International Atomic Energy Agency
(Unofficial electronic edition)
19 March 1996
Communications of 30 November 1995 Received
from certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export
of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology
Nuclear-related Dual-use Transfers
- The Director General has received notes verbales of 30
November 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the
Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland and the United States of America relating to the
export of nuclear material, equipment and technology.
- The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further
information on those Governments' Guidelines for transfers of
nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and related
- In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note
verbale, the text of the notes verbales and of their attachment
is annexed hereto.
The Permanent Mission of [Member State] to the International
Atomic Energy Agency presents its compliments to the Director
General of the International Atomic Energy Agency and has the
honour to refer to its [relevant previous communication(s)]
concerning the decision of the Government of [Member State] to
act in accordance with the Guidelines for transfers of
nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and related
technology currently published as document INFCIRC/254/Rev.2/Part
2, including its Annex.
Developments in nuclear-related technology have brought about the
need to further clarify and update parts of the list of
nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, and related
technology which is incorporated in the Annex and Annex Appendix
to the Guidelines. Specifically, Item 1.2 of the Annex, and the
Annex Appendix: Detailed Specifications for Machine Tools, have
been clarified and amended.
In the interest of clarity, the complete text of the Annex and
Annex Appendix is reproduced in the attachment.
The Government of [Member State] has decided to act in accordance
with the Guidelines so revised.
In reaching this decision, the Government of [Member State] is
fully aware of the need to contribute to economic development
while avoiding contributing in any way to the dangers of a
proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive
devices, and of the need to remove non-proliferation assurances
from the field of commercial competition.
[The Government of (Member State), so far as trade within the
European Union is concerned, will implement this decision in the
light of its commitments as a Member State of the Union.(This
paragraph is included only in notes verbales from membres of the
The Government of [Member State] requests that the Director
General of the International Atomic Energy Agency circulate the
text of this note and its enclosure to all Member States for
The Permanent Mission of [Member State] avails itself of this
opportunity to renew to the Director General of the International
Atomic Energy Agency the assurances of its highest consideration.
GUIDELINES FOR TRANSFERS OF NUCLEAR-RELATED DUAL-USE EQUIPMENT,
MATERIAL AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY
- With the objective of averting the proliferation of nuclear
weapons, suppliers have had under consideration procedures in
relation to the transfer of certain equipment, material, and
related technology that could make a major contribution to a
"nuclear explosive activity" or an "unsafeguarded nuclear
fuel-cycle activity." In this connection, suppliers have agreed
on the following principles, common definitions, and an export
control list of equipment, material, and related technology. The
Guidelines are not designed to impede international cooperation
as long as such cooperation will not contribute to a nuclear
explosive activity or an unsafeguarded nuclear fuel-cycle
activity. Suppliers intend to implement the Guidelines in
accordance with national legislation and relevant international
- BASIC PRINCIPLE
- Suppliers should not authorize transfers of equipment,
material, or related technology identified in the Annex:
- -- for use in a non-nuclear-weapon state in a nuclear
explosive activity or an unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle
- -- in general, when there is an unacceptable risk of
diversion to such an activity, or when the transfers are contrary
to the objective of averting the proliferation of nuclear
- EXPLANATION OF TERMS
- (a) "Nuclear explosive activity" includes research on or
development, design, manufacture, construction, testing or
maintenance of any nuclear explosive device or components or
subsystems of such a device.
(b) "Unsafeguarded nuclear fuel-cycle activity" includes research
on or development, design, manufacture, construction, operation
or maintenance of any reactor, critical facility, conversion
plant, fabrication plant, reprocessing plant, plant for the
separation of isotopes of source or special fissionable material,
or separate storage installation, where there is no obligation to
accept International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at
the relevant facility or installation, existing or future, when
it contains any source or special fissionable material; or of any
heavy water production plant where there is no obligation to
accept IAEA safeguards on any nuclear material produced by or
used in connection with any heavy water produced therefrom; or
where any such obligation is not met.
- ESTABLISHMENT OF EXPORT LICENSING PROCEDURES
- Suppliers should establish export licensing procedures for
the transfer of equipment, material, and related technology
identified in the Annex. These procedures should include
enforcement measures for violations. In considering whether to
authorize such transfers, suppliers should exercise prudence in
order to carry out the Basic Principle and should take relevant
factors into account, including:
(a) Whether the recipient state is a party to the Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or to the Treaty for the
Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of
Tlatelolco), or to a similar international legally-binding
nuclear non-proliferation agreement, and has an IAEA safeguards
agreement in force applicable to all its peaceful nuclear
- (b) Whether any recipient state that is not party to the NPT,
Treaty of Tlatelolco, or a similar international legally-binding
nuclear non-proliferation agreement has any facilities or
installations listed in paragraph 3(b) above that are operational
or being designed or constructed that are not, or will not be,
subject to IAEA safeguards;
- (c) Whether the equipment, material, or related technology to
be transferred is appropriate for the stated end-use and whether
that stated end-use is appropriate for the end-user;
- (d) Whether the equipment, material, or related technology to
be transferred is to be used in research on or development,
design, manufacture, construction, operation, or maintenance of
any reprocessing or enrichment facility;
- (e) Whether governmental actions, statements, and policies of
the recipient state are supportive of nuclear non-proliferation
and whether the recipient state is in compliance with its
international obligations in the field of nonproliferation;
(f) Whether the recipients have been engaged in clandestine or
illegal procurement activities; and
(g) Whether a transfer has not been authorized to the end-user or
whether the end-user has diverted for purposes inconsistent with
the Guidelines any transfer previously authorized.
- CONDITIONS FOR TRANSFERS
- In the process of determining that the transfer will not pose
any unacceptable risk of diversion, in accordance with the Basic
Principle and to meet the objectives of the Guidelines, the
supplier should obtain, before authorizing the transfer and in a
manner consistent with its national law and practices, the
- (a) a statement from the end-user specifying the uses and
end-use locations of the proposed transfers; and
- (b) an assurance explicitly stating that the proposed
transfer or any replica thereof will not be used in any nuclear
explosive activity or unsafeguarded nuclear fuel-cycle activity.
- CONSENT RIGHTS OVER RETRANSFERS
- Before authorizing the transfer of equipment, material, or
related technology identified in the Annex to a country not
adhering to the Guidelines, suppliers should obtain assurances
that their consent will be secured, in a manner consistent with
their national law and practices, prior to any retransfer to a
third country of the equipment, material, or related technology,
or any replica thereof.
- CONCLUDING PROVISIONS
- The supplier reserves to itself discretion as to the
application of the Guidelines to other items of significance in
addition to those identified in the Annex, and as to the
application of other conditions for transfer that it may consider
necessary in addition to those provided for in paragraph 5 of the
- In furtherance of the effective implementation of the
Guidelines, suppliers should, as necessary and appropriate,
exchange relevant information and consult with other states
adhering to the Guidelines.
- In the interest of international peace and security, the
adherence of all states to the Guidelines would be welcome.
LIST OF NUCLEAR-RELATED DUAL-USE EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS AND
Note: The International System of Units (SI) is used in
Annex. In many places, the approximately equivalent physical
quantity in English units is given in parentheses ( ) after the
SI quantity. In all cases the physical quantity defined in SI
units should be considered the official recommended control
value. However, some machine tool parameters are given in their
customary units, which are not SI.
Commonly used abbreviations (and their prefixes denoting size) in
this Annex are as follows:
A --- ampere (s)
Bq --- becquerel (s)
o C --- degree (s) Celsius
Ci --- curie (s)
cm3 --- cubic centimeter (s)
dB --- decibel (s)
dBm --- decibel referred to I milliwatt
g --- gram (s); also, acceleration of gravity (9.81
GBq --- gigabecquerel (s)
GHz --- gigahertz
Hz --- hertz
J --- joule (s)
keV --- thousand electron volt (s)
kg --- kilogram (s)
kHz --- kilohertz
kN --- kilonewton (s)
kPa --- kilopascal (s)
kW --- kilowatt (s)
m --- meter (s)
MeV --- million electron volt (s)
MHz --- megahertz
MPa --- megapascal (s)
MW --- megawatt (s)
µF --- microfarad (s)
µm --- micrometer (s)
µs --- microsecond (s)
mm --- millimeter (s)
N --- newton (s)
nm --- nanometer (s)
ns --- nanosecond (s)
nH --- nanohenry (ies)
ps --- picosecond (s)
RMS --- root mean square
TIR --- total indicator reading
W --- watt (s)
The following paragraphs are applied to the List of
Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Material, and Related
- The description of any item on the List includes that item in
either new or second-hand condition.
- When the description of any item on the List contains no
qualifications or specifications, it is regarded as including all
varieties of that item. Category captions are only for
convenience in reference and do not affect the interpretation of
- The object of these controls should not be defeated by the
transfer of any non-controlled item (including plants) containing
one or more controlled components when the controlled component
or components are the principal element of the item and can
feasibly be removed or used for other purposes.
Note: In judging whether the controlled component or
are to be considered the principal element, governments should
weigh the factors of quantity, value, and technological Know-how
involved and other special circumstances which might establish
the controlled component or components as the principal element
of the item being procured.
- The object of these controls should not be defeated by the
transfer of component parts. Each government will take such
action as it can to achieve this aim and will continue to seek a
workable definition for component parts, which could be used by
all the suppliers.
The transfer of "technology" directly associated with any items
in the List will be subject to as great a degree of scrutiny and
control as will the equipment itself, to the extent permitted by
Controls on "technology" transfer do not apply to information "in
the public domain" or to "basic scientific research".
STATEMENT OF UNDERSTANDING
The approval of any List item for export also authorizes the
export to the same end user of the minimum technology required
for the installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of the
- -- means specific information required for the "development",
"production", or "use" of any item contained in the List. This
information may take the form of "technical data" or "technical
- "basic scientific research"
- -- Experimental or theoretical work undertaken principally to
acquire new knowledge of the fundamental principles of phenomena
and observable facts, not primarily directed toward a specific
practical aim or objective.
- -- is related to all phases before "production" such as:
- design research
- design analysis
- design concepts
- assembly and testing of prototypes
- pilot production schemes
- design data
- process of transforming design data into a product
- configuration design
- integration design
- "in the public domain"
- -- "In the public domain", as it applies herein, means
technology that has been made available without restrictions upon
its further dissemination. (Copyright restrictions do not remove
technology from being in the public domain.)
- -- means all production phases such as:
- production engineering
- assembly (mounting)
- quality assurance
"Specially designed software"
- -- The minimum "operating systems", "diagnostic systems",
"maintenance systems", and "application software" necessary to be
executed on particular equipment to perform the function for
which it was designed. To make other incompatible equipment
perform the same function requires:
- (a) modification of this "software" or
- (b) addition of "programs"
- "technical assistance"
- -- "Technical assistance" may take forms such as:
instruction, skills, training, working knowledge, consulting
- Note: "Technical assistance" may involve transfer of
- "technical data"
- -- "Technical data" may take forms such as blueprints, plans,
diagrams, models, formulae, engineering designs and
specifications, manuals and instructions written or recorded on
other media or devices such as disk, tape, read-only memories.
- -- Operation, installation (including on-site installation),
maintenance (checking), repair, overhaul, and refurbishing.
LIST OF NUCLEAR-RELATED DUAL-USE EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS AND RELATED
1. INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT
1.1 Flow-forming machines and spin-forming machines capable of
flow-forming functions, and mandrels, as follows, and specially
designed software therefor:
- (a) (i) Having three or more rollers (active or guiding); and
- (ii) According to the manufacturer's technical specification
can be equipped with "numerical control" units or a computer
- (b) Rotor-forming mandrels designed to form cylindrical
rotors of inside diameter between 75 mm (3 in.) and 400 mm (16
- Note: This entry includes machines which have only a
roller designed to deform metal plus two auxiliary rollers which
support the mandrel, but do not participate directly in the
1.2. "Numerical control" units, "numerical controlled"
machine tools, and specially designed "software" as follows:
Detailed specifications of the equipment are shown in
1.3. Dimensional inspection machines, devices, or systems, as
follows, specially designed software therefor.
(a) Computer controlled or numerically controlled dimensional
inspection machines having both of the following characteristics:
- (1) two or more axes; and
- (2) a one-dimensional length "measurement uncertainty" equal
to or less (better) than (1.25 + L/1000) µm tested with a
of an "accuracy" of less (better) than 0.2 µm
(L is the measured length in millimeters) (Ref: VDI/VDE
2617 parts 1 and 2);
- (b) Linear and angular displacement measuring devices, as
- (1) linear measuring instruments having any of the following
- (i) non-contact type measuring systems with a "resolution"
equal to or less (better) than 0.2 µm within a measuring
up to 0.2 mm;
- (ii) linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)
systems having both of the following characteristics:
- (A) "linearity" equal to or less (better) than 0.1 % within a
measuring range up to 5 mm; and
- (B) drift equal to or less (better) than 0.1 % per day at a
standard ambient test room temperature ± 1 K; or
- (iii) measuring systems that have both of the following
- (A) contain a "laser"; and
- (B) maintain for at least 12 hours, over a temperature
range of ± 1 K around a standard temperature and a standard
- (1) a "resolution" over their full scale of 0.1 µm or
- (2) with a "measurement uncertainty" equal to or less
(better) than (0.2 + L/2000) µm (L is the measured length in
millimeters); except measuring interferometer systems,
closed or open loop feedback, containing a "laser" to measure
slide movement errors of machine tools, dimensional inspection
machines, or similar equipment;
- (2) angular measuring instruments having an "angular position
deviation" equal to or less (better) than 0.00025o;
- Note: The sub-item (b) (2) of this item does not
instruments, such as autocollimators, using collimated light to
detect angular displacement of a mirror.
- (c) Systems for simultaneously linear-angular inspection
of hemishells, having both of the following characteristics:
- (1) "measurement uncertainty" along any linear axis equal to
or less (better) than 3.5 µm per 5 mm; and
- (2) "angular position deviation" equal to or less than
Note: Specially designed software for the systems
paragraph (c) of this item includes software for simultaneous
measurements of wall thickness and contour.
- Technical Note 1: Machine tools that can be used as
measuring machines are controlled if they meet or exceed the
criteria specified for the machine tool function or the measuring
- Technical Note 2: A machine described in this section,
1.3., is controlled if it exceeds the control threshold anywhere
within its operating range.
- Technical Note 3: The probe used in determining the
measurement uncertainty of a dimensional inspection system shall
be as described in VDI/VDE 2617 parts 2, 3, and 4.
- Technical Note 4: All parameters of measurement values
in this item represent plus/minus, i.e., not total band.
- "Measurement uncertainty"
- -- The characteristic parameter which specifies in what range
around the output value the correct value of the measurable
variable lies with a confidence level of 95%. It includes the
uncorrected systematic deviations, the uncorrected backlash, and
the random deviations. (Reference: VDI/VDE 2617)
- -- The least increment of a measuring device; on digital
instruments, the least significant bit. (Reference: ANSI
- -- (Usually measured in terms of non linearity) is the
maximum deviation of the actual characteristic (average of
upscale and downscale readings), positive or negative, from a
straight line so positioned as to equalize and minimize the
- "Angular position deviation"
- -- The maximum difference between angular position and the
actual, very accurately measured angular position after the
workpiece mount of the table has been turned out of its initial
position. (Reference: VDI/VDE 2617 Draft: Rotary table on
coordinate measuring machines")
1.4. Vacuum or controlled environment (inert gas) induction
furnaces capable of operation above 850o C and having
induction coils 600 mm (24 in.) or less in diameter, and designed
for power inputs of 5 kW or more; and power supplies specially
designed therefor with a specified power output of 5 kW or more.
Technical Note: This entry does not control furnaces
the processing of semiconductor wafers.
1.5. "Isostatic presses" capable of achieving a maximum working
pressure of 69 MPa or greater having a chamber cavity with an
inside diameter in excess of 152 mm and specially designed dies,
molds, controls or "specially designed software" therefor.
(1) The inside chamber dimension is that of the chamber in which
both the working temperature and the working pressure are
achieved and does not include fixtures. That dimension will be
the smaller of either the inside diameter of the pressure chamber
or the inside diameter of the insulated furnace chamber,
depending on which of the two chambers is located inside the
- (2) "Isostatic Presses"
- -- Equipment capable of pressurizing a closed cavity through
various media (gas, liquid, solid particles, etc.) to create
equal pressure in all directions within the cavity upon a
workpiece or material.
1.6. "Robots" or "end-effectors" having either of the following
characteristics; and "specially designed software" or specially
designed controllers therefor:
(a) Specially designed to comply with national safety standards
applicable to handling high explosives (for example, meeting
electrical code ratings for high explosives); or
(b) Specially designed or rated as radiation hardened to
withstand greater than 5 x 104 grays (Silicon) (5 x
(Silicon)) without operational degradation.
- Technical Notes:
- (1) "Robot"
A manipulation mechanism, which may be of the continuous path
or of the point-to-point variety, may use "sensors," and has all
of the following characteristics:
- (a) is multifunctional;
- (b) is capable of positioning or orienting material, parts,
tools, or special devices through variable movements in
- (c) incorporates three or more closed or open loop
servo-devices which may include stepping motors; and
- (d) has "user-accessible programmability" by means of
teach/playback method or by means of an electronic computer which
may be a programmable logic controlled, i.e., without mechanical
- The above definition does not include the following devices:
- (a) Manipulation mechanisms which are only
- (b) Fixed sequence manipulation mechanisms which are
automated moving devices operating according to mechanically
fixed programmed motions. The program is mechanically limited by
fixed stops, such as pins or cams. The sequence of motions and
the selection of paths or angles are not variable or changeable
by mechanical, electronic, or electrical means;
- (c) Mechanically controlled variable sequence manipulation
mechanisms which are automated moving devices operating according
to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program is
mechanically limited by fixed, but adjustable, stops such as
pins or cams. The sequence of motions and the selection
of paths or angles are variable within the fixed program pattern.
Variations or modifications of the program pattern (e.g., changes
of pins or exchanges of cams) in one or more motion axes are
accomplished only through mechanical operations;
- (d) Non-servo-controlled variable sequence manipulation
mechanisms which are automated moving devices, operating
according to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program
is variable but the sequence proceeds only by the binary signal
from mechanically fixed electrical binary devices or adjustable
- (e) Stacker cranes defined as Cartesian coordinate
manipulator systems manufactured as an integral part of a
vertical array of storage bins and designed to access the
contents of those bins for storage or retrieval.
- (2) "End-effectors"
- "End-effectors" include grippers, "active tooling units," and
any other tooling that is attached to the baseplate on the end of
a "robot" manipulator arm.
- (3) The definition in (a) above is not designed to
control robots specially designed for nonnuclear industrial
applications such as automobile paint-spraying booths.
1.7. Vibration test systems, equipment, components and software
therefor, as follows:
(a) Electrodynamic vibration test systems, employing
feedback or closed loop control techniques and incorporating a
digital controller, capable of vibrating at 10 g RMS or more
between 20 Hz and 2000 Hz and imparting forces of 50 kN (11,250
lbs) measured 'bare table', or greater;
- (b) Digital controllers, combined with "specially designed
software" for vibration testing, with a real-time bandwidth
greater than 5 and being designed for use with the systems
controlled in a. above;
- (c) Vibration thrusters (shaker units), with or without
associated amplifiers, capable of imparting a force of 50 kN
(11,250 lbs), measured 'bare table', or greater, which are usable
for the systems controlled in a. above;
- (d) Test piece support structures and electronic units
designed to combine multiple shaker units into a complete shaker
system capable of providing an effective combined force of 50 kN,
measured 'bare table', or greater, which are usable for the
systems controlled in a. above;
- (e) "Specially designed software" for use with the systems
controlled in a. above or for the electronic units controlled in
1.8. Vacuum and controlled atmosphere metallurgical melting and
casting furnaces as follows; and specially configured computer
control and monitoring systems and "specially designed software"
(a) Arc remelt and casting furnaces with consumable electrode
capacities between 1000 cm3 and 20.000 cm3
and capable of
operating with melting temperatures above 1700oC,
- (b) Electron beam melting and plasma atomization and melting
furnaces with a power of 50 kW or greater and capable of
operating with melting temperatures above 1200oC.
2.1. Aluminum alloys capable of an ultimate tensile strength of
460 MPa (0.46 x 109 N/m2) or more at 293 K
the form of tubes or cylindrical solid forms (including forgings)
with an outside diameter of more than 75 mm (3 in.).
- Technical Note: The phrase "capable of" encompasses
alloys before or after heat treatment.
2.2. Beryllium metal, alloys containing more than 50% beryllium
by weight, beryllium compounds, and manufactures thereof, except:
(a) Metal windows for X-ray machines, or for bore-hole logging
- (b) Oxide shapes in fabricated or semi-fabricated forms
specially designed for electronic component parts or as
substrates for electronic circuits;
- (c) Beryl (silicate of beryllium and aluminum) in the form of
emeralds or aquamarines.
- Technical Note: This entry includes waste and scrap
beryllium as defined above.
2.3. High-purity (99.99% or greater) bismuth with very low
silver content (less than 10 parts per million).
2.4. Boron and boron compounds, mixtures, and loaded materials in
which the boron-10 isotope is more than 20% by weight of the
total boron content.
2.5. Calcium (high purity) containing both less than 1000 parts
per million by weight of metallic impurities other than magnesium
and less than 10 parts per million of boron.
2.6. Chlorine Trifluoride (CIF3).
2.7. Crucibles made of materials resistant to liquid actinide
metals, as follows:
(a) Crucibles with a volume of between 150 ml and 8 liters
and made of or coated with any of the following materials having
a purity of 98% or greater:
(i) Calcium fluoride (CaF2)
- (ii) Calcium zirconate (metazirconate) (CaZrO3)
- (iii) Cerium sulfide (Ce2s3)
- (iv) Erbium oxide (erbia) (Er2O3)
- (v) Hafnium oxide (hafnia) (HfO2)
- (vi) Magnesium oxide (MgO)
- (vii) Nitrided niobium-titanium-tungsten alloy
(approximately 50% Nb, 30% Ti, 20% W)
- (viii) Yttrium oxide (yttria) (Y2O3)
- (ix) Zirconium oxide(zirconia) (ZrO2)
(b) Crucibles with a volume of between 50 ml and 2 liters
and made of or lined with tantalum, having a purity of 99.9% or
- (c) Crucibles with a volume of between 50 m and 2 liters and
made of or lined with tantalum (having a purity of 98% or
greater) coated with tantalum carbide, nitride, or boride (or any
combination of these).
2.8. Fibrous or filamentary materials, prepregs and composite
structures, as follows:
- (a) Carbon or aramid "fibrous or filamentary materials"
having a "specific modulus" of 12.7 x 106 m or greater
"specific tensile strength" of 23.5 x 104 m or
aramid "fibrous or filamentary materials" having 0.25 percent or
more by weight of an ester based fiber surface modifier; or
- (b) Glass "fibrous or filamentary materials" having a
"specific modulus" of 3.18 x 106 m or greater and a
tensile strength" of 7.62 x 104 m or greater;
- (c) Thermoset resin impregnated continuous yarns, rovings,
tows or tapes with a width no greater than 15 mm (prepregs), made
from carbon or glass "fibrous or filamentary materials" specified
in 2.8 (a) or (b);
- Note: The resin forms the matrix of the composite.
- (d) Composite structures in the form of tubes with an inside
diameter of between 75 mm (3 in.) and 400 mm (16 in.) made with
any of the "fibrous or filamentary materials" specified in
(a) above or carbon prepreg materials specified in (c) above.
- Technical Note:
(a) For the purpose of this entry, the term "fibrous or
filamentary materials" means continuous monofilaments, yarns,
rovings, tows or tapes.
A filament or monofilament is the smallest increment of
usually several um in diameter.
- A strand is a bundle of filaments (typically over 200)
arranged approximately parallel.
- A roving is a bundle (typically 12-120) of
- A yarn is a bundle of twisted strands.
- A tow is a bundle of filaments, usually approximately
- A tape is a material constructed of interlaced or
unidirectional filaments, strands, rovings, tows or yarns, etc.,
usually preimpregnated with resin.
(b) "Specific modulus" is the Young's modulus in N/m2
the specific weight in N/m3 when measured at a
temperature of 23
± 2oC and a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%.
- (c) "Specific tensile strength" is the ultimate tensile
strength in N/m2 divided by the specific weight in
N/m3 when measured at a temperature of 23 ±
2oC and a relative
humidity of 50 ± 5%.
2.9. Hafnium of the following description: metal, alloys, and
compounds of hafnium containing more than 60% hafnium by weight
and manufactures thereof.
2.10. Lithium enriched in the 6 isotope (6Li) to
greater than 7.5 atom percent, alloys, compounds or mixtures containing lithium
enriched in the 6 isotope, and products or devices containing any of the foregoing;
Note: The natural occurrence of the 6 isotope in lithium
2.11. Magnesium (high purity) containing both less than 200 parts
per million by weight of metallic impurities other than calcium
and less than 10 parts per million of boron.
2.12. Managing steel capable of an ultimate tensile strength of
2050 MPa (2.050 x 109 N/m2) (300,000
lb/in.2) or more at 293 K
(20oC) except forms in which no linear dimension
Technical Note: The phrase "capable of" encompasses
before or after heat treatment
2.13. Radium-226, radium-226 compounds, or mixtures containing
radium-226, and products or devices containing any of the
- a. medical applicators;
- b. a product or device containing not more than 0.37 GBq (10
millicuries) of radium-226 in any form.
2.14. Titanium alloys capable of an ultimate tensile strength of
900 MPa (0.9 x 109 N/m2) (130,500
or more at 293 K (20 o C) in the form of tubes or
cylindrical solid forms (including
forgings) with an outside diameter of more than 75 mm (3 in.).
Technical Note: The phrase "capable of" encompasses
alloys before or after heat treatment.
2.15. Tungsten, as follows: parts made of tungsten, tungsten
carbide, or tungsten alloys (greater than 90% tungsten) having a
mass greater than 20 kg and a hollow cylindrical symmetry
(including cylinder segments) with an inside diameter greater
than 100 mm (4 in.) but less than 300 mm (12 in.), except
specifically designed for use as weights or gamma-ray
2.16. Zirconium with a hafnium content of less than 1 part
hafnium to 500 parts zirconium by weight, in the form of metal,
alloys containing more than 50% zirconium by weight, and
compounds, and manufactures wholly thereof; except zirconium in
the form of foil having a thickness not exceeding 0.10 mm (0.004
Technical Note: This control applies to waste and scrap
containing zirconium as defined here.
2.17. Nickel powder and porous nickel metal, as follows:
(a) Powder with a nickel purity content of 99.0% or greater and a
mean particle size of less than 10 um measured by the ASTM B 330
- Filamentary nickel powders;
- Note: Nickel powders which are especially prepared for
manufacture of gaseous diffusion barriers are controlled under
Part 1 of the NSG Guidelines.
- (b) Porous nickel metal produced from materials controlled by
- Single porous nickel metal sheets not exceeding 1000
- Note: This refers to porous metal formed by compacting
sintering the material in (a) to form a metal material with fine
pores interconnected throughout the structure.
3. URANIUM ISOTOPE SEPARATION EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS
(Other Than Trigger List Items)
3.1. Electrolytic cells for fluorine production with a production
capacity greater than 250 g of fluorine per hour.
3.2. Rotor fabrication and assembly equipment and bellows-forming
mandrels and dies, as follows:
(a) Rotor assembly equipment for assembly of gas centrifuge rotor
tube sections, baffles, and end caps. Such equipment includes
precision mandrels, clamps, and shrink fit machines.
- (b) Rotor straightening equipment for alignment of gas
centrifuge rotor tube sections to a common axis. (Note: Normally
such equipment will consist of precision measuring probes linked
to a computer that subsequently controls the action of, for
example, pneumatic rams used for aligning the rotor tube
- (c) Bellows-forming mandrels and dies for producing
single-convolution bellows (bellows made of high-strength
aluminum alloys, managing steel, or high-strength filamentary
materials). The bellows have all of the following
(1) 75 mm to 400 mm (3 in. to 16 in.) inside diameter;
- (2) 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) or more in length; and
- (3) single convolution depth more than 2 mm (0.08 in.).
3.3. Centrifugal multiplane balancing machines, fixed or
portable, horizontal or vertical, as follows:
(a) Centrifugal balancing machines designed for balancing
flexible rotors having a length of 600 mm or more and having all
of the following characteristics:
(1) a swing or journal diameter of 75 mm or more;
- (2) mass capability of from 0.9 to 23 kg (2 to 50 lb.); and
- (3) capable of balancing speed of revolution more than 5000
(b) Centrifugal balancing machines designed for balancing hollow
cylindrical rotor components and having all of the following
(1) a journal diameter of 75 mm or more;
- (2) mass capability of from 0.9 to 23 kg (2 to 50 lb.);
- (3) capable of balancing to a residual imbalance of 0.010 kg
mm/kg per plane or better; and
- (4) belt drive type;
and "specially designed software" therefor.
3.4. Filament winding machines in which the motions for
positioning, wrapping, and winding fibers are coordinated and
programmed in two or more axes, specially designed to fabricate
composite structures or laminates from fibrous and filamentary
materials and capable of winding cylindrical rotors of diameter
between 75 mm (3 in.) and 400 mm (16 in.) and lengths of 600 mm
(24 in.) or greater; coordinating and programming controls
therefor; precision mandrels; and "specially designed software"
3.5. Frequency changers (also known as converters or inverters)
or generators having all of the following characteristics:
(a) A multiphase output capable of providing a power of 40 W or
(b) Capable of operating in the frequency range between 600 and
(c) Total harmonic distortion below 10%; and
(d) Frequency control better than 0.1 %.
except such frequency changers specially designed or prepared to
supply "motor stators" (as defined below) and having the
characteristics listed in (b) and (d) above, together with a
total harmonic distortion of less than 2% and an efficiency of
greater than 80%.
- "Motor stators"
- -- specially designed or prepared ring-shaped stators for
high-speed multiphase AC hysteresis (or reluctance) motors for
synchronous operation within a vacuum in the frequency range of
600 - 2000 Hz and a power range of 50 - 1000 VA. The stators
consist of multiphase windings on a laminated low-loss
iron core comprising thin layers typically 2.0 mm (.008 in.)
thick or less.
3.6. Lasers, laser amplifiers, and oscillators as follows:
(a) Copper vapor lasers with 40 W or greater average output power
operating at wavelengths between 500 nm and 600 nm:
- (b) Argon ion lasers with greater than 40 W average output
power operating at wavelengths between 400 nm and 515 nm:
- (c) Neodymium-doped (other than glass) lasers as follows:
(1) having an output wavelength between 1000 nm and 1100 nm,
being pulse-excited and Q-switched with a pulse duration equal to
or greater than 1 ns, and having either of the following:
(a) A single-transverse mode output having an average output
power exceeding 40 W;
- (b) A multiple-transverse mode output having an average
output power exceeding 50 W;
(2) operating at a wavelength between 1000 nm and 1100 nm and
incorporating frequency doubling giving an output wavelength
between 500 nm and 550 nm with an average power at the doubled
frequency (new wavelength) of greater than 40 W;
(d) Tunable pulsed single-mode dye oscillators capable of an
average power output of greater than 1 W, a repetition rate
greater than 1 kHz, a pulse less than 100 ns, and a wavelength
between 300 nm and 800 nm;
- (e) Tunable pulsed dye laser amplifiers and oscillators,
except single mode oscillators, with an average power
greater than 30 W, a repetition rate greater than 1 kHz, a pulse
width less than 100 ns, and a wavelength between 300 nm and 800
- (f) Alexandrite lasers with a bandwidth of 0.005 nm or less,
a repetition rate of greater than 125 Hz, and an average power
output greater than 30 W operating at wavelengths between 720 nm
and 800 nm;
- (g) Pulsed carbon dioxide lasers with a repetition rate
greater than 250 Hz, an average power output of greater than 500
W, and a pulse of less than 200 ns operating at wavelengths
between 9000 nm and 11.000 nm;
- N.B. This specification is not intended to control the higher
power (typically 1 to 5 kW) industrial CO2 lasers used
applications such as cutting and welding, as these latter lasers
are either continuous wave or are pulsed with a pulse width more
than 200 ns.
- (h) Pulsed excimer lasers (XeF, XeCI, KrF) with a repetition
rate greater than 250 Hz and an average power output of greater
than 500 W operating at wavelengths of between 240 nm and 360 nm;
(i) Para-hydrogen Raman shifters designed to operate at 16 m
output wavelength and at a repetition rate greater than 250 Hz.
Technical Note: Machine tools, measuring devices, and
technology that have the potential for use in the nuclear
industry are controlled under items 1.2 and 1.3 of this list.
3.7. Mass spectrometers capable of measuring ions of 230 atomic
mass units or greater and having a resolution of better than 2
parts in 230, and ion sources therefor as follows:
(a) Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP/MS);
- (b) Glow discharge mass spectrometers (GDMS);
- (c) Thermal ionization mass spectrometers (TIMS);
- (d) Electron bombardment mass spectrometers which have a
source chamber constructed from or lined with or plated with
materials resistant to UF6;
- (e) Molecular beam mass spectrometers as follows:
(l) which have a source chamber constructed from or lined with
or plated with stainless steel or molybdenum and have a cold trap
capable of cooling to 193 K (-80o C) or less; or
- (2) which have a source chamber constructed from or lined
with or plated with materials resistant to UF6; or
(f) Mass spectrometers equipped with a microfluorination ion
source designed for use with actinides or actinide fluorides;
specially designed or prepared magnetic or quadrupole
mass spectrometers capable of taking "on-line" samples of feed,
product, or tails from UF6 gas streams and having all
(1) Unit resolution for mass greater than 320;
- (2) Ion sources constructed of or lined with nichrome or
monel or nickel-plated;
- (3) Electron bombardment ionization sources;
- (4) Having a collector system suitable for isotopic analysis.
3.8. Pressure transducers which are capable of measuring absolute
pressure at any point in the range 0 to 13 kPa, with pressure
sensing elements made of or protected by nickel, nickel alloys
with more than 60% nickel by weight, aluminum or aluminum alloys
1) transducers with a full scale of less than 13 kPa and an
accuracy of better than ± 1% of full scale;
- 2) transducers with a full scale of 13 kPa or greater and an
accuracy of better than ± 130 Pa.
- Technical Notes:
- 1. Pressure transducers are devices that convert pressure
measurements into an electrical sinal.
- 2. For the purposes of this entry, "accuracy" includes
non-linearity, hysteresis and repeatability at ambient
3.9. Valves 5 mm (0.2 in.) or greater in nominal size, with a
bellows seal, wholly made of or lined with aluminum, aluminum
alloy, nickel, or alloy containing 60% or more nickel, either
manually or automatically operated.
Note: For valves with different inlet and outlet diameter,
nominal size parameter above refers to the smallest diameter.
3.10. Superconducting solenoidal electromagnets with all of the
(a) capable of creating magnetic fields of more than 2 teslas (20
- (b) with an E/D (length divided by inner diameter) greater
- (c) with an inner diameter of more than 300 mm; and
- (d) with a magnetic field uniform to better than 1 % over the
central 50% of the inner volume.
Note: The item does not cover magnets specially designed
exported as parts of medical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
imaging systems. It is understood that the wording "as part of"
does not necessarily mean physical part in the same shipment.
Separate shipments from different sources are allowed, provided
the related export documents clearly specify the "part of"
3.11. Vacuum pumps with an input throat size of 38 cm (15 in.) or
greater with a pumping speed of 15,000 liters/second or greater
and capable of producing an ultimate vacuum better than
(1.33 x 10-4 mbar).
- (l) The ultimate vacuum is determined at the input of the
pump with the input of the pump blocked off.
- (2) The pumping speed is determined at the measurement point
with nitrogen gas or air.
3.12. Direct current high-power supplies capable of continuously
producing, over a time period of 8 hours, 100 V or greater with
current output of 500 amps or greater and with current or voltage
regulation better than 0.1 %.
3.13. High-voltage direct current power supplies capable of
continuously producing, over a time period of 8 hours, 20,000 V
or greater with current output of 1 amp or greater and with
current or voltage regulation better than 0.l %.
3.14. Electromagnetic isotope separators, designed for or
equipped with, single or multiple ion sources capable of
providing a total ion beam current of 50 mA or greater.
- 1. This entry will control separators capable of enriching
stable isotopes as well as those for uranium. A separator capable
of separating the isotopes of lead with a one-mass unit
difference is inherently capable of enriching the isotopes of
uranium with a three-unit mass difference.
- 2. This entry includes separators with the ion sources and
collectors both in the magnetic field and those configurations in
which they are external to the field.
- 3. A single 50 mA ion source will produce less than 3 g of
separated HEU per year from natural abundance feed.
4. HEAVY WATER PRODUCTION PLANT RELATED EQUIPMENT
(Other than Trigger List Items)
4.1. Specialized packings for use in separating heavy water from
ordinary water and made of phosphor bronze mesh (chemically
treated to improve wettability) and designed for use in vacuum
4.2. Pumps circulating solutions of diluted or concentrated
potassium amide catalyst in liquid ammonia
(KNH2/NH3), with all
of the following characteristics:
(a) airtight (i.e., hermetically sealed);
- (b) for concentrated potassium amide solutions (1% or
greater), operating pressure of 1.5 - 60 MPa [15 - 600
atmospheres (atm)]; for dilute potassium amide solutions
than 1 %), operating pressure of 20 - 60 MPa (200 - 600 atm);
- (c) a capacity greater than 8.5 m3/h (5 cubic feet
4.3. Water-hydrogen sulfide exchange tray columns constructed
from fine carbon steel with a diameter of 1.8 m or greater, which
can operate at nominal pressures of 2 MPa (300 psi) or greater,
and internal contractors therefor.
- 1. For columns which are especially designed or prepared for
the production of heavy water, see INFCIRC/254/Part 1.
- 2. Internal contractors of the columns are segmented trays
which have an effective assembled diameter of 1.8 m or greater,
are designed to facilitate countercurrent contacting and are
constructed of materials resistant to corrosion by hydrogen
sulfide/water mixtures. These may be sieve trays, valve trays,
bubble cap trays or turbogrid trays.
- 3. Fine carbon steel in this entry is defined to be steel
with the austenitic ASTM (or equivalent standard) grain size
number of 5 or greater.
- 4. Materials resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide/water
mixtures in this entry are defined to be stainless steels with a
carbon content of 0.03% or less.
4.4. Hydrogen-cryogenic distillation columns having all of the
- (a) designed to operate with internal temperatures of
-238o C (35 K) or less;
- (b) designed to operate at internal pressure of 0.5 to 5 MPa
(5 to 50 atmospheres);
- (c) constructed of fine-grain stainless steels of the 300
series with low sulfur content or equivalent cryogenic and
H2-compatible materials; and
- (d) with internal diameters of 1 m or greater and effective
lengths of 5 m or greater.
- Technical Note: Fine-grain stainless steels in this
defined to be fine-grain austenitic stainless steels with an ASTM
(or equivalent standard) grain size number of 5 or greater.
4.5. Ammonia synthesis converters or synthesis units in which the
synthesis gas (nitrogen and hydrogen) is withdrawn from an
ammonia/hydrogen high-pressure exchange column and the
synthesized ammonia is returned to said column.
4.6. Turboexpanders or turboexpander-compressor sets designed for
operation below 35 K and a throughput of hydrogen gas of 1000
kg/hr or greater.
5. IMPLOSION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT EQUIPMENT
5.1. Flash x-ray generators or pulsed electron accelerators with
peak energy of 500 keV or greater, as follows, except
accelerators that are component parts of devices designed for
purposes other than electron beam or x-ray radiation (electron
microscopy, for example) and those designed for medical
(a) Having an accelerator peak electron energy of 500 keV or
greater but less than 25 MeV and with a figure of merit (K) of
0.25 or greater, where K is defined as:
K=1.7 x 103 V2.65Q
where V is the peak electron energy in million electron volts and
Q is the total accelerated charge in coulombs if the
beam pulse duration is less than or equal to 1 µs, if the
acceleration beam pulse duration is greater than 1 µs,
maximum accelerated charge in 1 µs [Q equals the
integral of i
with respect to t, over the lesser of 1 µs or the time
of the beam pulse (Q =Jidt), where i is beam current in
and t is the time in seconds] or,
- (b) Having an accelerator peak electron energy of 25 MeV or
greater and a peak power greater than 50 MW. [Peak power = (peak
potential in volts) x (peak beam current in amperes).]
- Technical Note:
- Time duration of the beam pulse - In machines, based on
microwave accelerating cavities, the time duration of the beam
pulse is the lesser of 1 µs or the duration of the bunched
packet resulting from one microwave modulator pulse.
- Peak beam current - In machines based on microwave
accelerating cavities, the peak beam current is the average
current in the time duration of a bunched beam packet.
5.2. Multistage light gas guns or other high-velocity gun systems
(coil, electromagnetic, electrothermal, or other advanced
systems) capable of accelerating projectiles to 2 km per second
5.3. Mechanical rotating mirror cameras, as follows; and
specially designed components therefor:
- a. Framing cameras with recording rates greater than 225,000
frames per second;
- b. Streak cameras with writing speeds greater than 0.5 mm per
- Technical Note: Components of such cameras include
synchronizing electronics units and rotor assemblies consisting
of turbines, mirrors, and bearings.
5.4. Electronic streak and framing cameras and tubes as follows:
(a) Electronic streak cameras capable of 50 ns or less time
resolution and streak tubes therefor;
- (b) Electronic (or electronically shuttered) framing cameras
capable of 50 ns or less frame exposure time;
- (c) Framing tubes and solid-state imaging devices for use
with cameras controlled in sub-item (b) above, as follows:
(1) proximity focused image intensifier tubes having the
photocathode deposited on a transparent conductive coating to
decrease photocathode sheet resistance;
- (2) gate silicon intensifier target (SIT) vidicon tubes,
where a fast system allows gating the photoelectrons from the
photocathode before they impinge on the SIT plate;
- (3) Kerr or pockel cell electro-optical shuttering; or
- (4) Other framing tubes and solid-state imaging devices
having a fast image gating time of less than 50 ns specially
designed for cameras controlled by sub-item (b) above.
5.5. Specialized instrumentation for hydrodynamic experiments as
(a) Velocity interferometers for measuring velocities in excess
of 1 km per second during time intervals less than 10 µs.
(VISARs, Doppler laser interferometers, DLIs, etc.);
- (b) manganin gauges for pressures greater than 100 kilobars;
- (c) quartz pressure transducers for pressures greater than
6. EXPLOSIVES AND RELATED EQUIPMENT
6.1. Detonators and multipoint initiation systems (exploding
bridge wire, slapper, etc.)
(a) Electrically driven explosive detonators as follows:
(1) exploding bridge (EB);
- (2) exploding bridge wire (EBW);
- (3) slapper; and
- (4) exploding foil initiators (EFI).
- (b) Arrangements using single or multiple detonators designed
to nearly simultaneously initiate an explosive surface (over
greater than 5000 mm2) from a single firing signal
initiation timing spread over the surface of less than 2.5
- Description clarification:
- The detonators of concern all utilize a small electrical
conductor (bridge, bridge wire, or foil) that explosively
vaporizes when a fast, high-current electrical pulse is passed
through it. In nonslapper types, the exploding conductor starts a
chemical detonation in a contacting high-explosive material such
as PETN (pentaerythritoltetranitrate). In slapper detonators, the
explosive vaporization of the electrical conductor drives a
"flyer" or "slapper" across a gap, and the impact of the slapper
on an explosive starts a chemical detonation. The slapper in some
designs is driven by magnetic force. The term "exploding foil"
detonator may refer to either an EB or a slapper-type detonator.
Also, the word "initiator" is sometimes used in place of the word
- Detonators using only primary explosives, such as lead azide,
not subject to control.
6.2. Electronic components for firing sets (switching devices and
pulse discharge capacitors)
6.2.1. Switching devices
(a) Cold-cathode tubes (including gas krytron tubes and vacuum
sprytron tubes), whether gas filled or not, operating similarly
to a spark gap, containing three or more electrodes, and having
all of the following characteristics:
(1) Anode peak voltage rating of 2500 V or more;
- (2) Anode peak current rating of 100 A or more;
- (3) Anode delay time of 10 µs or less; and
(b) Triggered spark-gaps having an anode delay time of 15 µs
less and rated for a peak current of 500 A or more:
- (c) Modules or assemblies with a fast switching function
having all of the following characteristics:
(1) Anode peak voltage rating greater than 2000 V;
- (2) anode peak current rating of 500 A or more; and
- (3) turn-on time of 1 µs or less.
6.2.2. Capacitors with the following characteristics:
(a) Voltage rating greater than 1.4 kV, energy storage greater
than 10 J, capacitance greater than 0.5 µF, and series
inductance less than 50 nH, or
- (b) Voltage rating greater than 750 V, capacitance greater
than 0.25 µF, and series inductance less than 10 nH.
6.3. Firing sets and equivalent high-current pulse generators
(for controlled detonators), as follows:
(a) Explosive detonator firing sets designed to drive multiple
controlled detonators covered under item 6.1. above;
(b) Modular electrical pulse generators (pulsers) designed for
portable, mobile, or ruggedized-use (including xenon flash-lamp
drivers) having all the following characteristics:
(1) capable of delivering their energy in less than 15 µs;
- (2) having an output greater than 100 A;
- (3) having a rise time of less than 10 µs into loads of
than 40 ohms. (Rise time is defined as the time interval from
10% to 90% current amplitude when driving a resistive load);
- (4) enclosed in a dust-tight enclosure;
- (5) no dimension greater than 25.4 cm (10 in.);
- (6) weight less than 25 kg (55 lb.); and
- (7) specified for use over an extended temperature range
(-50o C to 100o C) or specified as
suitable for aerospace use.
6.4. High explosives or substances or mixtures containing more
than 2% of any of the following:
(a) Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX);
- (b) Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX);
- (c) Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB);
- (d) Any explosive with a crystal density greater than 1.8
g/cm3 and having a detonation velocity greater than
8000 m/s; or
- (e) Hexanitrostilbene (HNS).
7. NUCLEAR TESTING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS
7.1. Oscilloscopes and transient recorders and specially
designed components as follows:
plug-in units, external amplifiers, pre-amplifiers, sampling
devices, and cathode ray tubes for analog oscilloscopes.
(a) Non-modular analog oscilloscopes having a "bandwidth" of 1
GHz or greater;
- (b) Modular analog oscilloscope systems having either of the
(i) a mainframe with a "bandwidth" of 1 GHz or greater; or
- (ii) Plug-in modules with an individual "bandwidth" of 4 GHz
- (c) Analog sampling oscilloscopes for the analysis of
recurring phenomena with an effective "bandwidth" greater than 4
- (d) Digital oscilloscopes and transient recorders, using
analog-to-digital conversion techniques, capable of storing
transients by sequentially sampling single-shot inputs
at successive intervals of less than 1 ns (greater than 1
giga-sample per second), digitizing to 8 bits or greater
resolution and storing 256 or more samples.
- Technical Note: "Bandwidth" is defined as the band of
frequencies over which the deflection on the cathode ray tube
does not fall below 70.7% of that at the maximum point measured
with a constant input voltage to the oscilloscope amplifier.
7.2. Photomultiplier tubes with a photocathode area of greater
than 20 cm2 having an anode pulse rise time of less
than 1 ns.
7.3. High-speed pulse generators with output voltages greater
than 6 V into a less than 55 ohm resistive load, and with pulse
transition times less than 500 ps (defined as the time interval
between 10% and 90% voltage amplitude).
8.1. Neutron generator systems, including tubes, designed for
operation without an external vacuum system and utilizing
electrostatic acceleration to induce a tritium-deuterium nuclear
8.2. Equipment related to nuclear material handling and
processing and to nuclear reactors as follows:
8.2.1. Remote manipulators that can be used to provide remote
actions in radiochemical separation operations and hot cells, as
a. Having a capability of penetrating 0.6 m or more of hot cell
wall ('through-the-wall' operation); or
- b. Having a capability of bridging over the top of a hot cell
wall with a thickness of 0.6 m or more ('over-the-wall'
- Note: Remote manipulators provide translation of human
operator actions to a remote operating arm and terminal fixture.
They may be of a 'master/slave' type or operated by joystick or
8.2.2. High-density (lead glass or other) radiation shielding
windows greater than 0.09 m2 on cold area and with a
greater than 3 g/cm3 and a thickness of 100 mm or
specially designed frames therefor;
8.2.3. Radiation-hardened TV cameras, or lenses therefor,
specially designed or rated as radiation hardened to withstand
greater than 5 x 104 grays (Silicon) (5 x
106 rad (Silicon))
without operational degradation.
8.3. Tritium, tritium compounds, or mixtures containing tritium
in which the ratio of tritium to hydrogen by atoms exceeds 1 part
in 1000 and products or devices containing any of the foregoing;
A product or device containing not more than 1.48 x
103 GBq (40
Ci) of tritium in any form.
8.4. Tritium facilities, plants and equipment, as follows:
1. Facilities or plants for the production, recovery, extraction,
concentration or handling of tritium;
- 2. Equipment for tritium facilities or plants, as follows:
(a) Hydrogen or helium refrigeration units capable of cooling to
23 K (-250o C) or less, with heat removal capacity
- (b) Hydrogen isotope storage and purification systems using
metal hydrides as the storage, or purification medium.
8.5. Platinized catalysts specially designed or prepared for
promoting the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen
and water for the recovery of tritium from heavy water or for the
production of heavy water.
8.6. Helium-3 or helium isotopically enriched in the helium-3
isotope, mixtures containing helium-3, and products or devices
containing any of the foregoing; except:
A product or device containing less than 1 g of helium-3.
8.7. Alpha-emitting radionuclides having an alpha half-life of 10
days or greater but less than 200 years, compounds or mixtures
containing any of these radionuclides with a total alpha activity
of 1 curie per kilogram (37 GBq/kg) or greater, and products or
devices containing any of the foregoing; except:
A product or device containing less than 3.7 GBq (100
millicuries) of alpha activity.
8.8. Lithium isotope separation facilities, plants and equipment,
1. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes;
- 2. Equipment for the separation of lithium isotopes, as
a. Packed liquid-liquid exchange columns specially designed for
- b. Mercury and/or lithium amalgam pumps;
- c. Lithium amalgam electrolysis cells;
- d. Evaporators for concentrated lithium hydroxide solution.
ANNEX APPENDIX: Detailed Specifications for Machine Tools
(Item 1.2. in List of Nuclear Dual-Use Export Controls)
1.2. "Numerical control" units, "numerical controlled" machine
tools, and specially designed "software" as follows:
(a) Note: For "Numerical control" units controlled by its
associated software, see section (c)(2).
- (b) Machine tools, as follows, for removing or cutting
metals, ceramics, or composites, which, according to the
manufacturer's technical specifications, can be equipped with
electronic devices for simultaneous "contouring control" in two
or more axes:
(1) Machine tools for turning, that have "positioning accuracies"
with all compensations available less (better) than 0.006 mm
along any linear axis (overall positioning) for machines capable
of machining diameters greater than 35 mm.
- Note: Bar machines (Swissturn), limited to machining
feed thru, are excluded if maximum bar diameter is equal to or
less than 42 mm and there is no capability of mounting chucks.
Machines may have drilling and/or milling capabilities for
machining Parts with diameters less than 42 mm.
- (2) Machine tools for milling, having any of the following
(a) "Positioning accuracies" with all compensations available are
less (better) than 0.006 mm along any linear axis (overall
- (b) Two or more contouring rotary axes.
- Note: This does not control milling machines having
(a) X-axis travel greater than 2 m; and
- (b) Overall "positioning accuracy" on the x-axis more (worse)
than 0.030 mm.
(3) Machine tools for grinding, having any of the following
(a) "Positioning accuracies" with all compensations available are
less (better) than 0.004 mm along any linear axis (overall
- (b) Having two or more contouring rotary axes.
- Note: The following grinding machines are excluded:
(a) Cylindrical external, internal, and external-internal
grinding machines having all the following characteristics:
- (1) Limited to cylindrical grinding
- (2) A Maximum workpiece outside diameter or length of 150 mm
- (3) Not more than two axes that can be coordinated
for "contouring control"; and
- (4) No contouring c axis
- (b) Jig grinders with axes limited to x, y, c, and a, where c
axis is used to maintain the grinding wheel normal to the work
surface, and the a axis is configured to grind barrel cams.
- (c) Tool or cutter grinding machines with "software"
designed for the production of tools or cutters; or
- (d) Crankshaft or camshaft grinding machines.
(4) Non-wire type Electrical Discharge Machines (EDM) that have
two or more contouring rotary axes and that can be coordinated
simultaneously for "contouring control".
- Note: Guaranteed "positioning accuracy" levels instead
individual test protocols may be used for each machine tool model
using the agreed ISO test procedure.
- Technical Notes:
- Axis nomenclature shall be in accordance with International
Standard ISO 841, "Numerical Control Machines - Axis and Motion
- Not counted in the total number of contouring rotary axes are
secondary parallel contouring rotary axes the center line of
which is parallel to the primary rotary axis.
- Rotary axes do not necessarily have to rotate over 360
degrees. A rotary axis can be driven by a linear device, e.g., a
screw or a rack-and-pinion.
(1) "Software" specially designed or modified for the
"development", "production", or "use" of equipment controlled by
subcategories (a) or (b) above.
- (2) "Software" for any combination of electronic devices or
system enabling such device(s) to function as a "numerical
control" unit capable of controlling S or more interpolating axes
that can be coordinated simultaneously for "contouring control".
- Note 1: - "Software" is controlled whether exported
residing in a "numerical control" unit or any electronic device
- Note 2: - "Software" specially designed or modified by the
manufacturers of the control unit or machine tool to operate an
uncontrolled machine tool is not controlled.
- Technical Note: Definition of Terms:
"accuracy" -- Usually measured in terms of inaccuracy, defined as
the maximum deviation, positive or negative, of an indicated
value from an accepted standard or true value.
- "contouring control"
-- Two or more "numerically controlled" motions operating in
accordance with instructions that specify the next required
position and the required feed rates to that position. These feed
rates are varied in relation to each other so that a desired
contour is generated. (Ref. ISO/DIS 2806-1980)
- "laser" -- An assembly of components which produce coherent
that is amplified by stimulated emission of radiation.
-- A sequence of elementary instructions, maintained in a special
storage, the execution of which is initiated by the introduction
of its reference instruction into an instruction register.
- "numerical control"
-- The automatic control of a process performed by a device that
makes use of numeric data usuallY introduced as the operation is
in progress. (Ref. ISO 2382)
- "positioning accuracy"
-- Of "numerically controlled" machine tools is to be determined
and presented in accordance with paragraph 2.13, in conjunction
with the requirements below:
(a) Test conditions (ISO/DIS 230/2, paragraph 3):
(1) For 12 hours before and during measurements, the machine tool
and accuracy measuring equipment will be kept at the same ambient
temperature. During the premeasurement time, the slides of the
machine will be continuously cycled identically to the way they
will be cycled during the accuracy measurements;
- (2) The machine shall be equipped with any mechanical,
electronic, or software compensation to be exported with the
- (3) Accuracy of measuring equipment for the measurements
at least four times more accurate than the expected machine tool
- (4) Power supply for slide drives shall be as follows:
- (i) Line voltage variation shall not be greater than + 10% of
nominal rated voltage;
- (ii) Frequency variation shall not be greater than + 2 Hz of
- (iii) Lineouts or interrupted service are not permitted.
(b) Test Program (paragraph 4):
(1) Feed rate (velocity of slides) during measurement shall be
the rapid traverse rate;
N.B.: In the case of machine tools which generate optical quality
surfaces, the feed rate shall be equal to or less than 50 mm per
(2) Measurements shall be made in an incremental manner from one
limit of the axis travel to the other without returning to the
starting position for each move to the target position;
- (3) Axes not being measured shall be retained at mid-travel
during test of an axis.
(c) Presentation of the test results (paragraph 2):
The results of the measurements must include:
- (1) "positioning accuracy" (A) and
- (2) The mean reversal error (B).
-- A sequence of instructions to carry out a process in, or
convertible into, a form executable by an electronic computer.
-- Detectors of a physical phenomenon, the output of which (after
conversion into a signal that can be interpreted by a controller)
is able to generate "programs" or modify programmed instructions
or numerical program data. This includes "sensors" with machine
vision, infrared imaging, acoustical imaging, tactile feel,
inertial position measuring, optical or acoustic ranging or force
or torque measuring capabilities.
- "software" -- A collection of one or more "programs" or
"microprograms" fixed in any tangible medium of expression.
- "user-accessible programmability"
-- The facility allowing a user to insert, modify or replace
"programs" by means other than:
- (a) A physical change in wiring or interconnections; or
- (b) The setting of function controls including entry of