from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy
Volume 2006, Issue No. 110
October 20, 2006

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A new U.S. Army Field Manual presents a vision of excellence in military leadership and articulates principles by which such excellence may be achieved.

"It is critical that Army leaders be agile, multiskilled pentathletes who have strong moral character, broad knowledge, and keen intellect."

But in America, the "warrior ethos" is not an independent value, the Army manual explains. Rather, the value of military leadership derives from the constitutional order that it serves and supports.

"The Army's military and civilian leaders are instruments of the people of the United States."

Furthermore, the effectiveness of Army leadership is dependent on the quality and wisdom of the elected leaders of the country.

"The elected government commits forces only after due consideration and in compliance with our national laws and values," the manual says. "Understanding this process gives our Army moral strength and unwavering confidence when committed to war."

The 200 page manual presents extensive theoretical as well as inspirational material and a bibliography for further study.

See U.S. Army Field Manual FM 6-22, "Army Leadership: Competent, Confident, and Agile," October 12, 2006 (4.4 MB PDF):


Several recently updated reports from the Congressional Research Service, not readily available to the public, provide an introduction to the subject of conventional arms sales and the proliferation of weapons technology.

"International Small Arms and Light Weapons Transfers: U.S. Policy," updated October 2, 2006:

"Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement," updated September 29, 2006:

"Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures," updated September 25, 2006:

"Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process," December 20, 2002:


Some more reports from the Congressional Research Service on diverse topics include the following.

"Freedom of Information Act Amendments: 109th Congress," updated September 22, 2006:

"The Endangered Species Act and 'Sound Science'," updated October 5, 2006:

"Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007," updated October 10, 2006:

"Globalizing Cooperative Threat Reduction: A Survey of Options," updated October 5, 2006:

"Iran's Influence in Iraq," updated September 29, 2006:

"Project BioShield," updated September 27, 2006:


Secrecy News is written by Steven Aftergood and published by the Federation of American Scientists.

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