The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union entered into force on June 1, 1988, when President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev exchanged the articles of implementation at the Moscow Summit. The Treaty called for the elimination of all U.S. and Soviet ground-launched missile systems with the range of 500 to 5,500 kilometers (about 300 to 3,400 miles) within three years after entry into force. As a result, members of the On-Site Inspection Agency have witnessed the elimination of an entire class of U.S. and Soviet intermediate-range missiles.
Since July 1, 1988, inspectors from the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA) have conducted 452 baseline, elimination, quota, and close-out inspections, and maintained a continuous-monitoring presence at the former SS-20/23 final assembly plant in Votkinsk, Russia. In the same period, OSIA escorted 270 foreign inspector teams at U.S. sites in this country and western Europe while also conducting the escort function at the Russian continuous monitoring facility in Magna, Utah.
The On-Site Inspection Agency is responsible for conducting and coordinating the Treaty's Inspection provisions. For the first time in U.S. and Soviet history, on-site inspections were included in the verification process of an arms control agreement between these nations.
The first three years of the Treaty were marked by almost continuous elimination of missile, launchers and related equipment. Beginning with the first Soviet SS-12 missile destruction at Saryozek in August 1988, U.S. inspectors witnessed the elimination of 1,846 Soviet missiles through May 12, 1991. Since the first elimination of a Pershing 1-A missile at Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant near Marshall, Texas on September 8, 1988, Soviet Inspectors viewed the destruction of the 846 U.S. missiles.
All declared shorter-range INF systems, those with ranges from 500 to 1,000 km., eliminated one month in advance of the Treaty deadline of November 30, 1989. The U.S. Pershing I-A , as the first shorter-range system to be completely eliminated, with the final missile eliminated on July 6, 1989, the Soviet Union eliminated the last of its declared shorter-range missiles, the SS-12 on July 26 and SS-23 on October 27, 1989.
The United States eliminated its last Ground-Launched Cruise Missile on May 1, 1991. The last Pershing II was destroyed on May 6,1991. The Soviet Union destroyed the last of 80 SSC-X-4 non-deployed cruise missiles on October 5 1988 and the last of six SS-5s on August 16, 1989. With the destruction of the last declared SS-4 on May 22, 1990, the only remaining Soviet intermediate-range system enumerated in the Treaty was the SS-20 until its final elimination on May 12, 1991
Continuous portal monitoring operations began in both countries in July 1988. At Magna, Utah, and Votkinsk, Russia permanent communities of up to 30 inspectors each are located outside the gates of former INF missile production and final assembly plants to check exiting vehicles for Treaty-limited items. These monitoring operations may continue inspections to 2001. Continuous portal monitoring operations at Votkinsk and Magna are proceeding with rotations of portal inspectors occurring at three week and monthly intervals, respectively.
The break-up of the Soviet Union and formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States on January 1, 1992, has not impacted on INF inspections or continuous portal monitoring operations. A significant change, however, has been the establishment of three additional Points-of-Entry (POEs) for inspection teams. The POES, locations where inspectors enter the sovereign territory of an INF Treaty party, were established to permit access to inspectable sites. In addition to the two original sites: Moscow and Ulan-Ude, Russia, the following locations are now official INF POES: Minsk, Belarus, Almaty, Kazakhstan; and Kiev, Ukraine.
Quota or short notice inspections of formerly declared facilities are proceeding. The inspections help maintain confidence that both parties are complying with the terms of the Treaty. The Treaty provided for 20 quota inspections per year for the first three years. The inspections, will continue at the rate of 15 per treaty year through May 1996, and a rate of ten per treaty year from June 1, 1996 through June 1, 2001.
|Soviet/Russian Inspections |
at U.S. Sites
|U.S. Inspections at|
Former Soviet Sites
|Missiles Subject to|
*Source: INF Treaty Memorandum of Understanding, 1 June 1988 Update