Medical/Surgical (organ/whole body) 

Medical and surgical simulation:

Integrated Research Team (IRT), Medical Modeling & Simulation
Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), MRMC, U.S. Army

“On 16-18 February 2000, the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC) convened an Integrated Research Team (IRT) meeting for Medical Modeling and Simulation (MM&S), co-hosted by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) and the U.S. Army Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (USASTRICOM). Given the complexity of the issues, TATRC chose to use the IRT process as a forum to build a series of technology road maps in this ever-burgeoning field. The conference outline was designed to enable materiel developers, combat developers and other government agencies to present their concepts about how modeling and simulation could - and should - be developed to meet military needs. From the outset, the participants recognized that MM&S would have a much wider application than the original intent to develop a training tool for medical readiness. It is inevitable that MM&S will provide a basis for training and education across the entire spectrum of future health care.”

Center for Advanced Technology in Surgery at Stanford (CATSS)

“The Center for Advanced Technology in Surgery at Stanford (CATSS) improves surgical education and training by introducing new technology and methods to the curriculum utilizing simulation, haptics, advanced computer graphics and distance learning.”

Surgical Planning Laboratory
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

“The Surgical Planning Lab was created to bring the power of computers and the information available in modern imaging technologies to the benefit a wider range of medical fields than traditionally used them. The SPL provides a computer hardware infrastructure (powerful graphics workstations connected to a high-speed network of high performance computer clusters and large amounts of data storage), an extensive software environment (image processing and analysis tools, graphics editing and display programs), an expert staff (computer scientists, physicians, applications developers, imaging physicists, and other researchers), and an environment that encourages diverse collaboration. Colleagues from within the hospital as well as from hospitals and universities from throughout the world come to the SPL to advance the future of medicine.”

Center for Innovative Technology in Medicine (CIMIT)

“The CIMIT Simulation Program is an advanced research program focusing on developing the basic science required for realistic computer-based medical simulation. The CIMIT Program’s principle activities involve measurement of tissue characteristics, integration of haptics into simulation, and realistic representation of medical procedures for training, device prototyping, and procedural development.”

University of California
Virtual Environments for Surgical Training and Augmentation (VESTA)

“Two events are occurring that may lead to a significant change in the nature of surgical training. First, increasing numbers of surgical procedures are performed using minimally invasive techniques, in which trauma to external tissue is minimized. The skills of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) present unique perceptual-motor relationships that make these skills very difficult to master. Second, virtual environments with the capability to teach surgical skills are becoming available. Training in virtual environments has many potential advantages. It is interactive, yet an instructor's presence is not necessary, so students can practice in their free moments. Changes can be made that demonstrate variations in anatomy or disease state. Simulated positions and forces can be recorded to compare with established performance metrics for assessment and credentialing. Students could also try different techniques and look at the tissues from perspectives that would be impossible during a real operation.”

National Capital Area Medical Simulation Center
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences