisting the international community in their disarmament thinking, decisions and efforts...The Institute's activities encompass diverse realities - from the intricacy of global diplomacy to local entrenched tensions and violent conflicts. UNIDIR explores both current and future security issues, examining topics as varied as tactical nuclear weapons, refugee security, computer warfare, regional confidence-building measures, and small arms."
University of Bradford
Bradford Disarmament Research Centre
Department of Peace Studies
University of Bradford
Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP
Telephone: +44 (0) 12 7423 4187
The Bradford Disarmament Research Centre is within the University of Bradford s Department of Peace Studies. Following an initiative by the Society of Friends the Department of Peace Studies was established in 1973 and it has grown to become arguably the leading academic centre for the study of peace and conflict in the world. It has an international reputation for research excellence and was awarded a maximum score in the most recent national audit of its teaching quality."
| University of Exeter
Biological Weapons & Codes of Conduct
Exeter EX4 4RJ
Telephone: +44 (0) 13 9226 3353
"This web site aims to provide resources for those considering the place, purpose and prospects of codes of conduct. It includes a chronology of past discussions about codes for bioscientists, notice of relevant events, publications and references information, and links to key organizations. It has been established as part of a research project undertaken by Brian Rappert (University of Exeter) and Malcolm Dando (University of Bradford) funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council New Security Challenges Programme entitled 'Coding Research: Biological Weapons, Security & the Silencing of Science'."
Univeristy of Hamburg
Hamburg Centre for Biological Weapons and Arms Control
Telephone: +49 (0)40 42803-6312/6313
"The Centre was founded in the Summer of 2003 at the University of Hamburg. The aim is to contribute, through innovative research and outreach activities, to the universal prevention of biological weapon development, production and use. The development of new verification strategies and concepts is the core research area of the Study Group."
| Verification Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC)
56-64 Leonard Street
London EC2A 4JX
Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7065 0880
"VERTIC is an independent, non-profit making, non-governmental organization. Its mission is to promote effective and efficient verification as a means of ensuring confidence in the implementation of international agreements and intra-national agreements with international involvement." VERTIC's Arms Control and Disarmament Program "deals with the monitoring and verification of international treaties on nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear disarmament, nuclear testing, chemical and biological weapons and conventional weaponry, including the performance of the relevant international verification organizations."
| World Federation for Culture Collections
National Institute of Genetics
WFCC-MIRCEN World Data Centre for Microorganisms
1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka
"The WFCC is a Multidisciplinary Commission of the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) and a Federation within the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS). The WFCC is concerned with the collection, authentication, maintenance and distribution of cultures of microorganisms and cultured cells. Its aim is to promote and support the establishment of culture collections and related services, to provide liaison and set up an information network between the collections and their users, to organise workshops and conferences, publications and newsletters and work to ensure the long term perpetuation of important collections."
| World Health Organization
Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response
Avenue Appia 20
1211 Geneva 27
Telephone: +41 (0) 22 791 2111
"The World Health Organization is the United Nations specialized agency for health. WHO's objective, as set out in its Constitution, is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO's Constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." The vision of WHO is that "every country should be able to detect, verify rapidly and respond appropriately to epidemic-prone and emerging disease threats when they arise to minimize their impact on the health and economy of the world's population."