News

AOARD-LR-95-01

16 March 1995

Capt Paul McQuay
AFOSR/AOARD
US Address: Unit 45002, APO AP 96337-0007
Int'l Address: 7-23-17 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106, Japan
Tel/Fax: +81 (3) 5410-4409/4407


SUBJECT: Liaison Report - Summary of the Indian Defense Science and Technology Organization


1. ABSTRACT
This liaison report is an excerpt from a Indian publication entitled: "SP's Military Yearbook 1993-1994 - Silver Jubilee Issue," published by Guide Publications of New Delhi, India. The excerpt provides a summary of the organization and a brief description of programs and activities of India's many defense laboratories and centers.



DEFENCE SCIENCE &;TECHNOLOGY

R &;D Support to Armed Forces of India


Today India's Armed Forces are well-equipped and are growing stronger with scientific and technical support of Defence Research and Development organisation (DRDO) which aims to make the country self sufficient in technologies needed for defence. Actively engaged in well planned projects in the field of science and technology, also supports in saving foreign exchange as indigenisation in armament technology is the major motive of DRDO.


BACKGROUND

The present Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was formed in 1958 by amalgamating some of the existing units of the Defence Science Organisation created in 1948. It was the outcome of a major reorganisation in as much as it paved the way for adequate scientific and technical support to the Indian Armed Forces.
The DRDO has since gone through a phased programme of build-up and expansion in various fields of defence science and technology, and administrations the Defence Research and development Organisation (DRDO). And also functions as the nodal agency for the execution of major development programme of relevance of defence by the integration of research, development testing and production capabilities in the national sector.
The Department operates through a network of around 47 laboratories and establishments located nationwide and manned by over 34,000 personnel, including about 16,000 scientific technical persons.


HEAD OF DDR &;D

The Scientific Adviser to the Minister of Defence who is Secretary to the Government of India for Defence Research is the Head of the Department of Defence Research and Development. And renders advice to Defence Minister and to Organisations in the MoD on all scientific and technological aspects of military operations, logistics, weapon system and equipments.
In addition, the Department undertakes, research, design and development of weapons, weapon systems, equipment, materials and stores.
The department also sponsors defence research work in universities and higher technological institutes in the country. And has Its own training and educational institutions in defence science and technology and work study. While the majority of defence research projects are inter departmental, the Department is progressively embarking on major, integrated inter-departmental defence research and development programmes involving many large and small industries in the public and private sectors. The work of Defence laboratories is administered by the DRDO Headquarters located in New Delhi, and the programmes are as a whole, coordinated under the unified direction of the Department of Defence Research and Development.
The Department operates through a network of laboratories and establishments under the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and also through the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) for development of Light Combat Aircraft. The Department functions in close partnership with 70 academic institutions, 50 national science and technology centres, 150 public / private Industries who have supported the efforts of the
Department In meeting the stringent needs of the Services.
The range of activities have been briefed in the following heads

- Armaments

- Aeronautics

- Combat Vehicles

- Engineering

- Electronics &;Instrumentation

- Missiles

- Materials

- Computers &;Simulation

- Human Resource Development


ARMAMENTS

The new Light Weight Rifle and Light Machine Gun (LMG) developed by DRDO have successfully undergone [email protected] user trials and cleared by the Army for bulk production. The trials for the carbine were expected to be carried out in 1993. The family of new small arms is lighter, has lesser recoil and gives higher fire power to the soldier.

Anti-tank influence mines, commonly known as belly-attack mines, have been developed and are under user trials. These mines are capable of providing full width attack capability as compared to existing pressure actuated mines which get actuated only when the wheel/track of the tank exerts adequate pressure over the mine.
An explosive reactive armour has been developed which can enhance the protection level of the existing tank without excessive increase in weight. It can be used on an add-on basis and would provide enhanced protection against anti-tank missiles.
A multi-purpose anti-personnel grenade has been developed which enhances the defensive and offensive capabilities of the infantry soldier. It can be thrown by hand and can also be fired by rifle. The grenade is being
offered for user evaluation.
A non-lethal riot control bullet, after successful trial has been accepted by the Ministry of Home Affairs for Police use. This ammunition is non polluting and non-expanding in human body.
The conventional firing range for small arms generally requires about 300 acres of land. The "Baffle Range" designed by DRDO has been accepted by the Army. This range can be accommodated in 30 x 300 m area. The first range Is under construction, at present.
During the year, a Centre for Environment and Explosive Safety (CEES) has been created at Delhi, to advise the Ministry of Defence establishments regarding fire, explosive and environment safety. The safety audit of 33 establishments under Ordnance Factories Board (OFB), DRDO and Director General Quality Assurance has been conducted and implementation of the recommendations is being monitored. Data on hazard classification have been generated after trials on explosives and ammunitions in collaboration with the OFB. Material safety data sheets have been compiled for defence hazardous materials.


AERONAUTICS

Several successful! development test flights of Pilots Target Aircraft (PTA) were achieved and user trial phase has commenced. Development work on a mini Remotely Piloted Vehicles has also been undertaken, which has understandably reached the system definition phase.
The development and testing of expendable Shock Absorption Material required for heavy air-dropping system has been successfully completed.
The Main Tactical Assault Parachute meeting the requirements, projected by the Army has been developed and is undergoing user evaluation.
Type approval has been accorded to integration of certain radar with Dornier aircraft for extending the aircraft role for surveillance purposes. Aircraft batteries for various applications have also been type approved. Brake pads for transport aircraft application have also been type approved and cleared for in-fight testing.


COMBAT VEHICLES

Specialist vehicles, namely Armoured Ambulance and Light Repair Armoured Vehicles developed by DRDO were evaluated by the Army and were recommended for introduction into Service. Another variant, Carrier Command Post is under evaluation trials. Three other variants, namely, Armoured High Mobility Ammunition Carrier, Armoured Amphibious Dozer and Armoured Engineer Recce Vehicle are in final stages of development.
Bullet proofing of vehicles with indigenously developed jackal armour was successfully demonstrated, on the basis of which work is in progress for bullet-proofing certain classes of vehicles.


ENGINEERING

The variants of Bridge Layer Tank for different obstacles and increased span capabilities are in an advanced stage of development. A rapid hardening cement for quick repairs of runways has been developed and successfully demonstrated.
A number of critical equipments required for soldiers deployed at high altitudes in mountains have been developed and produced.
After development of fire detection and suppression system for Main Battle Tank 'Arjun', work has been undertaken for the development of advanced fire suppression and protection system for missile launchers, aircraft and other armoured fighting vehicles.


ELECTRONICS &;INSTRUMENTATION

For use in wide bank search and monitoring receivers, a number of microwave components and anatennae have been designed and developed. An indigenously developed Very Low Frequency (VLF) receiver, employing state-of-the-art digital signal processing techniques for communication with, submerged submarines, has entered production-phase. These receivers can be used on-board ships and other remote installations. The production models have been made and are being offered for sea trials by the Navy.
A ground based SIGINT system for collection and analysis of intelligence signals from communication radar and other non-communication emitters has been developed. The technical e valuation of the system has been successfully completed and the system is now scheduled for user trials.
An indigenously developed central earth station for avalanche studies,- capable of indigenously receiving meteorological data from remotely located data collection platforms through satellite is under installation. The centrally processed data on occurrence of snow and avalanche would be utilised by the Defence Forces.
A computerised Artillery Combat, Command &;Communication System is in advanced stage of development. The system capabilities include artillery target intelligence, tactical fire control and fire planning and the management of deployment.
A number of microwave frequency components, namely, low noise amplifier, band pass filters, frequency generators, isolators and circulators have been developed by a DRDO laboratory. These components also have wide civilian applications.
An integrated Observation Equipment has been developed for the Artillery Observation Post. It facilitates surveillance, acquisition and ranging of targets for accurate firing during day the night under all weather conditions. The equipment has been accepted for introduction in Service and is under production phase.
The research scientists of DRDO have also developed technology for C band phase shifters from special grade of substituted lithium ferrite material; this has been transferred to CEL and ECIL for production.


MISSILES

The Surface-to-Surface Missile 'Privthi' developed under the integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, was successfully test launched, for the 10th time on February 7, 1993. The mobile launcher, mobile launch control and user version of the ground system including software, have been validated. The missile has also been tested to achieve the range of 250 km with payload. Prefragmented warhead has been developed which has performed satisfactorily in dynamic and static trials. Appropriate training in three phases, covering missile sub-system, handling and maintenance Aspects has been given to the users.
Four flight trials of short-range Surface-to-Air Missile 'Trishul' were carried out last year in tube launched mode using folded fins configuration against balloon and Pilotless Target Aircraft (PTA) targets. One flight trial was guided throughout the trajectory using fixed line of sight and Infra-red OR) gathering guidance systems as per programmed flight. The Trishul Combat Vehicle (TCV) is in the final phase of integration. Other ground system and support systems are ready for user trials.

Four flight trials of medium range Surface-to-Air Missile 'Akash' had been carried out on December 20, 1992 from Interim Test Range, Chandipur, using a self propelled launcher. The multi-functional phased array radar system has been integrated with the system and is under evaluation. Most of the ground systems for the 'Akash' have been realised-

Two flight test of third-generation Anti-Tank Missile 'Nag' were carried out last year. Field tests of thermal sight system for 'Nag' were carried out and recognition range of 5 km against tank targets was obtained. Integration work for mobile launchers and mobile carrier vehicle is under final stage of realisation. The module testing of prototype version of millimetric-wave guidance system has been completed and the system is under integration for testing. The tandem shaped warhead had been optimised and is being evaluated for its performance.
The second experimental flight of re-entry technology demonstrator 'Agni' was conducted in May 1992 but the mission objective could not be achieved fully. The post flight analysis was carried out and necessary modifications are being incorporated for the next flight test.


MATERIALS

Aluminium-Lithium alloy sheets have been developed for the LCA programme. Electroslag refining technology has also been developed for conversion of the high quality copper scraps into value added products of high purity Copper.
An integral turbine rotor for use in Prithvi missile has been developed using indigenously produced stainless steel powder. The component has passed the engine test successfully. A clutch disc for naval ship application has been developed and was accepted by the Navy after successful trials. A gun barrel has successfully been boronised and has demonstrated four fold improvements in the barrel life.
The technology for processing Magnesium based alloy slab folled plates for use in Prithvi missile has been established. This technology has been transferred to the private sector for regular production. The process technology has been developed for Samarium-Cobalt magnets and prototypes of different shapes of magnets have been accepted by various agencies like Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.
A defluoridation unit has been developed to remove fluoride from 10 PPM to less than the permissible limit of 0.5 PPM in drinking water. The formulation so developed is of re-usable type and the basic cost of defluoridation is Rs 3/- for 1000 litres of water.
A silicon-base recoil fluid has been developed indigenously and supplied in bulk quantity for rapid firing of guns. Aqueous-base hydraulic fluids developed by DRDO for use in submarines, and under user evaluation.
The first phase of the evaluation of the laboratory model of the indigenous Composite Sonar System 'Panchendriya' for submarine application has been completed. Sea trials of Sonar Information Processor (SIP) and field trials of Intercept sonar were carried out during the year. The technological know-how of the system to the extent of 90%, has been transferred to Bharat Electronics., who have undertaken the fabrication of design &;engineering model of the system.
The post launch activities of the Marine Acoustic Research Ship (MARS) dedicated to the acquisition of ocean data essential for developments in the area of anti-submarine warfare and sonar design, are under progress. The superstructure fabrication and erection have been completed. The installation of most of the equipment/ machinery has been completed. The line out inspection and dry survey for most of the compartments have also been completed.
The consolidated oceanographic and marine acoustic programme is in progress for developing oceanographic and marine acoustic models for Indian waters to help in sonar design and for naval exercises and tactical operations. Experiments have been conducted at sea for evaluation/development of ocean forecasting and sonar range prediction models. Naval officers were also trained for use of these models. Anti submarine warfare magnetic anomaly field maps have been generated for certain areas of Indian waters for aid in magnetic detection of underwater targets.
A high speed towing tank, set up by a DRDO Laboratory, is being extensively used for model testing of ships, submarines and underwater bodies. The facilities has also been used to calibrate the speed log of indigenous submarines. Tests on LCA model are under progress for ground effects on the design. A number of software packages have been developed for shocks, viberation response and strength calculation and are being increasingly used by the Navy.
A microwave absorbing material has been developed for application on ships as well as for aircraft. A Sonar absorbing material, capable of absorbing underwater acoustic waves, has been developed for submarine application. Polymeric materials equivalent to teak and fir have been developed. These can be used as long life supporting blocks in dry docks.
The indigenous production of HY-80 steel for the pressure ',hull of submarine has been established on a pilot scale. The non-skid paint and solvent free anti-corrosive paints have been developed which are under user evaluation. Ceramic materials based on lead zirconate titanate (PZI) and toughened.- zirconia have been developed for hydrophone and engineering applications. A drain cooler based on indigenously produced titanium tubes and planes has been designed, fabricated and accepted for fitment on Naval ships.


COMPUTERS &;SIMULATION

The engineering prototypes of ANUCO co-processor have been successfully tested and have shown excellent performance. This co processor functions as a memory mapped peripheral and can be configured for both INTEL and Motorola based CPUs.
An integrated Multi Mission Planning System (MMPS) has been developed and handed over to South Western Air Command, which was operationally used by the Command during exercises. On specific request of Air Headquarters, work on extensive of this system to provide a Mission Communication Network system (MICON) has been undertaken. A computerised system with appropriate software models for enhancing the operational efficiency of Eastern Air Command, has been successfully developed and handed over to the Command. A project in the area of Training war games is nearing completion and is expected to be shortly handed over to the College of Air Warfare, Hyderabad. The training Wargame also incorporates Close Air Support, interdiction and reccemission.
A project has been undertaken to develop models for 'Akash' (surface-to air missile) sub-systems. These include performance simulation of active seeker head in look down role and Battery Level Radar under Clutter and jamming environment. It also includes development of algorithm and strategies connected with the operational needs of Akash Weapon system.
A project aiming to provide a computerised facility for combat training to Army Commanders is progressing satisfactorily. The project on development of a computerised naval War-game for providing training to Naval Commanders at strategic and tactical levels, is in advanced stage of development. Considerable progress has also been made in the project on modernisation of Operation Rooms with high speed computers, graphical displays and data storage/retrieval systems.


HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

During the year, 43 different courses were conducted for the officers of DRDO, three Services and other organisations of the Ministry of Defence. The courses offered specialised training to the officers in various fields such as armaments, combat vehicles, marine engineering, marine propulsion control warheads, electro-explosive devices, aircraft weapon system etc. In addition, need based adhoc capsule courses were conducted from time to time for the three Services, DRDO, DGOF and allied organisations. A few one year fellowship courses were conducted in electronics, gas turbines and mechanical engineering.
More than 300 officers and NGOs from DRDO, three Services and other departments of the Ministry were imparted training in the fields of management, work studies and allied subjects. Consultancy projects on management were carried out for the International Airport Authority of India, Calcutta; the School of Artillery, Devlali and the Base Hospital, Delhi.
Under Research &;Training scheme for Electonics and Post-Graduate Training scheme for Defence Service, 138 Officers were sponsored for Post-graduate courses in various disciplines at leading academic institutions. A limited number of scientists/engineers were deputed abroad for specialised training programmes. Under grantsin-aid and research &;training schemes, 14 projects were sponsored in various areas of science and technology in the premier academic institutions and technical centres/institutes.
Six courses were conducted on fire prevention, fire fighting and allied subjects in which 264 personnel including 39 officers of the three Services, Inter-Services organisations, Ordnance Factories and Defence PSUs were imparted training.

A course of 40 weeks duration on food analysis and quality assurance has been conducted for ASC officers engaged in food handling, storage and transportation.
A refresher course on explosive safety was conducted for the benefit of 30 officers from Ordnance Factories.
Two Junior Administrative Management courses, two Stores Management courses and one Management and Work Study course for different categories of staff were conducted during the year.




ESTABLISHMENTS/LABS OF DRDO

1. AERIAL DELIVERY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTT. (AIRDEL)
Station Road, Post Box No.51, Agra Cantt. 28,.1 001

2. VEHICLE RESEARCH &;DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (VAHANVIKAS)
Ahmednagar 414 001

3. DEFENCE AGRICULTURAL. RESEARCH LABORATORY
Almora 263 601

4. COMBAT VEHICLES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTT. (VEHICLEDEV)
Avadi, Madras 600 054

5. PROOF AND EXPERIMENTAL ESTT. (PROOF)
PO Chandipore, Balasore 756 025

6. AERONAUTICAL DEVELOPMENT ESTT. (LABAIR)
Suranjan Dass Road, Jiwan Bima Nagar PO, Bangalore 560 075

7. GAS TURBINE RESEARCH ESTT. (TURBINE)
Suranjan Das Road, CV Raman Nagar PO, Bangalore 560 093

8. ELECTRONICS &;RADAR DEVELOPMENT ESTT. (DEVELECTRONICS)
DRDO Complex, Byrasandra Village, Jivan Bima Nagar,
Bangalore 560 075

9. DEFENCE BIO-ENGINEERING AND ELECTRO-MEDICAL LABORATORY (DEBEL)
High Grounds, Bangalore 560 001

10. CENTRE FOR AERONAUTICAL SYSTEM STUDIES AND ANALYSIS (CASSA)
Suranjan Das Road, Jivan Bima Nagar, Bangalore 560 075

11. MICROWAVE TUBE R &;D CENTRE (MTRDC)
Ministry of Defence, BEL Complex, PO Jalahaiii,
Bangalore 560 013

12. CENTRE FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
LRDE Campus, Jivan Bima Nagar, Bangalore 560 075

13. NAVAL CHEMICAL &;METALLURICAL LABORATORY (NAVYLAB)
Naval Dockyard, Bombay 400 023

14. DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT UNIT (DEFUNIT)
S-212, Commissariat Road, Hastings, Calcutta 700 022

15. TERMINAL BALLISTICS RESEARCH LABORATORY (BALLISTICS)
Sector 30, Cliandigarh

16. NAVAL PHYSICAL &;OCEANOGRAPHIC LABORATORY (INPHYLAB)
Naval Base, Cochin 682 004

17. DEFENCE SCIENCE CENTRE (DEFSCCENT)
Metcalfe House, Delhi 110 054

18. SOLIDSTATE PHYSICS LABORATORY (SOLIDSTATE)
Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 007

19. INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND ALLIED SCIENCE (DEFSCIENCE)
Lucknow Road, Delhi 110 007
NMAS

20. DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PHYSIOLOGY AND ALLIED SCIENCES (DEFSCIENCE/DIPAS)
Delhi Cantt. I 10 010

21. INSTITUTE OF SYSTEMS STUDIES &;ANALYSIS
Metcalfe House, Delhi 110 054

22. DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF FIRE RESEARCH (FIRERESCH)
Probyn Road, Delhi 110 007

23. DEFENCE SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATIONS CENTRE (DESIDOC)
Metcalfe House, Delhi 110 054

24. DEFENCE TERRAIN RESEARCH LABORATORY (DEFSCIENCE/DTRL)
Metcalfe House, Delhi 110 054

25. SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS GROUP (DEFSCIENCE/SAG)
Metcalfe House, Delhi 110 054

26. DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (DEF SCIENCE/DIPR)
West Block No. 8, Wing No. 1, R.K. Puram,
New Delhi 110 066

27. INSTRUMENTS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTABLJSHMENT (IRDE)
Rajpur Road, Dehradun 248 008

28. DEFENCE ELECTRONICS APPLICATION LAB (RAKESHELECTRONIK)
Rajpur Road, Dehradun 248 008

29. DEFENCE RESEARCH &;DEVELOPMENT ESTT. (DEFRES)
Tansen Road, Gwalior 474 002

30. DEFENCE RESEARCH &;DEVELOPMENT LAB (MISLAB)
Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad 500 258

31. DEFENCE METALLURGICAL RESEARCH LAB (DEFMETLAB)
Kanchanbagh PO DMRL, Hyderabad 500 258

32. DEFENCE ELECTRONICS RESEARCH LAB (DEFELECTRONICS)
Chandrayanguntta Lines, Hyderabad 500 005

33. DEFENCE LABORABTORY (DEFLAB)
Ramada Palace, Jodhpur 342 001

34. DEFENCE MATERIALS AND STORES RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTT.
(LABDEV)
DMSRDE Post Office, G.T. Road, Kanpur 208 013

35. DEFENCE INSTITUTE OF WORK STUDY (WORKSTUDY)
Landour Cantt., Mussoorie 240 179

36. DEFENCE FOOD RESEARCH LAB (RAKSHAKHADYA)
Jyotinagar, Mysore 570 011

37. ARMAMENT RESEARCH &;DEVELOPMENT ESTABLISHMENT (AYODH &;ARMAMENTS)
Armament Post Pashan, Pune 411 021

38. EXPLOSIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY (MEXDEV PASHAN)
Pashan Pune 411 021

39. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ESTT. {ENGRS} (ENGIVIKAS)
Pioneer Lines, Dighi, Pune 411 021

40. INSTITUTE OF ARMAMENT TECHNOLOGY (ARMINST {E})
Simhagad Road, Girinagar, Pune 411 025

41. DEFENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY (TEZLAB)
Post Bag No. 2, Tezpur, Assam 784 001

42. NAVAL SCIENCE &;TECHNOLOGICAL LABORATORY (ENESTIEL)
Vigyan Nagar, Visakhapatnam 530 006

43. SNOW AVALANCHE STUDY ESTT (MANALIEX CHANGE)
C/o 56 APO

44. FIELD RESEARCH LABORATORY
C/o 56 APO

45. RANGE CENTRE &;INTERIM TEST RANGE
Balasore

46. ADVANCE SYSTEMS INTEGRATUM EVALUATION ORGANISATION (ASIEO)
Bangalore

47. DRDO COMPUTER CENTRE
Metcalfe House, Delhi 110 054