PUBLIC GUIDE TO DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
FOREWORDThis Guide describes and summarizes many accomplishments of the last three years in the Department's Openness Program and provides resources for the public to obtain additional information. The Openness Program has been enhanced by declassifications to assure availability of information of interest to the public.
The Openness Program was initiated with a simple objective in mind: to make the Department of Energy open, responsive and of service to its customers, the citizens of the United States. No less than the future of the department was at stake, for unless the DOE could operate in an environment of trust and fruitful dialogue with its stakeholders, the essential missions of the Department were in jeopardy either of being terminated outright or of being diminished in effectiveness to the point of abandonment.
Much information being requested by stakeholders indeed was sensitive during the cold war. However, the end of the cold war was an opportune time to reevaluate the entire classification policy of the Department and to declassify and to disseminate information where feasible. As discussed later in the guide, the department has conducted a Fundamental Classification Policy Review so that the segregation of classified information from unclassified information would be firmly based on National Security Requirements and clearly understood. Public access to information that is not sensitive such as environment, safety and health has also been greatly improved.
This booklet, then, not only is a guide to Openness in the Department of Energy, but it also cites several instances of declassification which have made available much additional information for release. Without the active support of stakeholders and the contribution of employees of the Department of Energy, this guide would not have been possible.
January 15, 1997
Openness is defined as all efforts to declassify and facilitate public access to DOE information with the goal of greater accountability and increased public trust.
Fundamental Classification Policy ReviewIn a December 1993 press conference the Secretary announced the largest declassification of information in the Department's history. Additional major declassifications were announced at openness press conferences in June 1994 and February 1996. Apart from these specific declassifications, the Secretary set about to change the direction of the classification program, including a change in the name of the Office of Classification to the Office of Declassification.
In March 1995 the Secretary initiated a Fundamental Classification Policy Review (FCPR) to determine whether current classification policies and procedures for Restricted Data still were adequate and appropriate in light of the rapidly evolving world situation. The purpose of the review was to determine what really should be classified, with prompt declassification of information no longer requiring protection. A draft summary report of the findings was released for public comment in February 1996; the full report is presently under review within the Government.
Many recommendations have been made by the FCPR review group, some pertaining to specific topical declassifications, and some pertaining to policy or legislation. Thus, once recommendations from the FCPR are accepted, a number of additional significant declassification actions will result. When the recommended changes in DOE policy, including changes in legislation, are implemented, openness in DOE will be assured for generations to come, and the legacy of this administration will be solidified.
Additional information on the FCPR can be obtained by calling the Office of Declassification at (301) 903-3689.
Declassification of InformationThe Atomic Energy Act and Executive Order 12958 require the Department of Energy to declassify information when release no longer would pose an undue risk to the common defense and security or damage to national security. The Department's objective is both to enhance the protection of information that truly requires protection and to declassify and release to the public information that no longer requires protection. A rigorous and formal process is followed before deciding whether or not to declassify information. Prime factors considered are: (1) whether publication of the information would jeopardize any U.S. weapon or weapon system, and (2) whether the information would hinder nonproliferation efforts by assisting potential adversaries developing or improving a nuclear weapon capability, producing nuclear weapon materials, or making other military use of nuclear energy.
Declassification provides transparency (i.e., provides sufficient information to the other party to instill confidence in a relationship) which is necessary as the basis for developing the mutual trust needed to conduct successfully any meaningful international negotiations. Declassification is important to conducting meaningful bilateral inspections at current or former nuclear facilities under arms control and reduction agreements, such as the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. It is also essential for granting inspectors access to facilities as required under the provisions of international safeguards and nonproliferation agreements. That access builds trust and helps to develop mutual confidence among nations, thereby reducing the risk of conflict.
For additional information on DOE's declassification activities, please contact the Office of Declassification at (301) 903-4199.
All declassifications by the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies have been published in "Drawing Back the Curtain of Secrecy," Restricted Data Declassification Decisions, 1946 to the Present, (RDD-3), January 1, 1996. A copy of this report may be obtained by calling the Office of Declassification at (301) 903-3296.
Document DeclassificationUnder the Department's system, only after specific areas of information are declassified and policy is modified to reflect the changes can individual documents be declassified. Therefore, as a result of the information declassifications in recent years, the Department has declassified significantly more documents in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 than it classified. During FY 1996, the Department reviewed approximately 6.2 million pages in classified collections, of which 3.5 million pages were declassified or confirmed to be unclassified.
For declassification to be truly beneficial, the information in documents reviewed for declassification must be that needed by the public. Over the past several years, the Department of Energy has established mechanisms to facilitate public input into the declassification program, including soliciting priorities for the declassification of documents. These mechanisms have enabled the Depart ment to be responsive to the public's requests for review of specific types of information. For example:
For additional information on DOE's document declassification, please contact the Office of Declassification at (301) 903-4199.
- Eminent historians and the U.S. Archivist have requested the declassification of World War II and Cold War documents concerning nuclear weapon policies. Specifically, in response to requests from the Atomic Veterans Association, the Department reviewed documents relating to nuclear testing. The Department concluded in FY1994, that 1.7 million pages (600 linear feet) of these documents located at a Government archive at Laguna Niguel, California, could be released to the public.
- In response to public requests, the Department declassified over 10,000 pages that contained information regarding human radiation experimentation.
- The Department released a precedent-setting report, "Plutonium: The First 50 Years," that provides comprehensive information on U.S. plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization. This report provides the public with information that is important in the consideration of the proper management and ultimate disposition of the excess plutonium stockpile.
Keeping the Public InformedStakeholders share a variety of interests, including concern with environment, health and safety issues; a desire to be informed on national security policy; and a desire for maximum effectiveness from government programs. The Department has adopted a policy of being as open as possible with all stakeholders, knowing that this is the best way of fostering the public trust needed to accomplish the difficult but essential DOE missions.
For additional information on the Department's openness program, please contact the Openness Hotline at (301) 903- 6727.
Formalizing the Openness Commitment: A New Classification RegulationTo formalize the commitment to Openness, DOE recently developed a proposed regulation, 10 CFR Part 1045. Several of its provisions further the goals of openness, including a requirement to review periodically and systematically Restricted Data documents for declassification with priorities for review based on public interest and likelihood of declassification. Additionally, the proposed regulation publicly defines the classification system and gives the public an opportunity to comment on Department policies. The proposed regulation increases public accountability by specifying the criteria to be used by DOE in making classification and declassification determinations and requiring DOE to prepare publicly releasable justifications for such determinations.
For more information on the regulation, please contact the Office of Declassification at (301) 903-1113.
Openness Advisory PanelOne of the more significant accomplishments has been the establishment of an Openness Advisory Panel to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB). This Panel provides a forum for public input to continue progress in institutionalizing openness. Members of the Openness Advisory Panel represent different views and expertise in different fields of special interest, thus assuring that diverse views are considered by and varied expertise is available to the Panel.
The Panel can be contacted through the SEAB at (202) 586-4303.
Making Declassified Information More Available to the PublicDOE has developed and placed on the Internet through the DOE Home Page, an electronic database of declassified documents for use by historians, environmentalists, and the general public. The system known as OpenNet contains information on more than 275,000 DOE documents and can be located on the Internet at: http:/www.doe.gov. For more information about OpenNet, please contact the Of fice of Declassification at (301) 903-4864.
Using Cutting Edge Information Technology to Imp rove Declassification Productivity and Public Access to DOE InformationDOE is pursuing an accelerated and enhanced document review process to improve declassification as well as access to DOE information. A key element of this process includes researching, developing and implementing the use of advanced information technology to support effective automation of declassification activities to increase productivity and efficiency. DOE has also developed automated tools and finding aids to assist the public in locating the information they are seeking.
For more information about technology and automation support of openness, please contact the Office of Declassification at (301) 903-0521.
Radiation ExperimentsFollowing a 1993 Albuquerque Journal expose on the then little known plutonium injection experiments, Secretary O'Leary promised to make available to the public all pertinent information relating to radiation experiments with humans. The resulting DOE human radiation experiments project became the most visible part of her Openness Initiative. Because little about human radiation experiments was classified, the project demonstrated that Openness involved more than the declassification of information or documents.
The project is a successful example of gaining intellectual control over a segment of records scattered across the DOE complex that was not easily accessible to the public and to other officials who needed this information. It provides a model for future efforts to locate information on specific topics among the 3.2 million cubic feet of DOE records. It makes use of traditional archival and records management techniques as well as the most modern technology to share this information with the public to whom it belongs.
The human radiation experiments project issued a report describing DOE records pertinent to human radiation experiments and one describing human radiation experiments associated with DOE and its predecessor agencies. The project also placed copies of selected radiation experiments documents on the World Wide Web (http://www.ohre.doe.gov/) and in the Coordination and Information Center (CIC) in Las Vegas, Nevada. (See the appendix for a more Additional information on radiation experiments can be obtained by calling the Office Radiation Experiments Records Management at (202) 586-0858.
Making Records More Available to the PublicFollowing up on the human radiation experiments project, the Office of Human Radiation Experiments Records Management (OHRE) works to make DOE records more available to the public. In February 1995 it issued Human Radiation Experiments: The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records, which describes DOE records pertinent to human radiation experiments. It is a tool which the public can use to gain access to DOE records.
In response to a recommendation by the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, OHRE has been replicating inventories to inactive records from across DOE and placing them in finding aids packages in agency public reading rooms. Making these finding aids available gives the public the means to locate inactive records in departmental custody. These finding aid packages will soon be added to the Office of Human Radiation Experiments site on the World Wide Web. The address for this site is: http: //www.ohre.doe.gov/
OHRE also encourages the transfer of DOE records of permanent historical value to the National Archives and Records Administration, where they will be available to the public. Presently OHRE is working to transfer approximately 2300 cubic feet of Oak Ridge Operations Of fice records, some of which date back to the 1940s, to the National Archives.
To assist researchers and those interested in DOE predecessor agency records further, OHRE has created a workshop on how to find DOE predecessor agency records and key information contained in them.
Anyone interested in attending such a workshop or in further information on OHRE records projects should contact the Office of Human Radiation Experiments Records Management at (202) 586-0858.
Environmental Management's Site-Specific Advisory BoardsThe U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established twelve Site Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs) associated with various sites around the former nuclear weapons complex. These boards provide advice and recommendations on strategic issues affecting the environmental restoration and future uses of the sites. Although the Department retains final decision-making authority, it encourages the Boards to focus on environmental management issues, budget priorities, and plans for the future of the sites.
The membership of each board reflects a diversity of views, cultures, and demographics from the respective community, with representatives from local governments, Indian Tribes, environmental and civic groups, labor organizations, universities, and citizens.
For additional information on Site-Specific Advisory Boards, please contact the Office of Intergovernmental and Public Accountability at (202) 586-9335.
Materials DispositionStarting with the Manhattan Project and continuing through to the DOE, the nation has developed immense know-how and great skill in dealing with the materials - some extremely hazardous - required for the production of nuclear weapons. An important part of this know- how lies in the understanding of radiation effects, developed during years of health and radiation research. This work - totally unclassified - underwrites an important field of medical therapy. In the production of nuclear weapons, by-products from nuclear materials processing and nuclear weapons manufacturing were generated for which, even now, there is no universally acceptable cleanup and disposition plan.
Plutonium is a key ingredient for nuclear weapons and a very hazardous substance. Declassification of plutonium inventory by site allowed nearby residents to use this information to assess what hazard, if any, existed in their vicinity. DOE also has prepared and released a report, "Plutonium: The First 50 Years," that disclosed the amounts of plutonium produced in the U.S., acquired from and transferred to foreign countries, and expended in nuclear tests, consumed in reactors, discarded in waste, etc. Both the U.S. and Russia are proceeding to dispose of excess plutonium recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons.
For further information on materials please call the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition at (202) 586-2695.
Materials Production and UseProcesses used by DOE or its predecessors for the production of nuclear materials have, in some cases, left poor environmental legacies. A case in point is the production of enriched lithium at the Oak Ridge Y- 12 plant. The enrichment process used large quantities of mercury, and during the span of production, approximately 750,000 pounds of mercury are believed to have been lost to the environment -- much into the East Fork of Poplar Creek near the Y- 12 Plant. After declassifying both the mercury and lithium inventories remaining from production, DOE released this information to allow a more precise assessment of the problem and its consequences.
Similarly, all information concerning Pacific nuclear test yields was made public, allowing definitive estimates of the amount of radioactivity injected into the atmosphere. In addition, the sum of the estimated masses, by isotope, of unfissioned fissile materials and radio nuclides created or left in the detonation cavities of NTS events through 1993, with an effective date of 1/1194, was declassified and released.
Additional information on material production and use can be obtained by calling the Office of Nuclear Weapons Management at (301) 903-2402.
Nuclear Weapons StockpileNuclear weapons provided the military keystone of U.S. national security policy throughout the era of the Cold War. Even now, with five declared nuclear powers and others in the wings, the lessened threat of major nuclear war does not allow the nation to ignore its nuclear deterrent. On the contrary, the somewhat diminished role of nuclear weapons in the United States' national security structure complicates nuclear policy considerations, making it even more important that the public understand the basis for decisions. Recent declassifications of some aspects of the U. S. nuclear stockpile can help the public understand the measures needed for maintaining an effective nuclear force and for pursuit of realistic arms control agreements.
Selected additional information on the nuclear weapons stockpile can be obtained by calling the Office of Defense Programs at (202) 586-2177.
International ImplicationsWhether in response to the DOE example, or as a natural result of the relaxation of Cold War tensions, the Secretary's bold thrust for openness has indeed been met by similar actions from around the globe.
The most notable evidence of growing openness and reciprocity to the United States has come from the former Soviet Union. In 1994, Russian President Yeltsin established a commission to declassify documents of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and its the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In February 1995, Yeltsin ordered the preparation and publication of archived documents on the early history of the Soviet nuclear weapons program. These initiatives have resulted in: 1) the publication to date of 1300 transcripts of Central Committee meetings; 2) the delivery of 2500 microfilm reels containing Central Committee records and the archives of the OGPU and NKVD to the U.S. Library of Congress; and 3) the declassification of much material relating to the development of nuclear weapons and the origins of the Soviet strategic missile forces.
In 1996, V.N. Mikhailov, Russian Federation Minister of Atomic Energy, issued USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions, 1949 through 1990. This 62-page document lists chronologically all 715 Soviet nuclear tests and PNEs carried out through October 24, 1990. In a foreword, Minister Mikhailov notes the similarity to the DOE publication, United States Nuclear Tests July 1945 through September 1992, DOE/NV-209 Rev 14, issued in December 1994. Mikhailov refers to these two publications as "symmetric," and indeed they are nearly identical in form and content, presenting test identifiers, dates, locations, purposes, types, and yields or yield ranges. In addition, the Russians have released the approximate sizes of their weapons grade uranium and plutonium stockpiles.
Other nuclear powers have followed suit. In March 1994, French President Mitterand, in a major address on the subject "Dissuasion" (we would say "deterrence"), released much specific detail concerning French nuclear forces. And even neutral Sweden chose to reveal that it is keeping its nuclear options open by maintaining the Agesta reactor in condition for rapid startup, and keeping a team of theoreticians researching nuclear weapons technology.
The move toward openness has not been limited to nuclear matters and major powers. In 1996, prompted by democratization and pressure from society, Taiwan moved to declassify the personal archives of former leader Chiang Kai-shek. Also in 1996, Norway released a lengthy report detailing government surveillance of leftist individuals and organizations from the 1940s through the 1980s. In both of these cases, information potentially embarrassing to the government released, largely because in the present day openness is simply the right thing to do.
For additional information on how declassification relates to international policies on Arms Control and Nonproliferation, please contact the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation at (202) 586-2102.
Technology TransferDOE, especially in its energy programs , carries out a large volume of research in support of and often in conjunction with American industry. The objective of this work is to improve efficiency and enhance industrial productivity by making available better technology. DOE Defense Programs, on the other hand, has a different mission - conducting research, developing technology, and maintaining the production base required for long-term stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile. While technology transfer is not the prime objective of defense programs, some research results and techniques developed within this program can be of use to industry. DOE has released information about the sweeping process used to remove impurities from quartz crystal material, about techniques for fabrication of targets for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, and about the generation of energy from ICF.
Additional information on DOE's technology transfer program may be obtained from the Office of Development and Technology Transfer at (202) 586-5782.
What Others Think of DOE's OpennessThe transition from secrecy to openness generally has been very warmly received. President Clinton and public citizens alike have expressed appreciation for and have benefitted from the Department of Energy's Openness. These views from those outside the Department help DOE plot a course of responsible openness while building an enduring bridge to its stakeholders.
President Clinton(concerning the Human Radiation Report)
". . . I want to thank Secretary O'Leary for her extraordinary devotion to this cause . . . It's a part of her ongoing commitment to finish the end of the Cold War. And perhaps no Energy Secretary has ever done as much as she has to be an advocate . . . for continued reforms within the Energy Department . . . "
Federation of American Scientists
"The Energy Department continues to behave as if secrecy reform were both possible and necessary."
Dr. John E. Till(Chair, Independent Technical Steering Panel directing the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction project at the Hanford Nuclear Weapons Facility)
". . . The Technical Steering Panel's insistence on declassification set the standard for other dose-reconstruction projects. Current Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has taken very positive steps to make historical records at the DOE sites available for public scrutiny. Within the framework of a public study, declassification of historical records was crucial not only for our credibility but also for the successful technical peer review of our work . . . "
Dr. Edward Teller(Manhattan Project scientist; co-inventor of the hydrogen bomb)
"...The end of the cold war is a completely unheard of opportunity (for) international cooperation . . . In principle, the process of declassification is, to my mind, the most important, successful undertaking of the present administration . . . "
"...lt is extremely important not only to declassify nuclear matters, but to make them understood . . . Misinformation about subjects such as radiation experiments could prove more detrimental than the earlier secrecy . . . "
Dr. Wolfgang Panofsky(Former Director, Stanford Linear Accelerator)
"...I believe very strongly in the principle . . . that very high fences should remain around truly sensitive subjects, but that the classification and dissemination restrictions on a large volume of lesser sensitive materials should be removed entirely . . . "
Dr. Brent Blackwelder(Friends of the Earth)
"Friends of the Earth, a national conservation organization, fully supports DOE's review of classification policies. We commend the DOE for the declassification work done to date. You have done a great public service. Your actions have helped restore public confidence and showed that government offices have a conscience ."
National Academy of Sciences
Report on DOE Classification Policy and Practice
"...DOE should continue to take the lead . . . where interagency agreement is required . . . "
Governor Mike Lowry(State of Washington)
" What is abundantly clear is that it is a new day at the U.S. Department of Energy. There is openness and commitment."
George Miller[HR Committee Chairmen/Subcommittee Chairman]
Ron de Lugo
In letter to the Secretary of Defense --
"As a direct result of Department of Energy Hazel O'Leary's unprecedented Openness Program many of the barriers have been lifted and the public perception of DOE, long characterized by mistrust and suspicion, is beginning to change."
David Albright, President Institute for Science and International Security[Extract of letter to National Academy study group]
Steven Aftergood, Senior Research Analyst, Federation of American Scientists
Hans Bethe, Professor of Nuclear Studies. Cornell University
Raymond Garthoff, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
William Higinbotham. Safeguards Specialist, Brookhaven Laboratory (retired)
Carson Mark, Former Head of Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Adam Ulam, Director Emeritus. Russian Research Center, Harvard University
" We believe that the achievements of DOE's Openness Initiative to date represent a significant step towards building public trust, enhancing public accountability, and finding solutions to the significant problems facing the nuclear weapons complex today."
John Glenn[Extract from letter to Secretary]
United States Senate
" I want to congratulate you and the rest of the Department of Energy once again on your leadership in pursuing openness in these and other areas . . . I am convinced that your efforts will eventually result in greater trust and credibility in government . . . ".
John Podesta[Extract from remarks at NPC Seminar]
Assistant to the President
" I don't think anybody really has done more to put openness front and center and really command the respect of both people inside the administration and in the public than Hazel O'Leary. She's addressed openness not as a limitation on secrecy but as an affirmative obligation to restore public trust by making information broadly available to the public the efforts she's undertaken set a sort of guidepost for the rest of the agencies of the Federal Government "
Tom Carpenter[Extract from remarks at NPC Seminar]
Government Accountability Project
" Secretary O'Leary we want to thank you. I think we now know we have a good definition of openness and accountability."
Stewart Udall[Extract from remarks at NPC Seminar]
"What Hazel O'Leary has started... when historians look and say 'well when did the United States of America finally, at long last, begin to move into the post-Cold War era', that it may very well date to her statements and her press conferences..."
Stephen Schwartz[Extract from "Hazel O'Leary does us a favor by declassifying data," Washington Times, September 24, 1996]
Director, U.S. Nuclear Weapons Study Project
"Mrs. O'Leary has performed a valuable public service in providing for the release of this essential historical data "
ACCESS TO RECORDS AND INFORMATION RELATING TO
HUMAN RADIATION EXPERIMENTS
Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Collection at the National Archives, College ParkOverview. 665 cubic feet of records from the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments have been deposited at the National Archives and made part of Record Group 220, Presidential Committees, Commissions, and Boards. The collection can be accessed through the Archive's Textual Reference Branch located at Archives 11, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, Maryland. The phone number is (301) 713-7250.
The collection consists primarily of documents collected from Federal agencies and other sources during the Committee's research process, but also includes the Committee's administrative files, meeting documentation, notes, and other records generated by the staff.
Organization. The ACHRE collection is divided into 12 major series. The series of primary interest to most researchers is the Research Collection Series, which consists of two major components--the Archives file and the Library file. The Archives file represents the primary documents collected from agencies and other sources; the Library file encompasses secondary sources, such as journal articles and published reports. The Archives file is organized by accession number. Each deposit of records to ACHRE was assigned an accession number which consists of an acronym for the document source, the deposit date, and an alpha designator which represents the sequence of deposits from that source on that date; i.e., DOD- 062194-C represents the third Defense Department deposit of June 21, 1994. An accession may consist of one document or several boxes of documents.
Finding Aids at the Archives. Paper copy finding aids are found in five binders at the National Archives. The finding aids provide basic access to the 12 records series. The finding aid for the Archives file identifies the current box number for each accession number. Copies of the ACHRE Final Report and supplemental volumes are also available. Supplemental Volume 2A includes a complete listing of all accessions in the Archives collection, of all publications in the Library collection, of all experiments identified by ACHRE, and of individual documents within each accession which were specifically described, including those cited in the Final Report. Volume 2A also includes indexes of this data sorted in several ways, such as by subject. The electronic index to the collection is not available to researchers at NARA. Other Finding Aids to the ACHRE Collection. The Lotus Notes database created by the Advisory Committee is available to researchers at the National Security Archive, a private non-profit organization, located in the Gelman Library at George Washington University, (202) 994-7000. However, some familiarity with Lotus Notes may be necessary for a researcher to search the databases.
The National Security Archive also maintains a Web site for ACHRE information (www.seas.gwu.edu/nsarchive/radiation/). The site includes information such as transcripts and related materials for Committee meetings, the text of the Final Report, and the complete listing of the Research Document (Archives) collection, Publications (Library) collection, and experiments. Word searches can be performed using the capabilities of an Internet browser (such as Netscape).
Barriers to Access. ACHRE collection at the National Archives has material protected by the Privacy Act interspersed throughout. As a result, most boxes of records must be screened and redacted by Archives staff to remove private material prior to being provided to researchers. The Archives has indicated that it needs at least I week of lead time for any requests which involve more than a few folders, to allow time to review the requested material. In some cases, it can take up to several months. Researchers are asked to be as specific as possible in their requests.
Please note that it may be difficult to locate a specific document within an accession because the documents have not been assigned individual document identifiers (i.e., a document number). It may be necessary to review an entire accession to locate the desired document.
Other ResourcesDOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) Home Page (http://www.ohre.doe.gov). OHRE created a Web site in early 1995 to make its human radiation experiment document collection and other important information readily available to the public. The Human Radiation Experiments Information Management System (HREX) was developed to provide users with the ability to conduct full-text searches of the historical document collection and to retrieve images of those documents. Over 250,000 pages of material are available.
In addition to the historical document collection, the site also provides access to the text of OHRE's publications - the Roadmap, the Experiment List, and a series of oral histories conducted by OHRE (See List of Publications, below) -- as well as other material of interest such as the transcript of a stakeholder's workshop held in February 1996. The text of the Advisory Committee Report is also accessible from this Home Page. This site also provides links to other relevant sites. All documents placed on the Web have been screened for Privacy Act material and personal identifiers have been removed (redacted). Each document in the collection has been assigned a unique document number and identified with provenance (source) information. The original copy of the document is maintained by the facility or institution identified in the provenance information. Please note that most, but not all, of the documents provided to the Advisory Committee are in HREX. The exceptions are a small number of documents retrieved by Committee staff directly from DOE sites and not processed through OHRE.
Interagency HREX (http://www.hrex.dis.anl.gov). Historical documents collected by other agencies involved in the Interagency Working Group (Department of Defense, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Veterans' Affairs, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) are currently being processed for inclusion with the DOE collection in an enhanced version of the HREX system on the Internet, This site also provides links to other relevant sites, such as the OHRE Home Page. As above, all documents placed in the Interagency HREX are screened for material protected by the Privacy Act and personal identifiers are removed (redacted). Interagency HREX is now available to the public although not all documents have been processed for inclusion. It currently has approximately 300,000 pages of documents and when completed will have approximately 500,000 pages.
The Coordination and Information Center (CIC). Paper copies of all DOE documents found in HREX are stored at the CIC in Las Vegas, NV. Paper copies of all DOD's documents have recently been transferred there as well. In addition to its holdings related to human radiation experiments, the CIC possesses a large collection of documents from the era of atmospheric atomic weapons testing. To request documents, contact the CIC in writing at P.O. Box 98521, Las Vegas, NV 89193-8521 or by phone at (702) 295-0731. Small numbers of documents can be printed off the Internet, but large volume requests for paper documents are better directed to the CIC. Individuals may access unredacted documents about themselves or about their next-of-kin from the CIC if they provide proof of identity.
The complete index of DOE holdings at the CIC (including the human radiation experiments collection) is available on the Internet via OpenNet (apollo.osti.gov/html/opennet/opennet.html). OpenNet, sponsored by the DOE Office of Declassification, also provides bibliographic information on recently declassified DOE documents.
DOE Public Reading Rooms. Redacted paper copies of all documents located by DOE facilities as part of the human radiation experiments search and included in HREX have also been deposited in the public reading room for that facility.
List of Publications1. Final Report: Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was released in October 1995, and includes the text of the report (over 900 pages) plus three supplemental volumes. Copies can be obtained from the U.S. Government Printing Office, (202) 512-1800. The text of the report is also accessible on the Internet.
2. The Human Radiation Experiments: Final Report of the President 's Advisory Committee was also published in one volume by Oxford University Press in 1996. This book does not include the supplemental volumes. It does contain President Clinton's remarks on accepting the final report of the Committee and a useful index. Copies can be obtained in bookstores or directly from Oxford University Press.
3. Human Radiation Experiments: The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records, released in February 1995 by DOE's Of fice of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE), includes project background, site histories, records series descriptions, topical essays, and a preliminary list of experiments. Hard copies of this report (DOE-EH-0445) are available from DOE's Of fice of Public Inquiries at (202) 586-5575. The report is also available on the World Wide Web (www.ohre.doe.gov).
4. Human Radiation Experiments Associated with the United States Department of Energy and its Predecessors, released in July 1995 by OHRE, contains a listing, description, and selected references for 435 documented human radiation studies dating back to World War II. Hard copies of this report (DOE-EH-0491) are available from DOE's Office Public Inquiries at (202) 586- 5575. The report is also available on the World Wide Web (www.ohre.doe.gov).
5. Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years, completed November 1995 by OHRE, consists of a 29-part series of oral histories whose purpose is to enrich the documentary record, provide missing information, and allow an opportunity for the researchers to provide their perspective. A descriptive brochure, which lists all of the subjects of the oral histories and provides brief background on each, as well as copies of the individual oral histories, are available from OHRE at (202) 586- 0858. The oral histories are also available on the World Wide Web (www.ohre.doe.gov).
6. Radiation Protection and the Human Radiation Experiments, Los Alamos Science, Number 23. 1995. is a special issue of this journal which discusses the work and the findings of the Laboratory's Human Studies Project Team. The team was formed to address questions concerning the ethics and conduct of human radiation experiments that were carried out by Los Alamos researchers from the Manhattan Project days through the 1960s. The report is available from Los Alamos Science, Mail Stop M708s, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545.
7. The Department of Defense Report on the Search for Human Radiation Experiment Records, 1944-1994, has a planned release date of late January l 1997. It will be published by the Office of the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Defense Programs.