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The S-25 SA-1 GUILD was the first surface-to-air strategic air defense system deployed by the Soviet Union These R-113 missiles were deployed in a ring around Moscow, and remained in service through the mid-1980s. The SA-1 system entered operational service in the late 1950s, and was deployed around Moscow in a dense complex of 56 sites arranged in two concentric rings. There were 22 sites in the inner ring at about 25 nm radius from the center of Moscow and 34 sites on the outer ring at about 45 nm radius. A typical site had 60 launch positions joined by a road network.

The V-301 missile, as originally designed for use with this system, was unboosted and employed a single liquid sustainer motor. Although its maximum speed was on the order of Mach 2.5, it had a low initial velocity which limited its engagement capability against supersonic targets. Its maximum intercept range varied depending upon the approach and type of target; for example, against a directly incoming, high-flying B-252 its range was on the order of 20 n.m. This missile ccould carry an HE or nuclear payload of 450-700 pounds and its CEP was estimated to be 65-120 feet. It was believed to be capable of interceptions from a minimum altitude of 3,000 feet up to 60,000 feet, with some additional capability up to about 80,000 feet, particularly if equipped with a nuclear warhead.

The B-200 guidance system at each site employed a track-while-scan radar (designated "Yo-Yo" by US intelligence) having about 54 coverage in both the vertical and horizontal planes. The system also incorporated fire control equipment which enabled each site to engage as many as 20 targets simultaneously. This capability, with the spacing of adjacent sites for mutual support and the inner ring of sites for backup, enables the system to direct an extremely high rate of fire against incoming targets.

Because of its' cost, immobility, and inflexibility, the SA-1 system was not deployed elsewhere in the Soviet Union apart from Moscow.




Length (m)

Diameter (m)

Weight at launch (kg)

Propulsion system




Launch rails/tubes


Warhead (type)



Max. velocity (Mach)

Effective altitude

Maximum range (km)

Minimum range (km)

Kill Radius

Reload time (min)

Associated radars

Sources and Resources

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