RUSSIAN MILITARY AVIATION
POST OF ORIGIN: MOSCOW
AUTHOR: MICHAEL NIKOULICHEV
INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT, U.S. & FOREIGN COMMERCIAL SERVICE AND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 1999. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED OUTSIDE OF THE UNITED STATES
In spite of the economic crisis in Russia, military aviation potential remains high. Russian military aircraft account for half of all revenues from arms exports. Design bureaus continue to put out competitive jets and helicopters. At the same time, combat readiness is low for lack of resources. The Russian Government put forward plans for industry consolidation that would trim expenses for design and production of both civilian and military aircraft. In an attempt to replenish falling sales of military equipment, Russian defense enterprises have come up with an increasing number of conversion projects that could be viewed as potentially good opportunities for U.S. export-oriented companies.
Prior to 1992, the military and civil aviation industries in the former Soviet Union were wholly owned by the state and strictly regulated. Design bureaus were separate from serial production facilities where aircraft were mass-produced. In the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union began to shift from its traditional military focus to developing new civil aircraft. Military exports were handled by the state-owned Rosvooruzheniye company, which was an exclusive arms exporter for Russia. In 1998, Rosvooruzheniye exported $2.04 billion in arms, nearly half of which (49.2%) was military aircraft and parts.
For U.S. firms, pure defense industry opportunities in Russia are very limited, regardless of any technology transfer concerns. The Russian government intends to use its limited defense funds to maintain Russian defense capabilities and is unlikely to invest in weapons systems from the West.
Under severe budgetary constraints, government defense procurements have been drastically cut. A further constraint has been the significant surplus of used military equipment on hand as a result of efforts to downsize the armed services. While the best items are reissued to the newly reformed formations - where possible with some overhaul and upgrades - a sizeable amount has yet to be disposed of. It was reported that in 1998 no major equipment items were procured. Plans for future procurements are reportedly only for minimal replacements of existing inventory as needed, possible procurement of "one-of-a-kind" prototypes, and the eventual (2005 at the earliest) re-equipping of the services with updated military aircraft and air defense systems. To date, the attention of the Ministry of Defense (MOD) remains focused on traditional suppliers (such as MiG, Sukhoi, Mil, Tupolev, and Kamov) for aircraft, as well as other Russian manufacturers of various types of ground and naval equipment.
Combat training is now practically not financed at all. In 1998, the military received only six percent of the resources required for combat training. Even this amount was only apportioned for maintaining infrastructure, which forced the military to finance fuel, ammunition, and training equipment from other sources. Training continues to be conducted on a reduced scale or is replaced by less resource-intensive activities (e.g., command post exercises replacing field tactical exercises). Personnel shortfalls, combined with a lack of materiel, contributed to the postponement or non-execution of unit training plans. Russian Air Force elements executed only between 15-40 percent of their standard training norms. This is contributing to the rapid decay of combat readiness. According to MOD internal assessments, the average Russian soldier is only marginally combat capable.
After the start of the Balkan war, however, Russia conducted large-scale air force exercises ("Air Bridge 99", March 1999) that involved 100 aircraft and helicopters, including TU-22m3, TU-95, and TU-160 strategic bombers; MIG-29, MIG-31, and SU-27 fighters; and An-30, TU-22mp, and IL-76 spy aircraft. At the same time, routine exercises of the 326th Bomber Division were held in the Amur Region of Russia’s Far East.
Russia continues to export arms through the government firm Rosvooruzheniye. Its newly appointed Director Grigory Rapota managed to bring to the 1999 Abu Dhabi IDEX-99 a delegation of over 50 Russian companies.
Main types of Russian military aircraft:
Sukhoi Design Bureau
Su-25 (Frog Foot)
Su-32FN – naval version
Su-24M – modernized
Su-34 – export version
Su-30MK – in-flight refueling
Su-30K, Su-30MK (modification)
Su-34 – long range
Su-33 (carrier-based Su-27)
Su-35 (2,160 mile range)
Su-37 (1,780 mile range)
Yakovlev Design Bureau
Yak-38M – naval version
Tupolev Design Bureau
Tu-22M3 – 3,700 miles
Tu-95M5 – 8,000 miles
Tu-160 – low altitude supersonic
MiG-21 (7 modifications)
MiG-23 (5 modifications)
MiG-25 (reconnaissance, bomber and anti-radar modifications)
MiG-29 (Fulcrum A,C,D,E)
MiG-31 (1,630 mile range)
(Source: Aviation Week)
Additionally, Russia’s military plants produce Il-78 and Su-24MR reconnaissance aircraft, MiG-29UB, MiG-ATSu-27UB, and Yak/AEM-130 trainers, A-50 (Ilyushin complex) early warning aircraft, and a wide range of cargo/ transport/ refueling aircraft produced by Antonov Scientific Production Complex (Ukraine). Russia also currently has approximately 75 strategic bombers (Source: The Russian Journal).
Helicopters are produced primarily by Kamov Design Complex (Moscow region) and Moscow Helicopter Plant (MIL):
Ka-27PS (since 1981)
Ka-28 (since 1981)
Ka-29 (since 1984)
Ka-31 (1997 model)
Ka-50 (Black Shark)
Mi-26TC (heavy lift)
Mi-171 and 172
Subdivided into service areas, Russia’s military aviation looks like:
MiG-25, 27, 29, 31
Su-24, 25, 27
Ka-25, 27, 29
Tu-95H6/ H16/ G
After the planned restructuring of the faltering Russian aviation industry in 1997-98, four core enterprise groups will emerge to promote 5-6 "families" of Russian aircraft within the country and in the world market:
MiG-MAPO complex was created by Presidential Decree # 92 in January 1996 and unites 14 enterprises that design, produce parts for, and assemble MiG fighters and Ka-helicopters. The complex employs 60,000 people. Current programs include the modification of MiG-29, the creation of a light multi-purpose fighter MiG-35, and the development of the sixth generation 1-41. The research is conducted by Mikoyan, Kamov and Klimov R&D design bureaus, R&D Electroautomatics (St. Petersburg), and R&D Soyuz (Tushino). The plants include:
- MAPO MiG, Moscow - MiG-21,29,31;
- Sokol, Nizhny Novgorod - MiG-family;
- Progress, Arsenyev - Ka-helicopters;
- Chernishov plant, Moscow - engines;
- Myasischev Electromechanical plant - engines;
- Perm Pribor, Perm - avionics;
- Kursk Pribor, Kursk - avionics;
- Ryazan Pribor, Ryazan - avionics;
- Red October, St. Petersburg - components.
In 1995, MiG MAPO signed contracts for almost $1 billion. The year 1996 was disastrous with no contracts signed. A breakthrough came in 1997 with an estimated $800 million export order from India for 40 MiG-29 fighters, 12 Ka-50 Black Sharks and several Ka-52 Alligator helicopters. Today almost 4,500 MiGs of various modifications fly in different countries. Therefore, MiG MAPO focuses its business strategy on the modernization of outdated MiGs to the level of MiG-29s.
During the Soviet period Russia used to export technology as well as arms. For example, during 1952-73, Aero Vodochody (well-known military aircraft manufacturer in Chekhia) assembled 3,600 MiG fighters under license for Warsaw Pact and third world countries.
The Sukhoi Military Industrial group was created by a Presidential decree in August 1996. The group consists of 32 enterprises and 4 R&D bureaus. The main products of the Sukhoi group are supersonic Sukhoi fighter jets and Beriev hydroplanes. The Su-27 fighter is gradually replacing its competitor MiG-29 as a basic model for the Russian Air force. The major companies within the group include:
- Sukhoi Design Bureau;
- Beriev Design Bureau;
- KNAAPO (Komsomolsk);
- IAPO (Irkutsk);
- NAPO (Novosibirsk);
- Ulan-Ude helicopter plant;
- TAVIA (Taganrog);
- Dubna Machine Building Plant;
- Tushino Machine Building Plant.
According to a rather optimistic Teal Group estimate, the worldwide demand for Sukhoi aircraft in the next decade will be 2,846 aircraft worth $110 billion.
Presidential Decree #880 of July 14, 1997, identified a list of scientific organizations and enterprises that retain Russian Federation State Scientific Center Status. The aerospace facilities on the list include:
- Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute imeni Zhukovskiy;
- Central Institute of Aviation Engine Building imeni P.I.Baranov;
- All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials;
- State Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Systems;
- Flight Research Institute imeni M.M.Gromov.
While the Russian government considers aviation a strategically important sector of the economy and erects considerable protectionist barriers to aircraft imports and investment, it lacks resources to support the aerospace industry, provide subsidies, finance big orders, and allow it to adjust to a competitive market economy. However, Russian officials have recently inferred that favorable conditions would be created for those foreign aerospace companies that would be willing to initiate joint ventures and create workplaces in Russia. It is obvious that mutual cooperation between the two largest aerospace countries, USA and Russia, could improve the competitiveness of the Russian industry as well as benefit the U.S. market.
In an attempt to boost arms sales, the Russian arms export company Rosvooruzheniye takes part in many exhibitions around the world. Within Russia, military aviation is openly displayed only at Moscow International Aviation and Space Salon (MAKS) which is held biannually in Zhukovsky (Gromov Flight Research Institute), a small town and aircraft research center 35 km outside of Moscow. The exhibition is quickly growing and acquiring status as an important international event. MAKS ‘97 attracted over 300 companies from 23 countries. The next exhibition will be held in August 17-20, 1999.
Official Organizer: The Government of the Russian Federation
Tel: (095) 207-0046/ 5500 - "Aviaexport"
Fax: (095) 207-2977
Annotated list of useful contacts within the industry for U.S. firms interested in the Russian market:
1) Kamov Design Bureau
Ul. 8 Marta, 8
Lubertsi, Russia 140007
Sergey Mikheyev, President & General Designer
Veniamin Kasyanov, 1st Deputy General Designer
Tel: (095) 700-2108
Established in 1948, the Kamov company is one of the leaders in the development and manufacture of various types of helicopters. The company's helicopters are noted for their flight and operational performance. Its well-known models include:
The company is the leader in Russia in the application of polymer composites and highly automatic avionics installations for helicopters to ensure day/night operation in VFR and IFR, in any region, over land or sea. Kamov employs 4,200 people and maintains a subsidiary in Ukraine. The Russian Government keeps a 49 percent stock holding in the enterprise. As an organization, Kamov consists of a design bureau, a factory in Ukhtomsk, and an R&D testing center. Ka-series helicopters are manufactured at the Ukhtomsk factory, Strela (Orenburg), the Kumertau Aviation Complex (KumAPO), and the Progress Complex.
2) Mikoyan Design Bureau (MiG)
Leningradskoye Shosse, 6
Moscow, Russia 125299
Fax: (095)-943-0027/ 250-8819
Rostsislav Belyakov, General Designer
Tel: (095) 155-2315
Anatoly Belosvet, Deputy General Director
Tel: (095) 158-2452
Apart from military aircraft of the MiG-series, MAPO MiG manufactures civilian aircraft Aviatika-890, T-110 Grach, Il-103 and Il-1D. The total number of employees at MAPO at the end of 1996 was 20,000. Over the years, MiG Design Bureau has designed over 200 planes, and produced nearly 60,000 MiG family fighters.
The main strike force of Russia’s Air Force consists of fourth generation MiG-29 and Su-27 fighters. However, it has been long known that the Mikoyan Design Bureau is developing a fifth generation multipurpose jetfighter coded 1-42.
3) Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant Joint Stock Company
Sokolnicheskiy Val, 2
Moscow, Russia 107113
Viktor Sinelschikov, General Designer
Aleksey Radin, Director of Foreign Relations Department
Tel: (095) 264-4762
This joint stock company is the major manufacturer of the Mil family of helicopters. Since its establishment in 1947, it has produced over 20,000 helicopters, of which about 6,000 have been exported to countries around the world. Mil Helicopter company is fully privatized. Structurally, the Mil enterprise consists of a design bureau, an R&D complex, a pilot plant and testing grounds. Apart from the Mil plant, Mil-helicopters are also manufactured at the Ulyanovsk UAZ factory, the Progress Complex and RosVertol.
4) Myasischev Design Bureau
Moscow Region, Russia 140160
Valery Novikov, General Designer
Valery Slutski, First Deputy General Designer
Initially specialized in strategic bombers, the Myasischev Design Bureau at present develops business-class planes M-101T Gzhel and M-102 Duet and other versions of civilian planes within the framework of conversion process. It currently employs over 1000 people.
5) Sukhoi Design Bureau
Polikarpov Str., 23A
Moscow, Russia 124284
Mikhail Simonov, General Designer
Tel: (095) 945-6525
Mikhail Pogosyan, Deputy General Designer
Vladimir Yakovlev, Head of the Information Department
Tel: (095) 941-1007
Combat aircraft of the Su-series are manufactured at Novosibirsk Aviation Complex (NAPO), Tbilisi Aviation Complex, Ulan-Ude Aircraft factory, Komsomolsk-na-Amure Aircraft Complex, Dubna Machine-building factory, Irkutsk Aircraft Complex, and Tushino Machine-building factory (Moscow).
In 1998, Russia signed a contract with India for 30 Su-30MKM jets as well as spare parts for old MiGs. However it has yet to fulfill the contract.
6) Tupolev Design Bureau
Moscow, Russia 111250
Igor Shevchuk, General Director
Tel: (095) 267-2444
Alexey Tupolev, General Designer
Tel: (095) 263-7067
Alexander Romanov, Head of the Foreign Relations Department –
Tel: (095) 203-3358
Fax: (095) 261-7141
The Tupolev Holding company includes: ANTK Tupolev (10,500 employees), Aviacor, Takom-Avia, and the Ulyanovsk aircraft factory. ANTK Tupolev is a member of the Financial-Industrial Group "Russian Aviation Consortium". Aircraft of the TU-series are produced at Aviastar, KiGAZ, Aviacor, KAPO Gorbunova, Takom-Avia and Arnaks aircraft factories.
U.S. Government Contacts
U.S. and FCS Moscow
Edgar Fulton, Senior Commercial Officer
Ul. B. Molchanovka, 23/28
U.S. and FCS St. Petersburg
Jim McCarthy – Principal Commercial Officer
Nevskiy Prospekt, 25
191186, St. Petersburg
Tel: (812) 326-2560
Fax: (812) 326-2561
U.S. and FCS Vladivostok
Richard Steffens – Principal Commercial Officer
Pushkinskaya, 32690001 Vladivostok
Fax: -4232- 30-0092
International Tel: (509) 851-1212
International Fax: (509) 851-1211
Consulate General Yekaterinburg
Dan Russell-Consul General (or) Ann Breiter, Pol/Econ Officer
Gogolya Ul, 15
Tel: (3432) 564-691; (3432) 564-513
Fax: (3432) 564-515
European Office of Aerospace Research and Development
Col. Gerald T. O’Connor, Commander
223/231 Old Marylebone Road
London NW1 5HT, UK
Tel: (171) 514-4376
Fax: (171) 514-4960
Russian Government Contacts:
Ministry of the Interior
Aleksandr Kostin, Head of the Foreign Relations Department
Zhitnaya Ul, 16
117049 Moscow Russia
Tel: (095) 239-0056
Fax: (095) 230-2580
Chief Moscow Directorate of the Interior
Nikolay Vasiliyevich Kulikov, Head
101000 Moscow Russia
Tel: (095) 200-8342
Fax: (095) 200-9305
Special Equipment Research Institute
Ministry of Internal Affairs
Viktor Andreyevich Khimichev, Director
Malaya Lubyanka Ul, 16/4
10100 Moscow Russia
Tel: (095) 222-6253
Fax: (095) 924-2714
Russian Space Agency
Yury Nikolayevich Koptev, General Director
Tel: (095) 975-4632
Fax: (095) 288-9063
Boris Dimitriyevich Ostroumov,
Deputy General Director
Tel: (095) 971-9141
Ministry of Emergency Situations
Department of Certification of Rescue Equipment
Abay S. Maurin, Head
Tel: (095) 443-8305
Fax: (095) 449-9004
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This report is provided courtesy of the Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States (BISNIS)