Medical Imaging and computer graphics 

Medical Imaging and computer graphics

Vision, Analysis, and Simulation Technologies (VAST) Laboratory
University of Pennsylvania

“Research in the VAST lab lies in the area of physics-based modeling of deformable and articulated objects. The major focus has been the development of a mathematically rigorous and computationally efficient framework that has addressed important problems in computer vision, computer graphics and medical image analysis in a unified way. Most of these problems could not be addressed successfully with traditional, non physics-based methods…In the span of roughly three decades, vision and graphics (including modeling techniques for medical imaging), have matured into major fields of computer science. Surprisingly, however, their evolution has been largely independent, despite the fact that, traditionally, graphics deal with the forward problem of synthesizing images from object models, while vision deals with the inverse problem of analyzing images to infer object models. Therefore, the modeling of object shape and motion is fundamentally important to these fields. Based on research conducted in the last 10 years, physics-based modeling techniques have demonstrated that they offer the power and generality needed to bridge the gap that separates vision and graphics research and can successfully address and solve difficult problems in computer vision, computer graphics and medical imaging in a unified way.”

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI)
University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)

The Laboratory of Neuro Imaging was originally established to study cerebral metabolism with the goal of understanding the relationship between brain structure and function using image data. Work progressed into three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization. This enabled the study of functional anatomy in the same geometric configuration as that found in the living animal. As these reconstructions became more sophisticated, their application to computational atlases became possible…Human brain structure and function are so complex that powerful computational tools are required to analyze brain data. Given the fact that there is neither a single representative brain nor a simple method to construct an 'average' anatomy or represent the complex variations around it, the construction of brain atlases became the focus of intense research. Brain atlases are based on detailed representations of anatomy in a standardized 3D coordinate system. The Laboratory addressed the problem of comparing data across individuals as well as across modalities and increased work in humans began. Work focused on statistical manipulation of the geometry that made up the anatomic and functional data sets as well as sophisticated visualizations permitting the communication of the results.”

Medical Image Display and Analysis Group (MIDAG)
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

While the work of MIDAG has covered a very wide range of medical images and numerous areas of image processing and display, structure based image analysis has become a major area of focus in the last decade. Our recent areas of research focus, with its leaders, have been from a clinical point of view (in order of the number of members involved) the following: computer-aided 3D radiation treatment planning and delivery (Chaney, Rosenman), evaluation of digital mammography and its contrast enhancement (Pisano), correlation of brain structure shape and volume with various diseases and conditions of the brain (Lieberman, Krishnan, Gerig), neurosurgery guided by visualization of vessels and tumors (Bullitt), surgery of the spine (Bullitt), guiding biopsy and laparoscopy via augmented reality (Pisano, Meyer, Fuchs), liver shunt delivery (Weeks, Aylward), measuring tortuosity of infant retinal vessels (Aylward); and from a scientific point of view: geometric model based image analysis (Gerig, Pizer, Fritsch ), extraction and visualization of trees of tubes (Aylward, Bullitt), augmented reality (Fuchs), contrast enhancement (Pizer, Hemminger, Aylward), shape-based multi-intensity tumor extraction (Gerig, Pizer).”

Molecular Graphics Laboratory
Scripps Research Institute

This laboratory is interested in developing novel techniques for the computation, analysis, and modeling of the interaction of protein-ligand, protein-protein and other biomolecular systems.