1987 December l. A Joint Chiefs of Staff Task Force, under the leadership of Brigadier General Eugene L. Daniel, begins work on a concept of operations and organizational structure for the implementation of the INF Treaty.

December 8. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev sign the INF Treaty in Washington, D.C.

1988 January 15. President Reagan, accepting the JCS Task Force recommendations, directs the Secretary of Defense to establish the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA).

January 25. President Reagan submits the INF Treaty to the U.S. Senate for hearings, debate, and the exercise of its constitutional role in ratifying the treaty.

January 26. William H. Taft IV, Deputy Secretary of Defense, establishes OSIA as a separate operating agency of the Department of Defense.

February l. Brigadier General Roland Lajoie (USA) becomes the first OSIA Director.

February 8. The first cadre of 40 military inspectors, escorts, linguists, and civilian staff arrives at OSIA headquarters at Buzzard Point, Washington, D.C.

February 23. The U.S. Nuclear Risk Reduction Center (NRRC), located in the State Department, becomes operational. Assistant Secretary of State H. Allen Holmes is named as the first NRRC Director.

March 9-12. The first round of INF Treaty Technical Talks is held in Moscow. The U.S. delegation is led by Brigadier General Lajoie, Director OSIA; the Soviet delegation is headed by General Major Vladimir I. Medvedev, Director of the Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Center.

March 30. U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee favorably reports the INF Treaty out of committee and submits it to the Senate for debate.

April 15-June 9. OSIA conducts full-scale mock inspections with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army at 31 INF facilities in the United States and Europe.

May l. The Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers in Moscow and Washington achieve operational readiness for communicating INF Treaty notifications in Russian and English.

May 10-11. At a U.S.-Soviet ministerial meeting in Geneva, Secretary of State George Schultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze resolve key INF Treaty implementation issues.

May 12. U.S. INF Treaty chief negotiator Maynard Glitman and Soviet treaty representative Colonel General Nikolay Chemov exchange a diplomatic note, formally incorporating the ministerial decisions into the treaty.

May 16-27. The U.S. Senate debates the INF Treaty. It votes 93 to 5 in favor of the treaty on May 27, sending the formal Senate resolution on ratification to President Reagan, who is attending the Moscow Summit.

May 18-22. The final round of INF Treaty Technical Talks convenes in Vienna.

May 21. The United States and the Soviet Union exchange a list of corrected data for the INF Treaty's Memorandum of Understanding. This new data list corrected site coordinates and the number and dimensions of the INF missiles, launchers, and support equipment.

June l. President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev exchange the instruments of ratification in Moscow. The INF Treaty enters into force. Baseline and continuous portal monitoring inspections begin in 30 days.

June 6-July 15. The first session of the Special Verification Commission (SVC) meets in Geneva. U.S. commissioner Steven Steiner and Soviet commissioner Mikhail Strel'tsov lead the delegations.

June 22. The U.S. Arms Control Implementation Unit (ACIU) is established in U.S. Embassy, Moscow. Its mission is to assist U.S. aircrews and inspection teams who are conducting INF Treaty and other treaty on-site inspections in the Soviet Union.

July l. The first U.S. inspection team arrives in Moscow to conduct the first of 133 INF Treaty baseline inspections, which must be completed within 60 days.

July l. The first U.S. portal inspection team arrives in Moscow, flies to the Ural Mountains, and initiates continuous portal monitoring inspections at the Votkinsk Machine Building Plant.

July 2. The first teams of Soviet inspectors arrive at Travis Air Force Base, California, to initiate baseline inspections of U.S. INF facilities. The group includes the first team of Soviet portal monitoring inspectors and equipment bound for Magna, Utah.

July 5. Soviet inspectors begin continuous portal monitoring of the Hercules Plant No. 1, at Magna, Utah.

July 22. The first Soviet SS-20 missile and canister are eliminated under INF Treaty at the Kapustin Yar Missile Test Complex.

August l. The first Soviet SS-12 missile is eliminated at the Saryozek Missile Elimination Facility.

August 25. The first Soviet SS-20 missiles are eliminated by launching at the Chita and Kansk missile sites.

August 29. All INF Treaty baseline inspections are completed. During the 60-day period, the United States conducted 133 inspections of Soviet INF facilities. The Soviet Union conducted 31 inspections of U.S. INF missile sites. Both nations initiated continuous portal monitoring inspections.

September 8. The first U.S. missile elimination is conducted. With Vice President George Bush in attendance, Soviet inspectors observe the elimination of a Pershing IA first stage and a Pershing II first-stage rocket motor at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant in Longhorn, Texas.

October 5. Elimination of the Soviet SSC-X-4 cruise missile system is completed.

October 18. The first Pershing II launchers are eliminated at the U.S. Army Equipment Maintenance Center at Hausen, West Germany.

October 18. The first U.S. ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCMs) are eliminated at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona.

November 30. A key INF Treaty deadline is reached--all missile eliminations by launching must be completed. The Soviet Union eliminated 72 SS-20 missiles by this method, the United States none.

December 30. INF Treaty Memorandum of Understanding is updated in an exchange of data between U.S. and Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers (NRRCs).

1989 February 28. OSIA headquarters is relocated from Buzzard Point in southeast Washington, D.C., to Dulles International Airport.

April 10. At Votkinsk, U.S. portal monitoring inspectors move into permanent housing and staff quarters located next to the missile assembly plant.

April 17. At Magna, Soviet portal monitoring inspectors move into a permanent housing complex in West Jordan, Utah, located approximately five miles from the Hercules Rocket Motor Production Plant.

May 31. The end of the first treaty year. Since entry into force, U.S. inspectors had conducted 244 on-site inspections and observed 945 Soviet INF missiles being eliminated. Soviet inspectors completed 96 inspections and monitored the elimination of 324 U.S. INF missiles. Portal monitoring inspectors had conducted continuous inspections at Votkinsk and at Magna.

July 6. The last of 169 U.S. Pershing IA missiles is eliminated at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Texas.

July 25. The last of 718 Soviet SS-12 missiles is eliminated at the Saryozek Missile Elimination Facility.

August 9. The sixth and final SS-5 missile is eliminated at the Lesnaya Missile Elimination Facility.

October 27. The last of 239 SS-23 missiles is destroyed at the Saryozek Missile Elimination Facility. The final SS-23 launcher is eliminated the same day at the Stan'kovo Elimination Facility.

November 30. The treaty deadline is reached for eliminating all shorter-range INF missiles and launchers. Both nations met this deadline. The United States eliminated 169 Pershing IAs; the Soviet Union 718 SS-12s and 239 SS-23 missiles.

December 21. At the Special Verification Commission (SVC) in Geneva, SVC commissioners Steiner and Strel'tsov sign the INF Treaty's Memorandum of Agreement. This agreement codifies existing procedures for treaty notifications, elimination procedures, inspection procedures, and the technical characteristics of the INF missile systems.

1990 March 21. At the U.S. portal monitoring site in Votkinsk, the CargoScan X-ray imaging system becomes operational .

May 22. The last of 149 Soviet SS-4 missiles is eliminated at the Lesnaya Missile Elimination Facility. The only remaining Soviet INF system is the SS-20.

May 31. The end of the second treaty year. Since entry into force, the United States had conducted 346 inspections and observed the elimination of 1,646 missiles. The Soviet Union had carried out 142 inspections and monitored the elimination of 495 missiles. Portal monitoring inspections had been conducted continuously at Votkinsk and Magna.

June l. President Bush and President Gorbachev sign the Protocols to the Threshold Test Ban Treaty and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty at the Washington Summit. The On-Site Inspection Agency receives, in a presidential directive, the mission to plan, train, and prepare for on-site inspections under these treaties. At the same time, the agency is authorized to prepare and train for implementing two other arms reduction treaties in the final stages of negotiations-the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).

September 25. The U.S. Senate, following hearings and debate, votes 98 to 0 in favor of ratifying the two nuclear testing treaties.

October 9. The USSR's Supreme Soviet ratifies the nuclear testing treaties.

November 19. The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty is signed by 22 states in Paris, France.

December 11. The Threshold Test Ban Treaty and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty and the new protocols authorizing and detailing on-site inspections enter into force.

1991 January 22. Major General Roland Lajoie, Director OSIA, is reassigned as the Deputy Director for International Negotiations, Joint Chiefs of Staff. As OSIA's first Director, General Lajoie led the agency in implementing the INF Treaty and directed its expansion as it prepared for implementing the on-site inspection provisions of the Nuclear Testing Treaties, the CFE Treaty, and the START Treaty.

January 25. Major General Robert W. Parker (USAF) assumes command, becoming the second OSIA Director.

February 24. A Soviet delegation arrives in Washington for the first Coordinating Group Meeting to plan for the first U.S. nuclear test to be monitored under the Threshold Test Ban Treaty.

April 16. The final Pershing II launcher is eliminated at the U.S. Army EMC Facility in West Germany. The United States eliminated a total of 165 Pershing II launchers.

May l. The final GLCM missile and launcher elimination is conducted at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona. In all, the United States eliminated 443 missiles and l23 launchers.

May 6. The last of 234 Pershing II missiles is eliminated at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, Marshall, Texas.

May l2. The last of 654 SS-20 missiles is eliminated at the Kapustin Yar Missile Test Complex.

May 28. The last of 499 SS-20 launchers is eliminated at the Sarny Launcher Elimination Facility.

May 31. The end of the third treaty year. Since the treaty entered into force on June 1, 1988, the United States conducted 421 on-site inspections and monitored the elimination of 1,846 Soviet INF missiles. The Soviet Union conducted 207 inspections and observed the elimination of 846 U.S. INF missiles. Inspectors from both nations established and maintained continuous portal monitoring inspections of the respective INF missile production facilities.


Inspection Protocol | Table of Contents | Appendix C