Extract from FSC/Journal No. 49

Annex 1 (adopted in Rome 1 December 1993)






The participating States, acting in accordance with paragraph 10 of the Programme for Immediate Action set out in the Helsinki Document 1992, and taking into account progress made in the implementation of already agreed provisions on military contacts, have adopted the following.


To improve further their mutual relations in the interest of strengthening the process of confidence- and security-building, the participating States will, on a voluntary basis and as appropriate, promote and facilitate:

- exchanges and visits between members of the armed forces at all levels, especially those between junior officers and commanders;

- contacts between relevant military institutions, especially between military units;

- exchanges of visits of naval vessels and air force units;

- reservation of places in military academies and schools and on military training courses for members of the armed forces from the participating States;

- use of the language facilities of military training institutions for the foreign-language instruction of members of the armed forces from the participating States and the organization of language courses in military training institutions for military foreign-language instructors from the participating States;

- exchanges and contacts between academics and experts in military studies and related areas;

- participation and contribution by members of the armed forces of the participating States, as well as civil experts in security matters and defence policy, to academic conferences, seminars and symposia;

- issuing of joint academic publications on security and defence issues;

- sporting and cultural events between members of their armed forces.


Joint military exercises and training

The participating States will conduct, on a voluntary basis and as appropriate, joint military training and exercises to work on tasks of mutual interest.


Visits to military facilities and to military formations

In addition to the provisions of the Vienna Document 1992 regarding visits to air bases, each participating State will arrange visits for representatives of all other participating States to one of its military facilities or military formations in order to provide the visitors with the opportunity to view activity of that military facility or observe the training of that military formation.

Each participating State will make every effort to arrange one such visit in any five-year period.

In order to ensure maximum efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the participating States may conduct such visits in conjunction with, inter alia, other visits and contacts organized in accordance with provisions of the Vienna Document 1992 or of the present Programme of Military Contacts and Co-operation.

The modalities regarding visits to air bases specified in paragraphs (21)-(27) and (29)-(33) of the Vienna Document 1992 will, mutatis mutandis, be applied to the visits to military facilities and to military formations.

Observation visits

Participating States conducting military activities subject to prior notification according to Chapter IV of the Vienna Document 1992, but at levels lower than those specified in Chapter V of the Vienna Document 1992, are encouraged to invite observers from other participating States, especially neighbouring States, to observe such military activities.

Arrangements for such visits will be at the discretion of the host State.

Provision of experts

The participating States express their willingness to provide to any other participating State available experts to be consulted on matters of defence and security.

For that purpose participating States will designate a point of contact and will inform all other participating States accordingly. A list of such points will be kept available at the Conflict Prevention Centre.

At the discretion of participating States, communications between them on this subject may be transmitted through the CSCE communications network.

The modalities regarding provision of experts will be agreed directly between the participating States concerned.

Seminars on co-operation in the military field

Subject to the approval of the appropriate CSCE bodies, the Conflict Prevention Centre will organize seminars on co-operation between the armed forces of the participating States.



The agenda of the seminars will concentrate primarily on CSCE-oriented tasks, including the participation of the armed forces in peacekeeping operations, in disaster and emergency relief, in refugee crises and in providing humanitarian assistance.

Exchange of information on agreements on military contacts and co-operation

The participating States will exchange information on agreements on programmes of military contacts and co-operation concluded with other participating States within the scope of these provisions.


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The participating States have decided that the present Programme of Military Contacts and Co-operation will be open to all CSCE participating States in respect of all their armed forces and territory. The implementation of this Programme will be assessed at annual implementation assessment meetings as foreseen in Chapter X of the Vienna Document 1992.

This Programme is politically binding and will come into force on 1 January 1994.