Index

At the Shipbuilding Enterprises

by A.N. Khausov
St. Petersburg SUDOSTROYENIYE , January 1995 No 1, pp 40-45

[drawn from materials in the newspapers KORABEL, RABOCHEYE SLOVO, NA TRUDOVOY VAKTE and SUDOSTROITEL, as well as advertising prospectuses and informational materials submitted to the editors by enterprises and organizations]

State Russian Center for Atomic-Powered Shipbuilding (TsAS)

The utilization of production capacity being converted remains among the chief tasks of the enterprises of TsAS. One way of solving this problem is assimilating the output of shipboard equipment that used to be supplied by enterprises of the former union republics. Taking into account the complex and sweeping nature of this work, it has been decided to launch it, by and large, for orders for new ship types.

A series of proposals has been developed at Minfin [Ministry of Finance, Minekonomiki [Ministry of Economics] and Gosoboronprom [State Committee of the Defense Industry] of Russia to improve the financing of the construction of orders, including--for all work being performed on Navy orders--the establishment of the status of the state defense order, along with changes in the system for making payments, bypassing a host of intermediate levels. The creation by TsAS of its own bank will also facilitate an improvement in the financial situation.

The board of directors of the TsAS has decided to create a Shipbuilding Educational Center based on the Sevmashvtuz Technical College and the technical schools. This will make it possible to make more efficient use of the physical plant of the educational institutions, and to increase the number of fields in which training is conducted from 16 to 40. This is important from the standpoint of the impending work to build floating drilling rigs and create other equipment under the Rosshelf AO [joint-stock company] program.

Zvezdochka NPO [Scientific-Production Association]

The association is building freighters with a deadweight of 396 tonnes, intended for coastal navigation (a modification of type 16900), at its covered dry dock. The vessels are single-decked and twin-screw, with a poop deck and elevated deck section at the bow, with the engine room and deckhouse at the stern. Their principal purpose is to deliver supplies, general and timber cargo and containers, as well as wheeled and tracked vehicles, to points on the Arctic coastline, including unprepared ones. Variations of the type envisage the installation of bow ramps or on-board devices for off-loading cargo of up to 40 tonnes.
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|Principal Elements and Characteristics                                       |
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|Length, greatest/at load waterline, m-|45.45/41.8                            |
|eters                                 |                                      |
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|Beam, meters                          |8.8                                   |
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|Board depth, meters                   |3.3                                   |
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|Draft, specification/at load waterlin-|1.87/2.5                              |
|e, meters                             |                                      |
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|Displacement, tonnes                  |748                                   |
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|Deadweight, tonnes                    |396                                   |
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|Cargo capacity (where T = 2.5/187 met-|360/150 (170)                         |
|ers), tonnes                          |                                      |
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|Engine power, kW                      |2 x 210                               |
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|Speed, knots                          |9.5                                   |
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|Cruising range, miles                 |2,000                                 |
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|Sea endurance, days                   |10                                    |
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|Crew                                  |9 (+4)                                |
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Three 25-kW auxiliary diesel generators have been installed on the vessel, along with a cargo crane with a lift capacity of 3.2 tonnes (boom radius 4/12 meters) and an anchor davit for 0.4 tonnes. The fixed-pitch screw blades have a diameter of 1.1 meters, and a frequency of rotation of 750 RPM. Two cargo holds (124 and 307 m3) are fitted with waterproof covers and hydraulic drive: the size of the hatches is 3.05 x 6.6 meters and 5.5 x 13.2 meters. The ship can transport 15 standard international containers (ISO-1S) or UUK type railroad containers.

Northern Machine Building Enterprise [SMP] PO [Production Association]

Active preparations are underway at the association to organize the building of vessels and drilling rigs for oil and gas production on the Arctic shelf. The appropriate general agreement has been concluded with the Gazprom Russian Joint-Stock Company. The construction of a unique pipeline-laying vessel, intended for the manufacture and laying on the sea bottom of pipelines with a diameter of 800 to 1,200 mm, is planned in particular. The vessel is scheduled to be prepared for operational testing in 1997. The new consumer goods of the SMP PO include the Yula- 2 fiberglass recreational boat for two people. It is 2.6 meters long and 1.2 meters wide, with a weight of about 50 kg and carrying capacity of 170 kg. The boat can be used with oars, sail or outboard motor. It is easily accommodated in the baggage compartment of a passenger car. Business contacts with Western partners are also expanding. A contract has been concluded with the Canadian form of (Tor)-Canada for the supply of welding electrodes. Specialists at the association are working on the incorporation of electrode markings that conform to Western standards, as well as improved quality of packaging, in order to increase the market competitiveness of these products.

Zelenodolsk PKB

The specialists at this planning and design bureau are working on the creation of a new generation of domestic hydrofoil passenger vessels. The engineering design for one variation of a vessel (Izumrud type) with automatically controlled deep-submergence hydrofoils has been approved by the Russian Marine Registry. The vessel is designed as a KM*[2]A3 class hydrofoil, and is intended for maritime passenger transport up to 100 miles from shore.
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|Principal Elements and Characteristics                                       |
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|Length with foils raised, meters      |37.4                                  |
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|Overall beam, meters                  |11.6                                  |
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|Draft of hull/at foils, meters        |1.25/3.9                              |
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|Full displacement, tonnes             |120                                   |
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|Passenger capacity                    |180                                   |
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|Speed on calm water/in level 5 seas,  |40/36                                 |
|knots                                 |                                      |
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|Cruising range, miles                 |400                                   |
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|Crew                                  |6                                     |
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The main power plant is twin-shaft and designed for 16V396 TV94 diesels from the firm of MTU, which drive bypass water-jet propulsors. The welded hull of the vessel is manufactured of aluminum alloy, and the hydrofoil and lift elements are welded from titanium alloy. The ship has three compartments for passengers, a bar and crews' quarters. The automated motion control system provides comfortable conditions for passengers, even when waves are heavy.

The new type of hydrofoil craft is planned to be built at the Zelenodolsk Plant imeni A.M. Gorkiy.

Baltic Plant AO

The building of floating nuclear-powered heat and electric power plants with a capacity of 12 MW for the Far North is planned according to a design from the Baltsudoproyekt TsKB [Central Design Bureau]. This non- self-propelled plant will be able to supply coastal regions with electric power, saturated steam, extracted and fresh water.
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|Principal Elements and Characteristics                                       |
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|Length, meters                        |97.3                                  |
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|Beam, meters                          |21.6                                  |
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|Board depth, meters                   |10.3                                  |
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|Draft, meters                         |5.3                                   |
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|Displacement empty/full, tonnes       |7170/8700                             |
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|Number of modular and single-berth ca-|27                                    |
|bins                                  |                                      |
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The plant is expected to have two shipboard reactors that will support the operation of the main turbogenerators (2 x 6 MW) and the steam-producing installations (2 x 38 MW). The quantity of saturated steam released will be 10 tonnes/hour, and fresh water 10 tonnes/day. The operation of the plant can be supported without the movement of nuclear fuel for a span of four years. The replacement of fuel in one reactor while the other is operating is also permitted. The full service life is estimated to be 200,000--240,000 hours, with about 100,000 between major overhauls. There are also reserve and emergency diesel generators with a capacity of 2 x 2.8 MW and 2 x 0.2 MW respectively, as well as an oil boiler with a productivity of 6.3 tonnes/hour (the diesel fuel tanks are designed for 1,500 m3).

The overall capacity of the plant can be increased to 24 MW with the same hull dimensions. The creation of floating nuclear heat and electric power plants will allow the Baltic Plant to make use of the rich experience it obtained in the building of nuclear- powered icebreakers and cruisers.

Avangard Shipyard AO

The Avangard Shipyard (Republic of Karelia, Petrozavodsk) is engaged in the series production of type 12961 fish and shrimp freezer/refrigerator trawlers (the Leninskaya Kuznitsa/Shkhuva TsKB). The vessels are intended for the fishing and shrimping trade in coastal tropical regions using pareja and variable-depth trawls. The output of frozen and chilled product is expected. The trawlers are twin-decked diesel ships with the deckhouse located forward and with a stern trawl ramp, constructed for Russian Marine Registry class KM*L3A2.
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|Principal Elements and Characteristics                                       |
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|Greatest length, meters               |35.7                                  |
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|Beam, meters                          |8.8                                   |
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|Board depth at GP/VP, meters          |3.6/6                                 |
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|Greatest displacement, tonnes         |560                                   |
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|Engine power, kW                      |588                                   |
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|Speed, knots                          |10.7                                  |
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|Range on fuel reserves, days          |20                                    |
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|Crew                                  |17 (+3)                               |
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A 588-kW diesel at 345 RPM, with direct transmission to a four-bladed VFSh [fixed-pitch screw] in a swivel mounting, is used as the main engine. There are two 200-kW diesel generators.

Field operations are performed using an electrically driven four-drum winch with tractive force at the upper coiling layer of the dragrope reel of 2 x 30.9 kN at a hauling-in speed of 90 meters/minute; the operating length of the dragrope is 2 x 2,200 mm [as published]. Two forward and two aft cargo booms for 1.6 tonnes apiece are installed on the mainmast gantry.

Three contact-type freezing installations are located in the fishing shop on the main deck (2.5 tonnes/day apiece); there is an ice generator (200 kg/hr) for preserving the fish product. The chilled product, packed in ice, is stored in the fish hold at a temperature of - 4[DEG]C, or in the freezer at -25[DEG]C. The vessels are equipped with automation gear that supports the unattended operation of the power plant, as well as modern radio navigational gear.

The Nikolayevsk-na-Amure Shipyard AO

Refrigerated supply transport ships are a new product for which the shipyard is preparing. Documentation is being developed under a contract with the Shkhuna TsKB (Kiev) for vessels of this class with a cargo capacity of 740 and 1,130 tonnes (types 12951 and 12950 respectively), and the technological preparations for production have begun. The creation of a freighter or tanker is possible in the hull of the larger of the vessels.

The task has been posed, in the process of assimilating the construction of the refrigerated ships at the yard, of incorporating ASTPP [automated systems for the technological preparation of production] with the widespread utilization of computer technology. The primary purpose of the refrigerated ships is the receipt of finished fish products from vessels and coastal fish-processing plants and their transport to the intended destination, as well as the shipment of supply cargo to field expeditions and port locations. The Russian Marine Registry class is KM*L1A3.
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|Principal Elements and Characteristics                                       |
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|                         |Type 12951 (Mago class)  |Type 12950 (Preobrazheni-|
|                         |                         |ye class)                |
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|Length, meters:          |                         |                         |
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|greatest                 |71.4                     |84.6                     |
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|between perpendiculars   |66                       |79.2                     |
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|Greatest beam, meters    |14                       |14                       |
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|Board depth at midship,  |7                        |7                        |
|meters                   |                         |                         |
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|Draft at loadline, meter-|4.9                      |4.68                     |
|s                        |                         |                         |
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|Displacement (T = 4.9 me-|2950                     |3660                     |
|ters), tonnes            |                         |                         |
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|Deadweight, tonnes       |1050                     |1530                     |
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|Cargo transported, tonne-|740                      |1130                     |
|s                        |                         |                         |
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|Volume of cargo holds, c-|1340                     |2035                     |
|ubic meters              |                         |                         |
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|Engine power, kW         |2190                     |2190                     |
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|Speed, knots             |13                       |13                       |
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|Cruising range, miles    |5000                     |5000                     |
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|Provision reserves, days |45                       |45                       |
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|Power of electric power  |1200                     |1200                     |
|plants, kW               |                         |                         |
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|Number of and loading ca-|4 x 3.2                  |6 x 3.2                  |
|pacity of booms in paire-|                         |                         |
|d operation, tonnes      |                         |                         |
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|Temperature conditions o-|+5 to -28                |+5 to -28                |
|f holds, decrees Celsius |                         |                         |
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Khabarovsk Shipyard

The yard has begun the construction of the Olimpiya class passenger SPK. These are seagoing diesel vessels intended for operations in regions with moderate and tropical climates at distances of up to 50 miles in open seas, and 100 miles in closed seas and major lakes. The vessel is designed for the Russian Marine Registry class KM*[2]A3, passenger, SPK.
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|Principal Elements and Characteristics                                       |
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|Overall length, meters                |42.55                                 |
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|Overall beam, meters                  |14                                    |
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|Height with superstructure, meters    |5.25                                  |
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|Draft, afloat/on foils, meters        |4.5/2                                 |
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|Displacement, empty/full, tonnes      |103/135                               |
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|Passenger capacity                    |250                                   |
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|Speed, knots                          |37                                    |
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|Cruising range, miles                 |300                                   |
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|Crew                                  |6                                     |
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The passengers are accommodated in three compartments equipped with aviation-type seats, an air-conditioning system, video monitors and places to stow baggage. There is a bar in the rear compartment, and semi-open promenade areas are envisaged. The SPK maintains steady motion in self-stabilization mode with the aid of an automatic control system.

Comparative analysis shows that the Olimpiya SPKs will surpass foreign SPKs in the analogous class in their propulsion quality (8.3) and power expenditures per unit of transport productivity (0.33 x (kW/person-knots)), deadweight displacement utilization efficiency (0.259) and area of the passenger accommodations per passenger (0.88 m2/person). The cost of one passenger place is 32,000 dollars and one tonne of deadweight is 250,000 dollars, which are also better than the values for foreign analogues.

The distinguishing features of the Olimpiya SPKs are the reliability and longevity of the structural elements, the high efficiency of the engine at optimal economy, and the simplicity of control and servicing.

Azov Shipyard

The construction of small fishing vessels is one of the principal areas of activity of the Azov Shipyard (city of Azov, Rostov Oblast). The enterprise builds, in particular, small seiner/trawlers (type 13301) that are intended for catching fish using purse seines with a stern configuration, conical nets using electric light or a trawl. The vessel class is seagoing, steel, single-screw with a deckhouse and the stern placement of the engine room, and it has four watertight bulkheads. The Russian Marine Registry class is KM*L4 I A2 (fishing), with its navigational area limited to I.

A 6ChSPN2A 18/22 diesel with a power of 165 kW at 750 RPM is used as the main engine, and it drives a four-bladed VFSh with a diameter of 1.4 meters through reverse reduction gearing. Two 2.5 kW DGP 25 M1/1500 diesel generators are the sources of electric power.

The field equipment includes an LEK-3 electric winch and an ShG-500 hydraulic capstan, as well as a fish pump and two cargo booms with a lift capacity of one tonne each. The refrigeration installation keeps a space of 52 m3 at a temperature of 0[DEG]C to -2[DEG]C in a hold loaded with fish packed in ice.
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|Principal Elements and Characteristics                                       |
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|Length, greatest/between perpendicula-|26.5/22.4                             |
|rs, meters                            |                                      |
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|Beam, meters                          |6.5                                   |
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|Board depth, meters                   |3.05                                  |
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|Draft at loadline, meters             |2.35                                  |
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|Displacement, empty/at T = 2.35 meter-|133.9/180.8                           |
|s, tonnes                             |                                      |
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|Cargo capacity, tonnes                |35                                    |
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|Endurance in fuel/fresh water, days   |6/10                                  |
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|Cruising range, miles                 |1800                                  |
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|Speed, knots                          |9.4                                   |
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|Crew                                  |11                                    |
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TsNII imeni Academician A.N. Krylov

The Nizhegorod branch of the TsNII [Central Scientific-Research Institute] imeni Academician A.N. Krylov (Chkalovsk) has developed the multipurpose Vikhr small craft/ground-effect vehicle, which is intended for the transport of five passengers and 100 kg of cargo a distance of up to 850 km. The ground-effect craft may be operated year-round on major rivers, bodies of water and in coastal maritime regions. Movement at a height of 0.2--1.0 meters is possible over water, ice and snow-covered surfaces, in shallow waters and over level solid surfaces. The dimensions of the ground-effect craft are 13.8 x 8.4 x 3.2 meters, with a total mass of 2.5 tonnes, draft in the water of 0.35 meters, and total loading of up to 0.8 tonnes. Two 114-kW VAZ-4133 engines are used as the cruising engines. The takeoff speed is 100 km/hr, with cruising at 170 km/hr and a top speed of 180 km/hr. The fuel consumption in cruising mode is 2 x 22 kg/hr.

The Vikhr ground-effect craft may be used in patrol, health-safety, postal and tourist versions as well.

Svirsk Shipyard

The PPL-1 catamaran-type floating timber-hoisting complex has been built at this enterprise. This is a self- propelled service craft with a displacement of 43.5 tonnes, intended for gathering logs from the surface of the water and from depths of up to six meters. It is 14 meters long, eight meters wide and has a draft of 0.6 meters. The PUM-1 special hydraulic lift device and manipulator, with a lift capacity of 2.5 tonnes at a maximum boom span of 8.8 meters, is to be installed for loading and unloading operations. The power of the shipboard electrical installation is 50 kW, with a fuel reserve of 3.4 tonnes. Two water jets, separated on the sides of the vessel, of 7.5 kW apiece with box-type rudders provide speeds of up to five knots and good maneuverability. The shipboard equipment includes an anchoring and mooring device, two winches for two and 0.9 tonnes, and a floodlight. A special retractable stop has been envisaged on its bottom for holding the craft at the shore. The catamaran has a knock- down construction (two pontoons, power and living units and the PUM-1) to provide for transport by motor vehicle or railroad. The St. Petersburg Akvamarin AO took part in the creation of the floating crane, and the Bratskiy LPK AO in the creation of the manipulator.

Ritm AO

The paramount tasks of the Ritm Intersector Scientific-Production Association, which unites most of the participants in the former Ritm NPO, include the implementation of the following projects:

The development of a list of priority scientific research and experimental design for the most labor- intensive types of shipbuilding production is also envisaged for the formulation of a plan for joint scientific research and experimental design. The coordination of work to strengthen and restore worn parts using new technological methods, including for other sectors of industry, is also planned.

Mutually advantageous terms for the collaboration of enterprises in the association in the sale in their regions of the products of the partners, or the transfer of sets of design and process documentation, are formulated by special bilateral contractual obligations.

TsNIITS

Decree No. 649 of the Russian government of 5 June 1994 conferred upon the Central Scientific-Research Institute of Shipbuilding Technology [TsNIITS] the status of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation. TsNIITS is charged under approved programs with the performance of basic, exploratory and applied scientific research and experimental design in such areas as the theoretical fundamentals of the elastoplastic deformation of metals, methods of utilizing energy of high density, superhigh pressure and speeds, the utilization of superplasticity and layer synthesis for the creation of new shipbuilding materials, and the optimization of modes and parameters of machining processes. The sphere of activity of the institute includes research on the theory of weld deformations, the operability and reliability of welded structural elements, and the effects of methods of cold and thermal influence on the structural properties of metals as part of the structural elements of ships.

TsNIITS will be taking part in the development and realization of dedicated federal programs, including the "Resurrection of the Russian Fleet," "Technology, Machinery and the Production of the Future," "New Materials," "High- Speed, Ecologically Clean Transport," "Resource-Conserving and Ecologically Safe Processes of Mining and Metallurgical Production," and "Advanced Information Technologies." The institute has been entrusted with the function of training and retraining highly qualified scientific cadres in the technology of shipbuilding and ship repairs, the technology of shipboard machine building and the organization of shipbuilding production.

The government decree approved a special provision on the terms of the state support for TsNIITS as a State Scientific Center. There will be dedicated financing of work under the corresponding approved programs through the Ministry of Science and Technical Policy from the funds of the federal budget. The new status is conferred upon TsNIITS for two years.

* * *

The work of TsNIITS was represented for the first time last year along with the other products of the industry in Australia. Russian shipbuilders took part in the International Trade and Industrial Fair in Sydney. TsNIITS demonstrated in particular its most interesting projects-- flange-less joints for ship's shafts, a laser system for monitoring the curvature of the surface of sheets, an all- purpose bending machine, pneumatic and hydraulic tooling, and ceramic shims for one-sided welding, among others. Firms from 22 countries took part in the exhibition.

Baltiya GSP

The Lithuanian Baltiya State Shipbuilding Enterprise [GSP] is assimilating new types of products. These include small fishing vessels with dimensions of 16.5 x 4.5 x 1.9 meters and a displacement of 30 tonnes. DAF 1160 engines with a power of 155 kW are being installed in them. The crew is 2--3 people. The order for these vessels came from Holland. Small recreational vessels with dimensions of 14 x 4.2 x 1.2 meters have been built for a buyer from that same country. The base version envisages the installation of two 46-kW diesels.

They have also begun to be heavily engaged, aside from shipbuilding, in the repair and refitting of ships. The refitting of the large railroad ferry Kaunas was performed in cooperation with the Klaipeda Western Shipyard state enterprise.

An order has been received from the country's power company for the manufacture of steel tanks for the storage of petroleum products with a volume of 30,000 m3 (diameter of 45.1 meters and height of 21.9 meters). The production of plows with 2--5 shares has been started in conjunction with a Polish firm.

Sevastopol Navy Yard GP

Sevmorzavod filled an unusual order last year-- dockwork and repairs on the famous transatlantic passenger liner United States, the last holder of the Blue Ribbon of the Atlantic prize, established back in the last century, for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. This steam- turbine liner (with engine power of about 240,000 horsepower), with a displacement of 59,140 tonnes and a gross tonnage of 53,329 vessel tonnes, was built in the United States and was designed for approximately 2,000 passengers. It won the coveted prize on its very first cruise in 1952, covering the route from New York to England in 3 days 10 hours and 40 minutes at an average speed of 35.6 knots. The vessels has a greatest length of 301.7 meters, a width of 30.9 meters, a height to the main deck of about 26 meters and a draft of 11 meters. The fate of the liner, however, did not turn out all that well. The vessel has been unprofitable owing to large operating expenses, and was laid up for many years. The Turkish businessman Mr. Sadikoglu recently became its owner.

Sevmorzavod performed the exceedingly complex placement of the liner in dry dock, almost "flush against" the floating caisson. Given the considerable overhang of the stern extremity (about 40 meters), the ship is virtually resting just on keel blocks 1.2 meters wide with a minimal quantity of backup side cribbing. The calculations for the docking were performed by lead designer V.G. Lamin. The enterprise has done work connected with the first stage of repairs on the liner and the removal of asbestos- containing insulation, among other things. A contract was then signed for the performance of new work to repair and refit the vessel.


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