Export Control News
- Commerce Dept. on Wassenaar "Best Practices" List, USIS Washington File, 08 December 2000 -- The U.S. Department of Commerce has praised a multilateral regime for promoting the best practices of its 33 member countries in enforcing export controls to halt proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
- Wassenaar Arrangement Agreement: Man-Portable Air Defense Export Controls, U.S. Department of State, Office of the Spokesman, 01 December 2000 -- The public statement of the sixth plenary meeting of the Wassenaar Arrangement, including the set of "best practices" adopted by the group.
- Text: State Department Press Release on Defense Trade Initiative 24 May 2000 -- The new Defense Trade Security Initiative (DTSI) represents "the first major post-Cold War adjustment to the U.S. Defense Export Control system," according to the Department of State.
- Text: State Department Release on Defense Trade Security Initiative 24 May 2000 -- The following list of proposals agreed to under the new Defense Trade Security Initiative (DTSI), which is designed to improve U.S. cooperation with allies in the area of defense trade, was released by the State Department's Bureau of Political Military Affairs.
- House Passes Provision to Cut Computer Export Review to 60 Days By Bruce Odessey Washington File 18 May 2000 -- The U.S. House of Representatives has passed legislation that would reduce the period Congress has to review changes in performance thresholds for controls on exports of high-performance computers to about 50 countries.
- Excerpt: Commerce's Reinsch on Multilateral Export Controls 12 April 2000 -- Under Secretary of Commerce William Reinsch says that the United States must approach consensus on export-control policy itself before it can exert more influence on other countries' policies.
- Text: State Dept.'s Holum on Multilateral Export Controls 12 April 2000 -- John Holum, the State Department's senior adviser for arms control, says that the United States continues pressing to strengthen the Wassenaar Arrangement multilateral regime for controlling exports of advanced technology and conventional armaments.
- U.S. Arms Control Adviser Briefs Legislators on Export Reforms By Jim Fisher-Thompson Washington File 29 March 2000 -- U.S. State Department Senior Adviser for Arms Control and International Security John D. Holum told Congress March 28 that changes in the way the U.S. government licenses the export of critical
technology are being made that will "satisfy our allies" as well as "encourage legitimate commercial enterprise."
- Commerce Official Says Trouble Building for Export-Control Bill By Bruce Odessey Washington File 15 March 2000 -- The top U.S. Department of Commerce export-control official says prospects for Congress passing a new Export Administration Act (EAA) have become less certain.
- PRESS BRIEFING BY JAKE SIEWERT AND DAVID LEAVY February 1, 2000 -- What the President wants to do is shorten that time period, by law, to one month, so that we don't need to spend every six months going back to the drawing board and trying to figure out what kind of computers are widely available in the marketplace today and whether we need to take another look at our regulations.
- STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT February 1, 2000 -- I have decided to raise the licensing threshold for HPC exports to Tier 2 countries. I have decided also to raise the licensing threshold for Tier 3 countries and the threshold above which proposed exports to Tier 3 countries must be notified to U.S. government export control agencies, and to adjust the Tier 3 country grouping.
- FACT SHEET Export Controls on Computers February 1, 2000 -- The President today announced an update of U.S. export controls on computers that will promote our national security, enhance the effectiveness of our export control system, and ease unnecessary regulatory burdens on both government and industry.
- U-S ECONOMIC SANCTIONS Voice of America 04 January 2000 -- The U-S Congress did not enact a single unilateral economic sanction against another nation in 1999, a sharp contrast to previous years.
- Export Delays Cancel Another U.S. Contract Military Space January 3, 2000 -- "Every one of these export licenses runs the risk of being a political hot potato rather then a business decision," said John Pike, a space policy analyst for the Federation of American Scientists, Washington.
- Increase in Computer Exports and Verifications Bureau of Export Administration, US Department of Commerce, December 13, 1999 -- The U.S. Department of Commerce today submitted its second annual report to Congress on end-use verifications of high performance computers as required by the National Defense Authorization Act. Commerce cannot publicly disseminate the report to Congress because it contains sensitive business information.
- Commerce Dept. Welcomes International Initiative on Enforcement of Export Controls Bureau of Export Administration, US Department of Commerce, December 3, 1999 -- The Wassenaar Arrangement, a 33-country group which promotes transparency, responsibility, and restraint in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use technology, today affirmed the importance of export control enforcement in halting the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the U.S. Department of Commerce announced.
- US WARNS LEGAL COMMITTEE OF WEAKENED EFFECTIVENESS OF SECURITY COUNCIL IF 'UNWISE' MEASURES ADOPTED TO MITIGATE SANCTIONS’ UNWANTED IMPACTS Press Release GA/L/3110 - 15 October 1999 -- The representative of the United States warned the Sixth Committee (Legal) that the power and effectiveness of economic sanctions as a crucial tool in dealing with acts of aggression must not be diluted -- either by the creation of unwise exceptions or by requirements for prior assessments.
- Text: U.S. and Canada Working Towards Harmonized Defense Export Controls USIA 13 October 1999 -- The United States and Canada are finalizing the details of anagreement that will significantly harmonize the two countries'controls on defense-related exports, U.S. State Department spokesmanJames Rubin announced October 12.
- SENATE-FARM SANCTIONS Voice of America 04 August 1999 -- The U-S Senate could vote tomorrow (Wednesday)
to loosen restrictions on sales of American food and
medicine abroad - even to so-called terrorist nations
or rogue states. The proposal is part of a broader farm bill.
- Computer Export Controls Eased Bureau of Export Administration - U. S. Department of Commerce - August 3, 1999 -- The Commerce Department today published regulations in the Federal Register to implement the change in U.S. export controls on computers announced by President Clinton on July 1.
- Revised Microprocessor Export Rules Announced by Commerce Department Bureau of Export Administration July 13, 1999 -- The Department of Commerce has published updated rules which implement the President's decision last week to immediately revise export controls on general-purpose microprocessors from the current control level of 1200 MTOPS (million theoretical operations per second) to 1900 MTOPS.
- CLINTON / EXPORT CONTROLS Voice of America 01 July 1999 -- PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS ANNOUNCED A PLAN TO EASE EXPORT RESTRICTIONS ON COMPUTERS, MAKING IT EASIER FOR HIGH-TECHNOLOGY FIRMS TO SELL MORE POWERFUL SYSTEMS TO CHINA AND OTHER COUNTRIES.
- PRESS BRIEFING BY CHIEF OF STAFF JOHN PODESTA, COMMERCE SECRETARY WILLIAM DALEY AND DEPUTY SECRETARY OF DEFENSE JOHN HAMRE July 1, 1999 -- Since computer export controls were last revised in 1995, we've seen tremendous increases in computer technology and in computer power. Perhaps the most vivid example is that by this fall, a laptop computer that can perform over current
control levels of 2,000 millions of theoretical operations per second, or MTOPS, which I will refer to from now on in the briefing, and will cost a few thousand dollars, will be available by mail order or through Internet sales.
- Export Controls on Computers
FACT SHEET July 1, 1999 -- The President today announced an update of U.S. export controls on computers that will promote our national security, enhance the effectiveness of our export control system, and ease unnecessary regulatory burdens on both government and industry.
- TEXT: GLICKMAN ON AGRICULTURAL SANCTIONS USIA 16 June 1999 -- U.S. Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman says the Clinton administration will no longer include food and medicine in sanctions against unfriendly countries.
- TEXT: PRESIDENT ANNOUNCES HUMANITARIAN
EXEMPTIONS FROM SANCTIONS USIA 28 April 1999--
President Clinton announced April 28 that the United
States will exempt commercial sales of agricultural commodities and
products, as well as medicine and medical equipment, from future
unilateral Executive Branch economic sanctions regimes, unless he
determines that our national interest requires otherwise.
- TRANSCRIPT: EIZENSTAT 4/28 BRIEFING ON US SANCTIONS POLICY CHANGE USIA 28 April 1999 -- President Clinton announced April 28 that the United States will exempt commercial sales of food, medicines and medical equipment from future unilateral sanctions regimes where we have the authority to do so. The Administration will also extend this policy to allow such commercial sales to currently embargoed countries.
- U-S / SANCTIONS REMOVED Voice of America 28 April 1999-- THE UNITED STATES IS LIFTING ITS UNILATERAL EMBARGO ON COMMERCIAL SALES OF FOOD, MEDICINE AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT TO IRAN, LIBYA, AND SUDAN AND WILL EXEMPT FOOD AND MEDICINE FROM FUTURE SANCTIONS REGIMES. OFFICIALS SAY THE MOVE MARKS THE FIRST STEP OF WHAT COULD BECOME A COMPREHENSIVE REFORM OF U-S UNILATERAL SANCTIONS.
- TEXT: CONGRESSMAN SAYS CBO REPORT DEBUNKS SANCTIONS MYTH USIA 12 April 1999 -- A U.S. House of Representatives committee chairman says a new report from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) concludes that imposition of economic sanctions by the United States on another country has no substantial negative impact on the U.S. economy.
- EXCERPT: CONGRESSIONAL REPORT ON COST OF UNILATERAL SANCTIONS USIA 12 April 1999 -- A study by a bipartisan congressional agency finds that unilateral economic sanctions imposed by the United States for foreign policy reasons do little harm to the overall U.S. economy.
- FACT SHEET: OVERVIEW OF LIBYAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Department of the Treasury 05 April 1999 -- Following is the text of the U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control fact sheet on Libyan sanctions regulations, issued April 5. This document reviews the history of the sanctions, criminal penalties, and describes those individuals and organizations who can deal with Libya under U.S. law.
- ENTITY LIST Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Bureau of Export Administration U. S. Department of Commerce March 26, 1999 -- This Supplement lists certain entities subject to license requirements for specified items under this part 744 of the EAR. License requirements for these entities includes exports and reexports, unless otherwise stated. This list of entities is revised and updated on a periodic basis in this Supplement by adding new or amended notifications and deleting notifications no longer in effect.
- TEXT: LUGAR REINTRODUCES SANCTIONS REFORM LEGISLATION USIA 24 March 1999 -- Senator Richard Lugar of Indiana says that he thinks the prospects are good in this Congress for passing legislation that would reform the way the U.S. Congress imposes unilateral economic sanctions that are intended to achieve political ends.
- CONGRESS TO CONSIDER BILL TO REIN IN UNILATERAL SANCTIONS By Warner Rose USIA 24 March 1999 -- Legislation to rein in the U.S. Congress' tendency to impose unilateral economic sanctions on countries for political reasons is being introduced again this year.
- ECONOMIC SANCTIONS Voice of America 11 Feburary 1999 -- SUPPORT IS GROWING IN THE U-S CONGRESS FOR THE SANCTIONS
REFORM ACT, A BILL THAT WOULD MAKE IT MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE
UNITED STATES TO IMPOSE UNILATERAL ECONOMIC SANCTIONS FOR FOREIGN
- EXCERPT: REINSCH ON WASSENAAR ARRANGEMENT, CHINA CONTROLS 09 February 1999 -- The Clinton administration will likely press the
Wassenaar Arrangement export-control group to make members' export
license practices more uniform, Under Secretary of Commerce William
- The Export of High Performance Computers under License Exception CTP Federal Register January 14, 1999 -- The Bureau of Export Administration (BXA) is amending the Export Administration Regulations by revising the requirements for exports of high performance computers to the People's Republic of China. This rule requires that exports of high performance computers, regardless of value, to the People's Republic of China under License Exception CTP be supported by a PRC End-User Certificate.
- Commerce Report: Growing Demand For U.S. High Performance Computers January 8, 1999 -- Requiring us to visit every site where an HPC is installed, regardless of what business the end-user is in or how many times it has been visited before, is ineffective.
- MISSILE LAUNCHER EXPORT ISSUE SEEN AS TEST FOR WASSENAAR By Bruce Odessey USIA 10 December 1998 -- Controlling exports of shoulder-launched missile launchers like Stingers is a test for the effectiveness of the fledgling Wassenaar Arrangement export-control regime, a State Department official says.
- Dual-use Export Control Sanctions
India and Pakistan Bureau of Export Administration December 4, 1998 -- On November 19, the Federal Register published a rule that amended the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to implement the Administration's sanctions on India and Pakistan. The rule codified those sanctions implemented in June that included a licensing policy of denial for exports and reexports of items controlled for nuclear nonproliferation and missile technology reasons to India and Pakistan, with limited exceptions. Additionally, the rule added certain Indian and Pakistani government, parastatal, and private entities to the Entity List set forth in the EAR.
- ENTITY LIST Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - (as of November 19, 1998 and as corrected November 27, 1998) This Supplement lists certain entities subject to license requirements for specified items under this part 744 of the EAR. License requirements for these entities includes exports and reexports, unless otherwise stated. This list of entities is revised and updated on a periodic basis in this Supplement by adding new or amended notifications and deleting notifications no longer in effect.
- REVIEW OF CHARTER PROVISIONS CONCERNING THIRD STATES AFFECTED BY SANCTIONS REQUESTED IN DRAFT RESOLUTION APPROVED BY LEGAL COMMITTEE Press Release GA/L/3100 -- 17 November 1998
- ASSEMBLY URGES STATES TO REPEAL OR INVALIDATE LAWS WITH EXTRATERRITORIAL EFFECT ON SOVEREIGNTY, FREE TRADE, NAVIGATION OF OTHER STATES 14 October 1998 Press Release GA/9479 -- The General Assembly this morning urged States that had and continued to apply laws and measures with extraterritorial effects on the sovereignty and the freedom of trade and navigation of other States, such as the United States Helms-Burton Act against Cuba, to take the necessary steps to repeal or invalidate them as soon as possible.
- IBM Unit Admits It Made Illegal Sales By Bill Miller Washington Post, August 1, 1998 -- John Pike, a defense analyst for the Federation of American Scientists, said the lab that got the computers is "their equivalent of Los Alamos." Pike said the RS-6000 units it received are powerful, but nowhere near top-of-the-line supercomputers.
- TEXT: IBM UNIT FINED $8.5 MILLION FOR COMPUTER EXPORTS TO RUSSIA -- The Department of Justice announced July 31 that IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd. pled guilty to illegally exporting computers to Arzamas-16, a Russian nuclear weapons laboratory, and was sentenced to pay $8.5 million, the maximum criminal fine, plus $171,000, the maximum civil fine.
- IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd. Fined $8.5 Million for Illegal Exports to Russian Nuclear Weapons Laboratory Bureau of Export Administration U.S. Department of Commerce 31 July 1998 -- A U.S. district judge in Washington D.C. imposed a criminal fine of $8.5 million on IBM East Europe/Asia Ltd. for exporting computers to
Arzamas-16, a Russian nuclear weapons laboratory, in violation of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act and the Export Administration Regulations.
- SANCTIONS DEBATE Voice of America 23 June 1998 -- STRONG OPPOSITION TO UNILATERAL U-S EXPORT CONTROLS AND TRADE SANCTIONS WERE VOICED TUESDAY AT A WASHINGTON CONFERENCE ORGANIZED BY THE LIBERTARIAN POLICY GROUP: CATO INSTITUTE.
- Gateway 2000 Settles Computer Export Control Charges Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration June 19, 1998 -- BXA
imposed a $402,000 civil penalty on Gateway 2000, for exporting computer systems to 16 countries, including Iran, Syria and China. All of the computers contained 486 chips and had composite theoretical performance (CTP) levels ranging from 18.61 to 24.82 MTOPS (millions of
theoretical operations per second).
- Hitachi Data Systems Pays $6,000 to Settle Charges of Illegal Computer Export Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration
June 5, 1998
- Interim Guidance on Indian And Pakistan Export Control Licensing Policy: May 29, 1998: Bureau of Export Administration U.S. Department of Commerce
- Sales or Security? Supercomputers and Export Controls
National Security Report April 1998 [2MB PDF]
- WEAPONS COMPUTERS SOLD TO RUSSIAN MILITARY RESEARCHERS by Patricia Conklin Badpuppy Gay Today Wednesday, 26 February, 1997 -- Profiting U.S. Firm Claims It Was "Duped" by Russian Arms Lab -- Silicon Graphics, Inc. has announced "some serious judgmental errors" for a January shipment of two advanced super-computer systems to the Chelyabinsk-70 nuclear weaponry design laboratory in Russia. Russian buyers insist they have purchased the advanced nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, to be used only in "environmental science" studies.
- Japanese Businessman Sentenced to Prison For Illegal Computer Equipment Re-export Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration
February 24, 1998 -- Japanese businessman Kiyoyuki Yasutomi was sentenced to 18 months in prison and fined $10,000 after pleading guilty to illegally shipping $1.4 million worth of computer equipment from Japan to Pakistan.
- COMMERCE DEPT. PRESS RELEASE ON COMPUTER EXPORTS RULE Date: 19980202 -- The U.S. Department of Commerce is publishing a regulation placing new requirements on U.S. exports of lower-end high-performance computers to 50 countries, including China, Russia, India and Israel.
- Allergan, Inc. Penalized $824,000 for Alleged Biotoxin Exports Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration January 26, 1998 -- Allergan, Inc. (Allergan) of Irvine, California was fined $824,000 for violating export controls on biological agents by shipping botulinum pharmaceutical toxin product.
- Commerce Implements Wassenaar Control List U. S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: January 15, 1998
- SENATE PASSES CONTROLS ON COMPUTER EXPORTS TO 50 COUNTRIES Bruce Odessey USIA 19971106 -- The Senate has given final passage to legislation that would place new controls on U.S. exports of relatively low-performance computers to 50 countries, including China, Russia, India and Israel.
- ADMINISTRATION OPPOSES COMPUTER EXPORT CONTROL PROVISION
Bruce Odessey USIA 19971029 -- The Clinton administration opposes passage by Congress of a bill that could lead to reimposition of controls on U.S. exports of a number of relatively low-performance computers to 50 countries, including China, Russia, India and Israel, a U.S. Department of Commerce official says.
- New York Company Fined for Illegal Exports to China
Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration October 16, 1997 - Lansing Technologies Corporation was fined $10,000 for exporting a computer vector processor and a
data acquisition controller system to the People's Republic of China in 1992.
- The Entity List October 1, 1997 Entities of proliferation concern listed in Supplement No. 4 to part 744 of the Export Administration Regulations.
- U.S., Russia Seek Compromise Over Disputed Computers Howard Diamond Arms Control Today October 1987 - The United States and Russia appear to be nearing a solution to their standoff over the future of six
American supercomputers improperly acquired by Moscow's premier nuclear weapons labs. Viktor Mikhailov, head of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM), proposed that the four Silicon Graphics “Power Challenge L” deskside servers at Chelyabinsk 70 and two IBM machines--a 16 processor RS 6000 at Arzamas 16 and an SP 2--could be moved to non military locations in Russia and operated under U.S. monitoring.
- The Silicon Bomb by George C. Smith, Ph.D. September 25, 1997 -- In 1995 the administration issued a new, more relaxed set of controls on computing power. The new controls divided world nations into four categories. In tier C no government review is required for sale of computers capable of between two and seven billion operations per second to civilians. An export license is required for potential sales to military sites. The SGI computers are rated at 2.9 billion operations per second. Silicon Graphics insisted it was unaware of Chelyabinsk-70's true nature, there was no need to review the sale.
- What's Good For Silicon Graphics Is Not Necessarily Good For America: Some Supercomputer Sales Imperil U.S. Security Center for Security Policy DECISION BRIEF No. 97-D 102 - 21 July 1997
In the roughly 18 months following President Clinton's decision unilaterally to decontrol supercomputers capable of making 2,000-7,000 million theoretical operations per second (MTOPS), such devices have wound up in several ominous locales.
- EXCERPT: REINSCH OF COMMERCE ON EXPORT CONTROLS, SANCTIONS
Date: 19970708 (He recommends eliminating ineffective ones)
- Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Additions to the Entity List; Final Rules [Federal Register: June 30, 1997 (Volume 62, Number 125)]
- SITES IN 5 COUNTRIES IDENTIFIED WITH WEAPONS PROLIFERATION
By Bruce Odessey USIA June 30, 1997 -- The U.S. Department of Commerce has listed research facilities in Russia, China, India, Pakistan and Israel as engaging in weapons proliferation and has required U.S. companies to inquire about whether to submit license applications for all exports to these destinations.
- CHALLENGES TO COMPUTER, ENCRYPTION, SANCTIONS POLICY ADVANCE
By Bruce Odessey USIA 06/23/97 -- The House of Representatives has voted to recontrol exports of computers to China and many other countries. The House provision would reverse a relaxation of computer export policy implemented by executive orders signed by President Clinton starting in 1995. It would require individual export licenses for all shipments to a group of about 50 countries of U.S.-made computers capable of 2,000 million operations per second (MTOPS).
- TEXAS MANUFACTURER AGREES TO $50,000 CIVIL PENALTY TO SETTLE ILLEGAL EXPORT CHARGES Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration
June 17, 1997 -- Dell Computer Corporation of Austin, Texas, was fined a $50,000 civil
penalty for three shipments of US origin computer equipment from the United States to Iran.
- NEW JERSEY COMPANY SENTENCED FOR EXPORT CONTROL VIOLATIONS Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration June 13, 1997 -- Digital
Creations Corporation was fined a criminal penalty of $800,000 for exporting a DEC computer
to the People's Republic of China.
- ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. COMPANY AGREES TO PAY $180,000 CIVIL PENALTY TO SETTLE CHARGES OF ILLEGAL EXPORTS Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration May 30, 1997 -- BXA imposed a $180,000 civil penalty on Lasertechnics, Inc.,
for exporting U.S.-origin thyratrons from the United States to Hong Kong, Ireland, Malaysia and Singapore.
- U.S. Supercomputer Sale To Russia Raises Alarm In Congress By Bruce Odessey USIA April 15, 1997 -- An alleged U.S. sale of supercomputers to Russian nuclear weapons facilities has raised alarm in the U.S. Congress, where some members want to reverse the Clinton administration's relaxing of export controls.
- U.S. Investigating Computer Exports To Russian Nuclear Weapons Labs Howard Diamond Arms Control Today March 1997 - Russia has acquired five American made supercomputers, according to Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM). Russia claims to have four Silicon Graphics “Power Challenge L” deskside servers, together capable of more than 4,400 million theoretical operations per second (MTOPS), and one IBM Corporation RS 6000 SP system capable of 10,000 MTOPS.
- Silicon Graphics Cooperating With Commerce Department Regarding Sale of Computers to Russian Laboratory February 18, 1997 -- Silicon Graphics, Inc. announced that it has been working over the past month with the Department of Commerce to investigate whether high-powered computers shipped to a Russian laboratory are being used for nuclear weapons testing.
- Computer Sale to Russia Probed by William Heartstone, The Daily Republican February 17, 1997 --
The supercomputer could be used to test the reliability of Russia's remaining nuclear arsenal, an especially important function in the wake of the nuclear test ban treaty signed Sept. 24. Russia does not have machinery comparable to the Silicon Graphics supercomputer, U.S. officials said.
- Texas Company Pleads Guilty to Illegal Computer Shipments to China Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration December 20, 1996
-- New World Transtechnology of Galveston, TX, was fined $10,000 for illegally exporting computers to to a nuclear equipment factory in the People's Republic of China in August 1992.
- Nuclear Weapons: Russia's Request for the Export of U.S. Computers for Stockpile Maintenance (Stmnt. for the Rec., 09/30/96, GAO/T-NSIAD-96-245).
- Sigma Chemical Penalized $480,000 for Biotoxin Exports
Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration July 8, 1996 -- On 48 separate
occasions between July 1992 and January 1993, Sigma exported U.S.-origin biotoxins from the United States to various countries without the required validated export licenses.
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