Table of



Beswick, F. W., Maynard, R. "Poisoning in Conflict," in Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Eds. Wetherall, D. L., Ledingham, J. G. G., and Warren, D. A. Pub. Oxford University Press.

Medical Manual of Defence Against Chemical Agents (JSP 312). Publisher: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1987.

Nerve Agents

Gall, D. "The Use of Therapeutic Mixtures in the Treatment of Cholinesterase Inhibition." Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 1:214-216, 1981.

Grob, D., Harvey, J. C. "Effects in Man of the Anticholinesterase Compound Sarin." Dept. of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, Vol 37, 1958.

Grob, D. "The Manifestations and Treatment of Poisoning Due to Nerve Gas and Other Organic Phosphate Anticholinesterase Compounds." Arch Int. Med., Vol 98, 1956.

Grob, D., Johns, R. I. "Use of Oximes in the Treatment of Intoxication by Anticholinesterase Compounds in Normal Subjects." The American Journal of Medicine, Vol XXIV, 4:497-518.

Hayes, W. J. "Organic Phosphorus Pesticides." Pesticide Studies in Man. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1982.

Martin, L. J., Doebler, J. A. et al. "Protective Effect of Diazepam Pre-treatment on Soman Induced Brain Lesion Formation." Brain Research, 325:287-289, 1985.

McCloud, C. G., Singer, A. W., Barrington, D. G. "Acute Neuropathy in Soman Poisoned Rats." Neurotoxicology, 5(2):53-58, 1984.

McDonagh, J. H., Jaax, N. K. et al. "Atropine and/or Diazepam Therapy Protects Against Soman Induced Neural and Cardiac Pathology." Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 13:256-276, 1989.

Nambe, T., Nolte, C. T. et al. "Poisoning Due to Organophosphate Insecticides; Acute and Chronic Manifestations." American Journal of Medicine, Vol 50, Apr 1971.

Rickett, D. L., Glenn, J. F., Beers, E. T. "Central Respiratory Effects Versus Neuromuscular Actions of Nerve Agents." Neurotoxicology, 7(1):225-236, 1986.

Sidell, F. R., Groff, W. A. "The Reactivatability of Cholinesterase Inhibited by VX and Sarin in Man." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 27:241-252, 1974.


Augerson, W. S., Sivak, A., Marley, W. S. Chemical Casualty Treatment Protocol Development - Treatment Approaches. Cambridge, Mass, Arthur D Little, Inc. Vol II-IV, 1986.

Buscher, H. Green and Yellow Cross, Trans. Conway, N. (1944). Cincinnati, Kettering Laboratory of Applied Physiology, University of Cincinnati, 1931.

Cullumbine, H. Mustard Gas: Its Mode of Action and the Treatment of its Local and General Eflects. Porton Down, United Kingdom, Chemical Defence Establishment.

Gross, C. L., Meier, H. L. et al. "Sulphur Mustard Lowers NAD Concentrations in Human Skin Grafted to Athymic Nude Mice." Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 81:85-90, 1985.

Norman, J. E., Jr. "Lung Cancer Mortality in World War One Veterans with Mustard Gas Injury: 1919-1965." J Natl Cancer Inst., 54:311-317, 1975.

Papirmeister, B., Gross, C. L. et al. "Molecular Basis for Mustard-Induced Vesication." Fund Appl Toxicol, 5:S134-S149, 1985.

Papirmeister, B., Gross, C. L. et al. "Pathology Produced by Sulphur Mustard in Human Skin Grafts on Athymic Nude Mice: I. Gross and Light Microscopic Changes." J Toxicol-Cut and Ocular Toxicology, 3:371-391, 1984.

Papirmeister, B., Gross, C. L. et al. "Pathology Produced by Sulphur Mustard in Human Skin Grafts on Athymic Nude Mice: II. Ultrastructural Changes." J Toxicol-Cut and Ocular Toxicology, 3:393-408, 1984.

Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds. FM 3-9, Washington, DC, HQ, Dept of the Army, 1990.

Renshaw, B. "Mechanisms in Production of Cutaneous Injuries by Sulphur and Nitrogen Mustards," in Bush, V.(ed): Chemical Warfare Agents and Related Chemical Problems. Washington, DC, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Part 3, Ch 23, 1946, pp 479-518.

Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries.
FM 8-285, Washington, DC. HQ, Dept of the Army, Feb.1990.

Vedder, E. B. The Vesicants, The Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Co., Ch 8, 1925, pp 125-166.

Vesicant Injury to the Eye, Part II, Laboratory Studies. Bulletin, Johns Hopkins Hosp., 948;82:81-352.

Wada, S., Miyanishi, M. et al. "Mustard Gas as a Cause of Respiratory Neoplasia in Man." Lancet, 1968:1:1161-1163.

Warthin, A. S., Well, C. V. The Medical Aspects of Mustard Gas Poisoning. St. Louis. CV Mosby Co., 1919.

Willems, J. L. "Clinical Management of Mustard Gas Casualties." Annales Medicinae Militaris Belgicae, 1989, Vol 3 supp. Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, University of Ghent Medical School and Royal School of the Medical Services, Leopoldskazerne, B-900 Ghent, Belgium.

Yamada, A. "On the Late Injuries Following Occupational Inhalation of Mustard Gas, with Special Reference to Carcinoma of the Respiratory Tract." Acta Pathologic Jpn, 13:131-155, 1963.


Ballantine, B. Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Cyanides. Wright, 1987.

Brewer, T. G. Therapy for Cyanide Poisoning. Pharmacology Division of USAMRICD/ Experimental Therapeutics Division WRAXR.

Chen, K. K. "Amyl Nitrite and Cyanide Poisoning." JAMA, 17 June 1993.

Cyanide Antidote Package. Eli Lilly and Company, PA 0705 AMP.

Evans, C. L. "Cobalt Compounds as Antidotes for Hydrocyanic Acid." British Journal of Pharmacology, Feb 1964.

Graham, D. L. "Acute Cyanide Poisoning Complicated by Lactic Acidosis and Pulmonary Oedema." Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol 137, Aug 1977.

Marrs, T. C. "Antidotal Treatment of Acute Cyanide Poisoning." Adverse Drug Reactions Acute Poisoning Revue. 1988; 4:179-206.

Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries.
FM 8-285, Washington, DC, HQ, Dept of the Army, Feb. 1990.


Diner, W. F. Pathogenesis of Phosgene Poisoning. Department of Occupational Health, Bayer AG, D-5090 Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany.

Diner, W. F., Zante, R. A Literature Review: Therapy for Phosgene Poisoning. Department of Occupational Health, Bayer AG, D-5090 Leverkusen and University of Dusseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany.

Diller, W. F. "Late Sequelae After Phosgene Poisoning: A Literature Review." Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol 1, Mo 2, 1985.

Diner, W. F. "Early Diagnosis of Phosgene Overexposure." Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol 1, Mo 2, 1985.

Diner, W. F. Therapeutic Strategy in Phosgene Poisoning. Department of Occupational Health, Bayer AG, D-5090 Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany.

Galdston, M. Hopson, et al. A Study of the Residual Effects of Phosgene Poisoning in Human Subjects: I. After Acute Exposure. Clinical Research Section, Medical Division, Chemical Warfare Service, Edgewood Arsenal, MD, and the Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, March 4, 1946.

Gilchrist, H. L. "The Residual Effects of Warfare Gases: The Use of Phosgene Gas, with Report of Cases." The Medical Bulletin of the Veterans' Administration, Vol 10, No 1, July 1933.

Polednak, A. P., Hollis, D. R. "Mortality and Causes of Death Among Workers Exposed to Phosgene in 1943-1945." Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol 1, No 2, 1985.

Regan, R. A. "Review of Clinical Experience in Handling Phosgene Exposure Cases." Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol 1, No 2, 1985.

Seidelin, R. The Inhalation of Phosgene in a Fire Extinguisher. Royal Air Force Hospital, Nocton Hall, May 6, 1960.

Wells, B. A. "Phosgene: A Practitioner's Viewpoint." Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol 1, No 2, 1985.

Riot Control

Ballantine, B. "Riot Control Agents." Biochemical and Health Aspects of the Use of Chemicals in Civil Disturbances. Special Article, pp 7-41.

Ballantine, B., Callaway, S. "The Toxicology and Pathology of Animals Exposed to O-Clorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS)." Medicine, Science and Law, Vol 12, 34-65, 1962.

Cucinell, S. A., Swentzel, K. C. et al. "Biochemical Interactions and Chemical Fate of Riot Control Agents." Fed. Proc. Vol 30;1:Jan-Feb 1971.

Hellreich, A., Mershon, M. M. et al. "An Evaluation of the Skin Irritant Potential of CS Aerosols on Human Skin Under Tropical Climatic Conditions." Edgewood Arsenal Technical Report, EATR 4252.

Punte, C. L., Owens, E. J., Gutentag, P. J. "Exposures to Orthochlorobenzylidine Malononitrile; Controlled Human Exposures." Arch. of Environmental Health, Vol 6;72-80, 1963.

Shumes, E., Taylor, J. S. "Industrial Contact Dermatitis: Effects of the Riot Control Agent Orthochlorobenzylidene Malononitrile." Arch Dermatol. Vol 107, Feb 1973.

Rengstorff, R. H. "Tear Gas and Riot Control Agents: A Review of Eye Effects." The Optometric Weekly, Sept 1969.

Report of the Enquiry into the Medical and Toxicological Aspects of CS, Part II. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, Sept 1971.

Stein, A. A., Kirwan, W. E. "Chloracetophenone (Tear Gas) Poisoning: A Clinico-Pathologic Report." Current Topics, Vol 9;3:374-382.

Weigand, D. A. "Cutaneous Reaction to the Riot Control Agent CS." Military Medicine, pp 437-440.


Daunderer, M. "Physostigmine Salicylate as an Antidote." International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology, Vol 18;12:523-535, 1980.

Duvoisin, R. C., Katz, R. "Reversal of Central Anticholinergic Syndrome in Man by Physostigmine." JAMA Vol 206;9:455-458, Nov 25, 1968.

Granacher, R. P. "The Central Anticholinergic Syndrome: Management with Physostigmine." The Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association, pp 147-148, March,1975.

Lauwers, L. F., Daelemans, R. et al. "Scopolamine Intoxications." Intensive Care Medicine 9:283-285, 1983.

Miller, J. J., Ferrer, G. R. "Atropine Coma: A Somatic Therapy in Psychiatry." JAMA Vol 206;9:455-457, Nov 25, 1968.

Sidell, F. R. "Use of Physostigmine by the Intravenous, Intramuscular and Oral Routes in the Therapy of Anticholinergic Drug Intoxication." Edgewood Arsenal Technical Report, EB-TR-76012.

Walker, W. E., Levy, R. C., Hanenson, I.B. "Physostigmine - Its Use and Abuse." JACEP 5:436-439, June, 1976.