|U.S. Preparations for INF Portal Monitoring Inspections|
At Magna, the Soviet continuous portal monitoring inspection area contained four buildings. From left to right, the Soviet Warehouse, Soviet Data Collection Center, American Inspection Building, and the Environmental Shelter for examining vehicles exiting the rocket motor production plant.
signing of the INF Treaty in December 1987 and the
establishment of the On-Site Inspection Agency in January
1988, preparations for the continuous portal monitoring
inspections began in earnest, as part of the larger
effort to plan and organize the entire INF Treaty
mission. With the portal monitoring inspections, two
factors complicated the planning effort. First, this type
of on-site inspection was unprecedented. Before the INF
Treaty, neither nation had entered into any arms control
agreement that required its armament plants to be placed
under 24-hour-a-day on-site inspection. Plant managers,
inspectors, escorts, the national governments--no one had
any experience with this type of intrusive, continuous
on-site inspection. The second complicating factor
concerned a concept imbedded in the treaty: Virtually all
rights and obligations were reciprocal; hence, what was
done at Votkinsk influenced what was done at Magna and
vice versa. More than with any other type of INF
inspection, the issue of reciprocity complicated the
operation of these inspections.
In February 1988, General Lajoie set up a separate directorate specifically dedicated to managing and planning for the continuous portal monitoring escort and inspection missions. Colonel Douglas M. Englund, U.S. Army; Colonel George M. Connell, USMC; and a small staff of officers constituted the original directorate. In the beginning they had two tasks: organize and coordinate all operational aspects of the U.S. escort mission at Magna and organize, manage, and lead the portal monitoring inspection mission at Votkinsk.
Utah, was a small American industrial city of 22,000
people, lying 15 miles west of Salt Lake City in the
foothills of the Rocky Mountains. It was the site of the
Hercules Bacchus Works, a large industrial complex
encompassing several rocket motor production plants. One
of these plants, Hercules Plant No. 1, had produced
Pershing II rocket motors from 1982 to 1987. All
production of Pershing motors had ceased in June 1987, a
year before the INF Treaty entered into force. When the
Soviet Union chose this plant as the site of its portal
monitoring inspections, it became the only United States
defense plant ever subjected to continuous on-site
inspection by Soviet personnel.9
The first Soviet planning delegation came to Magna in February 1988. On February 17 and 18, Vladimir Sadovnikov, General Director of the Votkinsk Production Association, and two other Soviet officials flew to Utah and met with George Reuckert, Principal Deputy Director of OSIA; Colonel Serge A. Chernay, USAF, OSIA planner; and Carey E. Cavanaugh of the State Department.10 They discussed site preparations, access to medical facilities, and other concerns. Two weeks earlier, on February 4 and 5, Raymond F. Smith, OSIA Deputy Director for International Relations, and two U.S. embassy Moscow officials had visited Votkinsk to discuss U.S. portal monitoring requirements.
In the fall and winter of 1988-1989 at Votkinsk, construction began on the United States' permanent housing and continuous portal monitoring buildings. Here Anatoli V. Chernenko, Soviet Construction Supervisor, and Colonel George M. Connell, U.S. Site Commander, discuss construction issues.
At Magna, the Soviet Union conducted its inspection monitoring operations from this building, the USSR's Data Collection Center.
mid-February to late-June when site preparation teams
went to the two plants, planning for the portal
monitoring inspections was one of the most intensive
activities associated with implementing the INF Treaty.
For the United States, portal activities occurred on
three levels: internationally, in bilateral meetings
between the United States and the Soviet Union; within
the U.S. government; and between the federal government
and private contractors.
The international meetings to implement the treaty were the INF Treaty Technical Talks. These bilateral talks, held in Washington, Moscow, and Vienna in March, April, and May 1988, were small, week-long working sessions that addressed practical and procedural issues associated with establishing the INF Treaty's on-site inspection process. Portal monitoring inspections were a major topic at each session. Colonel Englund and Colonel Connell represented OSIA's Portal Monitoring Directorate. They participated in lengthy discussions with their Soviet counterparts concerning portal monitoring inspection procedures, logistics of getting inspection equipment and housing materials to the respective sites, and arrangements for temporary and permanent housing for the resident inspectors.11
In April 1988, Colonel Connell escorted a Soviet delegation to Magna to see firsthand the Hercules rocket motor production plant where the Soviet portal monitoring facility would be located. The U.S.-Soviet delegation then went to Albuquerque, New Mexico, to examine a full-scale model of the proposed technical and scanning equipment for U.S. inspections at Votkinsk. Two weeks later, Colonel Connell, Colonel Englund, and a small U.S. delegation toured the future portal inspection site at Votkinsk. Included in their tour was an examination of the plant's rail holding yard, where they observed a test of the rail scales proposed to be used at the Votkinsk portal. They also examined the Soviet Union's proposed stage measuring device.
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