News

      DATE=5/01/97

      TYPE=NEW HORIZONS #1967

    NUMBER=3-27236

     TITLE=BANNING CHEMICAL WEAPONS

    BYLINE=BRIAN CISLAK

 TELEPHONE=619-3529

  DATELINE=WASHINGTON

    EDITOR=SWANEY



CONTENT=



                  (INSERTS AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES)



TAPE:    MUSIC THEME



ANNCR:   NEW HORIZONS!!!!



TAPE:    MUSIC THEME



ANNCR:   THE VOICE OF AMERICA PRESENTS -- NEW HORIZONS -- A 

         WEEKLY PROGRAM ON DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY 

         AND MEDICINE.  TODAY -- "BANNING CHEMICAL WEAPONS" -- A 

         LOOK AT THE NEW INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL WEAPONS 

         CONVENTION: WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT DOES, WHOM IT AFFECTS.



TAPE:    MUSIC THEME



TAPE:    CUT ONE  -- MIKULAK: (:11)



         "THIS IS A PRETTY FAR REACHING PROHIBITION. IN FACT, 

         IT'S A TRUE DISARMAMENT MEASURE. IT'S INTENDED TO 

         COMPLETELY ELIMINATE CHEMICAL WEAPONS AS A WEAPON IN 

         NATIONAL ARSENALS."



TEXT:    ROBERT MIKULAK (PRON: MICK-U-LACK), CHIEF OF THE 

         CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL POLICY DIVISION AT THE U.S. ARMS

         CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY. THE AGENCY HAD A LEADING

         ROLE IN NEGOTIATING THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION, 

         WHICH TOOK EFFECT APRIL 29TH.  



TAPE:    CUT TWO  --  MIKULAK: (:19)



         "WHAT IS THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION?  SIMPLY PUT, 

         IT'S AN INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT THAT BANS POISON GAS 

         WEAPONS -- BANS WEAPONS CONTAINING  NERVE GAS, MUSTARD 

         GAS, EVEN SOME OF THE OLDER WEAPONS CONTAINING  COMMON 

         COMMERCIAL CHEMICALS LIKE HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND 

         PHOSGENE."



TEXT:    POISON GAS WEAPONS, FIRST USED EXTENSIVELY IN WORLD WAR 

         ONE IN THE FORM OF MUSTARD GAS, HAVE LONG BEEN CONDEMNED

         FOR THEIR LETHALITY AND THEIR WIDESPREAD POTENTIAL FOR 

         HARM, BOTH TO SOLDIERS AND TO CIVILIAN POPULATIONS.  

         INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS TO BAN OR CONTROL CHEMICAL WEAPONS

         BEGAN ALMOST AS SOON AS THEY WERE DEVELOPED. AN 

         INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION RESTRICTING THEIR USE IN WAR 

         WAS CONCLUDED AT GENEVA IN 1925.



         NEVERTHELESS THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORE SOPHISTICATED AND 

         LETHAL CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS PERSISTED INTO THE 1930'S

         AND '40'S, WHEN NAZI GERMANY DEVELOPED THE FIRST NERVE 

         GAS AGENTS, WHICH CAUSE RAPID DEATH BY PARALYSIS. THESE 

         WERE NOT USED IN WORLD WAR TWO -- IT IS BELIEVED, DUE TO

         GERMAN FEARS OF POSSIBLE RETALIATION IN KIND.



         POSTWAR DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS BY THE 

         SUPERPOWERS LED TO CONCERNS OVER PROLIFERATION AND THE 

         POTENTIAL FOR THEIR USE IN REGIONAL CONFLICTS.  THEIR 

         RELATIVE EASE OF PRODUCTION BY ANY NATION WITH CHEMICAL 

         MANUFACTURING CAPABILITIES CAUSED THEM TO BE DUBBED "THE

         POOR MAN'S ATOMIC BOMB." ROBERT MIKULAK EXPLAINS:



TAPE:    CUT THREE  --  MIKULAK: (:56)



         "AT THAT TIME WE WERE WORRIED PRIMARILY ABOUT THE SOVIET

         UNION.  LATER ON, IT BECAME APPARENT THAT CHEMICAL 

         WEAPONS WERE STARTING TO PROLIFERATE. THE IRAQIS, FOR 

         EXAMPLE, USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN THEIR WAR WITH IRAN 

         AND AGAINST THEIR OWN KURDISH POPULATION DURING THE 

         1980'S.  SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR, THAT PROBLEM HAS

         ACCELERATED.  THESE DAYS WE ESTIMATE THAT APPROXIMATELY 

         20 COUNTRIES EITHER HAVE CHEMICAL WEAPONS OR ARE 

         INTERESTED IN ACQUIRING THEM -- HAVE SOME KIND OF 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROGRAM.



         "IT'S A SCARY THOUGHT, PARTICULARLY IF YOU LOOK AT WHERE

         THOSE COUNTRIES ARE.  THEY TEND TO BE PRIMARILY IN THE 

         MIDDLE EAST, THOUGH CHINA, FOR EXAMPLE, WE THINK HAS A 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROGRAM.  RUSSIA STILL HAS A CHEMICAL 

         WEAPONS PROGRAM. NORTH KOREA PROBABLY HAS A CHEMICAL 

         WEAPONS PROGRAM.  AND THERE ARE A NUMBER OF OTHERS. SO 

         IT'S A WORLDWIDE PROBLEM.  IT'S NOT JUST A BILATERAL 

         PROBLEM ANYMORE." 



TEXT:    IN 1969, PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON UNILATERALLY RENOUNCED 

         USE BY THE UNITED STATES OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS.  LATER, 

         THE UNITED STATES BEGAN DESTROYING ITS CHEMICAL WEAPONS 

         STOCKPILES -- A PROCESS THAT CONTINUES TO THIS DAY.  IN 

         THE 1970'S AND '80'S, SERIOUS EFFORTS GOT UNDERWAY 

         TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE INTERNATIONAL TREATY, WHICH WOULD

         BAN THE USE, PRODUCTION AND STOCKPILING OF CHEMICAL 

         WEAPONS AND MANDATE THEIR DESTRUCTION. THIS EFFORT 

         CULMINATED IN THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION, SIGNED IN

         PARIS ON JANUARY 12, 1993, WHICH BECAME EFFECTIVE ON 

         APRIL 29TH OF THIS YEAR.  A FEW DAYS EARLIER, THE U.S. 

         SENATE VOTED TO RATIFY THE TREATY, MAKING THE UNITED 

         STATES THE 73RD SIGNATORY TO DO SO.  



         WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION 

         AND WHAT MAKES IT DIFFERENT FROM PREVIOUS EFFORTS TO 

         RESTRICT CHEMICAL WARFARE?  ROBERT MIKULAK OF THE ARMS 

         CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY EXPLAINS:



TAPE:    CUT FOUR  --  MIKULAK: (1:10)



         "MORE SPECIFICALLY THEN, THE TREATY BANS POISON GAS, BUT

         WHAT EXACTLY DOES IT DO?  IT MAKES POISON GAS WEAPONS 

         ILLEGAL.  THEY HAVEN'T BEEN ILLEGAL UNTIL NOW.  IT'S 

         BEEN LEGAL TO STOCKPILE THEM AND A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES 

         HAVE.  AND IT CREATES A VERIFICATION AND ENFORCEMENT 

         MECHANISM TO ENSURE THAT COUNTRIES LIVE UP TO THEIR 

         COMMITMENTS UNDER THE TREATY.



         "IN TERMS OF THE SCOPE OF THE TREATY, IT BANS NOT ONLY 

         USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS, AS IMPORTANT AS THAT IS, BUT IT

         ALSO BANS ALL THE ACTIVITIES RELATED TO ACQUIRING 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS -- BANS DEVELOPMENT, BANS PRODUCTION, 

         BANS STOCKPILING.  AND IT REQUIRES THAT ALL EXISTING 

         STOCKPILES, ALL EXISTING CHEMICAL WEAPONS PRODUCTION 

         FACILITIES, BE DECLARED AND DESTROYED.  SO UNDER THE 

         TREATY, THE UNITED STATES, FOR EXAMPLE, WOULD MAKE A 

         VERY DETAILED DECLARATION OF ITS CHEMICAL WEAPONS 

         STOCKS, PRODUCTION FACILITIES, AND WOULD BE OBLIGATED TO

         DESTROY THESE OVER A TEN YEAR PERIOD.  THE SAME WOULD GO

         FOR ANY OTHER COUNTRY THAT HAS CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS PRODUCTION FACILITIES."  



TEXT:    TO ENSURE THAT COUNTRIES ARE, IN FACT, DESTROYING THEIR 

         STOCKPILES, A SYSTEM OF ROUTINE INSPECTION IS BEING SET 

         UP IN THE HAGUE WITH 250 INSPECTORS DRAWN FROM THE 

         NATIONS THAT HAVE RATIFIED THE TREATY. THEY WOULD BE 

         DISPATCHED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD TO CHECK FACILITIES AND 

         VERIFY COMPLIANCE.  MOST OF THE DETAILED INSPECTIONS 

         WOULD BE OF MILITARY FACILITIES. BUT SOME OF THE 

         CHEMICALS THAT COULD BE USED IN WEAPONS -- HYDROGEN 

         CYANIDE AND PHOSGENE, FOR EXAMPLE -- ARE SO-CALLED "DUAL

         USE" -- THAT IS, THEY HAVE LEGITIMATE COMMERCIAL 

         APPLICATIONS.  SO CERTAIN CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING PLANTS 

         COULD BE TARGETED FOR INSPECTION.



         IT WAS THIS LATTER POSSIBILITY THAT PROMPTED THE 

         CONVENING OF A SPECIAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS

         TREATY AT LAST MONTH'S MEETING OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL 

         SOCIETY IN SAN FRANCISCO.  DURING THE DEBATE ON 

         RATIFICATION OF THE TREATY, CONCERNS WERE RAISED THAT 

         INSPECTIONS OF COMMERCIAL PLANTS MIGHT BE INTRUSIVE, OR 

         MIGHT COMPROMISE TRADE SECRETS -- PUTTING COMPANIES AT 

         COMPETITIVE DISADVANTAGE.  BUT MARY BETH KELLEHER OF THE

         CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION -- THE MAIN U.S. 

         INDUSTRY GROUP -- SAYS THE LEAKAGE OF PROPRIETARY 

         INFORMATION DURING TREATY-MANDATED INSPECTIONS IS A 

         NON-PROBLEM.  THE REASON, AS SHE EXPLAINED AT THE 

         CHEMICAL SOCIETY MEETING, IS THAT INDUSTRY HAD BEEN 

         INVOLVED FROM THE VERY BEGINNING IN ADVISING TREATY 

         NEGOTIATORS ON WAYS TO PROTECT AGAINST THAT POSSIBILITY:



TAPE:    CUT FIVE  --  KELLEHER: (:53)



         "THROUGHOUT THOSE NEGOTIATIONS, REPRESENTATIVES OF 

         SEVERAL US CHEMICAL INDUSTRY SECTORS, SUCH AS THE BASIC 

         CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS, PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURERS AND

         SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS, PROVIDED 

         TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND INPUT TO THE U.S GOVERNMENT 

         DELEGATION NEGOTIATING THE CONVENTION.



         "U.S. INDUSTRY ALSO HELPED COORDINATE AN INTERNATIONAL 

         INDUSTRY GROUP REPRESENTING THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES OF 

         THE UNITED STATES, JAPAN, EUROPE, CANADA AND AUSTRALIA. 

         INDUSTRY'S INVOLVEMENT IN NEGOTIATION AND ONGOING 

         IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TREATY  STEMS FROM ITS COMMITMENT 

         TO PREVENT ANY DIVERSION OF ITS LEGITIMATE PRODUCTS TO 

         ILLEGAL USES. THE U.S. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY DOES NOT MAKE 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS.  BUT THE SUCCESSFUL DETERRENCE OF THE 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS THREAT REQUIRES INDUSTRY INPUT AND 

         SUPPORT."  



TEXT:    MS. KELLEHER ADDS THAT THERE ARE FEWER THAN 200 

         FACILITIES IN THE UNITED STATES THAT COULD EXPECT TO BE 

         INSPECTED UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION.  

         ROUGHLY 18-HUNDRED OTHERS -- PRODUCERS OF SO-CALLED 

         "DISCRETE," OR BASIC, ORGANIC CHEMICALS -- WOULD FILL 

         OUT A FORM INDICATING VOLUME OF PRODUCTION.  BUT AS 

         LARRY HALL OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPLAINS, 

         MOST PLANTS -- SUCH AS THOSE THAT PRODUCE RAW MATERIALS 

         FOR THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY -- WOULD BE EXEMPT FROM 

         DECLARATION OR INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS:



TAPE:    CUT SIX  --  HALL: (:39) 



         "THESE EXEMPTIONS WERE WORKED OUT WITH INDUSTRY AND WILL

         REDUCE THE NUMBER OF FIRMS THAT WILL BE REQUIRED TO 

         SUBMIT DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICAL DECLARATIONS.  EXCLUDED

         ARE DOC (DISCRETE ORGANIC CHEMICAL) PLANT SITES THAT 

         PRODUCE EXPLOSIVES EXCLUSIVELY, PRODUCE HYDROCARBONS 

         EXCLUSIVELY SUCH AS ETHYLENE AND BENZENE....... REFINE 

         SULFUR-CONTAINING CRUDE OIL, PRODUCE OLIGOMERS AND 

         POLYMERS AND PRODUCE UNSCHEDULED CHEMICALS VIA 

         BIOLOGICAL OR BIOMEDIATED PROCESS: THIS IS LIKE 

         FERMENTED BEVERAGES OR FOOD PROCESSING."   



TEXT:    IN ADDITION TO ROUTINE INSPECTIONS, THERE IS ANOTHER 

         LEVEL OF SCRUTINY UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION 

         CALLED A "CHALLENGE" INSPECTION.  THAT IS ONE IN WHICH A

         MEMBER NATION SPECIFICALLY ACCUSES ANOTHER OF 

         MANUFACTURING OR POSSESSING CHEMICAL WEAPONS AT A 

         SPECIFIC LOCATION.  EVERY SIGNATORY COUNTRY WILL 

         DESIGNATE A CIVILIAN AGENCY TO ACT AS AN INTERMEDIARY 

         BETWEEN THE INTERNATIONAL INSPECTION TEAMS AND THE 

         FACILITIES BEING INSPECTED.  IN THE UNITED STATES IT 

         WILL BE THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, /// OPT /// AS LARRY

         HALL EXPLAINS:



TAPE:    CUT SEVEN  --  HALL: (:45)



         "WHILE WE BELIEVE THAT VERY FEW CHALLENGE INSPECTIONS 

         WILL TAKE PLACE, ANY THAT DO TAKE PLACE WILL LIKELY BE 

         DIRECTED AT U.S. MILITARY FACILITIES.  IN THE EVENT 

         THERE IS A CHALLENGE INSPECTION OF A U.S. COMMERCIAL 

         FACILITY, COMMERCE IS EXPECTED TO PLAY THE LEAD ROLE IN 

         MANAGING ACCESS TO ENSURE THAT INSPECTORS PURSUE THE 

         LEAST INTRUSIVE MEANS POSSIBLE TO GAIN REASONABLE 

         ANSWERS TO REASONABLE QUESTIONS.  A FIRM IS UNDER NO 

         OBLIGATION TO PROVIDE INFORMATION UNRELATED TO A 

         POSSIBLE VIOLATION OF THE CWC.  AS WITH ROUTINE 

         INSPECTIONS, COMMERCE INTENDS TO RELY HEAVILY ON THE 

         JUDGMENTS OF A FIRM REGARDING WHAT CONSTITUTES THEIR 

         CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION AND TO PROTECT FIRMS 

         AGAINST UNREASONABLE QUESTIONS."  /// END OPT /// 



TEXT:    LEGAL EXPERTS SAY THAT THE FOURTH AMENDMENT TO THE U.S. 

         CONSTITUTION, WHICH PROTECTS CITIZENS AGAINST 

         UNREASONABLE SEARCHES OF THEIR PROPERTY, ALSO APPLIES TO

         COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES -- THOUGH TO A 

         LESSER EXTENT THAN TO A PRIVATE RESIDENCE.  EDWARD 

         TANZMAN, AN ATTORNEY, IS MANAGER OF THE ECONOMICS AND 

         LAW SECTION AT ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY -- A NUCLEAR 

         RESEARCH FACILITY NEAR CHICAGO.  HE SAYS THAT ALL 

         INSPECTIONS UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION WOULD 

         HAVE TO BE CARRIED OUT IN A MANNER CONSISTENT WITH 

         CONSTITUTIONAL PRIVACY PROTECTIONS:



TAPE:    CUT EIGHT  --  TANZMAN: (:46)



         "CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION AND 

         TREATIES ARE RESOLVED BY COURTS IN FAVOR OF THE 

         CONSTITUTION.  TREATIES DO NOT TRUMP THE CONSTITUTION.  

         IT'S THE OTHER WAY AROUND.  SO AS A RESULT, INSPECTIONS 

         UNDER THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION ARE SUBJECT TO THE

         PRIVACY PROTECTIONS PROVIDED BY THE FOURTH AMENDMENT.  

         THIS MEANS THAT ANY INSPECTIONS OCCURRING IN THIS 

         COUNTRY WILL HAVE TO PROCEED IN A VERY SPECIFIC MANNER 

         THAT RESPECTS OUR TRADITIONAL VALUES. /// OPT /// AND 

         WHAT YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND -- IF YOU DON'T UNDERSTAND 

         ANYTHING ELSE ABOUT WHAT I'M TELLING YOU -- IS THAT THE 

         CONSTITUTION IS GREATER THAN THE TREATY.  THE 

         CONSTITUTION WILL NOT BE VIOLATED BY THE TREATY."  /// 

         END OPT ///  



TEXT:    MR. TANZMAN SAYS THESE PROTECTIONS WOULD INCLUDE 

         ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL OVERSIGHT, INCLUDING SEARCH 

         WARRANTS WHERE THE LAW WOULD NORMALLY REQUIRE THEM:



TAPE:    CUT NINE  --  TANZMAN: (:21)



         /// OPT /// "THE FOURTH AMENDMENT CREATES A SET OF 

         COMMON STANDARDS TO GUIDE GOVERNMENT SEARCHES UNDER A 

         VARIETY OF LAWS.  AS AMERICANS WE HAVE THE RIGHT TO 

         EXPECT THAT THESE STANDARDS WILL BE FOLLOWED UNDER THE 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION, JUST AS THEY ARE FOLLOWED 

         IN DOMESTIC INSPECTION SITUATIONS AND INVESTIGATIONS."  

         /// END OPT ///



TEXT:    IF AN INSPECTION AT A CHEMICAL PLANT OR MILITARY 

         FACILITY IS ORDERED, IT MUST BE CONDUCTED IN A MANNER 

         THAT IS AS UNOBTRUSIVE, SPEEDY AND FOCUSED AS POSSIBLE. 

         A KEY TO MEETING THESE REQUIREMENTS IS TO RESTRICT BOTH 

         THE INSPECTION AND THE ANALYSIS OF ANY RETRIEVED 

         CHEMICAL SAMPLES TO THE SITE BEING INSPECTED.  CHARLES 

         GALLAWAY OF THE U.S. DEFENSE DEPARTMENT'S SPECIAL 

         WEAPONS AGENCY SAYS THIS REQUIREMENT HAD LED TO THE 

         DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR ON-SITE CHEMICAL 

         ANALYSIS:



TAPE:    CUT TEN  --  GALLAWAY: (:44)



         "BACK IN 1993, MOST OF THE COMMUNITY WAS VERY SKEPTICAL 

         THAT WE WOULD BE ABLE TO DO THAT.  AT THAT  TIME IT WAS 

         PRETTY MUCH ASSUMED THAT YOU WOULD HAVE TO TAKE A SAMPLE

         AND TAKE IT BACK TO A LABORATORY AND DO THE ANALYSIS 

         SOMEWHERE ELSE.  THAT IS EXTREMELY INTRUSIVE BECAUSE YOU

         HAVE NO IDEA WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN TO THAT SAMPLE WHEN

         IT LEAVES YOUR SITE.  



         "SO THE DEFENSE SPECIAL WEAPONS AGENCY HAS BEEN 

         INSTRUMENTAL IN CONVINCING THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY 

         THAT WE CAN DO EFFECTIVE ON-SITE ANALYSIS. WE'VE ALSO 

         DEVELOPED TECHNIQUES TO CONVINCE THE INTERNATIONAL 

         COMMUNITY THAT WE CAN DO NON-INVASIVE SAMPLING OF 

         CONTAINERS SO WE DON'T HAVE TO OPEN THINGS LIKE 

         MUNITIONS THAT MAY HAVE CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN THEM OR 

         CONTAINERS."



TEXT:    THE DEFENSE SPECIAL WEAPONS AGENCY IS EXPLORING A NUMBER

         OF "NON-INVASIVE" OR "NON-DESTRUCTIVE" SAMPLING 

         TECHNIQUES.  THESE INCLUDE ACOUSTIC RESONANCE 

         SPECTROSCOPY, WHICH CAN "READ" THE CHEMICAL CONTENTS 

         INSIDE A CONTAINER BY BOMBARDING IT WITH SOUND WAVES.  

         ANOTHER, CALLED THE PORTABLE ISOTOPIC NEUTRON SYSTEM, OR

         PINS, AIMS A BEAM OF NEUTRONS AT A CONTAINER, AND 

         DETERMINES ITS CHEMICAL CONTENTS BY THE GAMMA RAYS THAT 

         THEY EMIT.  EFFORTS ARE ALSO UNDERWAY TO MAKE STANDARD 

         LABORATORY ANALYTICAL TOOLS, LIKE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS AND

         MASS SPECTROMETERS, MORE RUGGED AND PORTABLE, EASIER TO 

         USE ON SITE:



TAPE:    CUT ELEVEN  -- GALLAWAY: (:42)



         /// OPT /// "ONE OF THESE INSPECTIONS MAY GO INTO A SITE

         THAT HAS NO POWER,  NO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS, SO YOU 

         ESSENTIALLY HAVE TO CARRY ALL OF YOUR POWER IN WITH YOU,

         CARRY IN SOME KIND OF PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE IF THAT'S 

         WHAT IT TAKES FOR YOU TO OPERATE IN......WE NEED TO BE 

         FAST.  WE THINK A SCREENING PROCESS SHOULD TAKE NO MORE 

         THAN THREE MINUTES TO ACCOMPLISH.  WE NEED TO MINIMIZE 

         FALSE POSITIVES, BECAUSE IF WE HAVE TOO MANY FALSE 

         POSITIVES WE'RE STILL GOING TO HAVE TO ANALYZE 'WAY TOO 

         MANY SAMPLES.  AND MAN-PORTABLE.  WHAT WE'RE THINKING 

         THERE IS SOMETHING THAT IS HAND-HELD -- PROBABLY WEIGHS 

         TEN POUNDS (4.5 KILOS) OR LESS, BATTERY OPERATED SO THAT

         IT'S VERY USEFUL OUT IN THE FIELD.  AND IT HAS TO BE 

         RUGGED SO IT CAN GO OUT INTO SOME PRETTY HOSTILE 

         ENVIRONMENTS."  /// END OPT ///



TEXT:    A KEY OBJECTIVE, ACCORDING TO MR. GALLOWAY, IS TO ENSURE

         THAT A CHEMICAL WEAPONS INVESTIGATION AT A PLANT OR A 

         BASE REMAINS FOCUSED ON POTENTIAL TREATY VIOLATIONS, AND

         THAT IT DOES NOT WANDER INTO IRRELEVANT AREAS THAT COULD

         INVOLVE A COMPANY'S TRADE SECRETS OR NATIONAL SECURITY. 

         HE SAYS THAT RECENT ADVANCES IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY CAN 

         HELP MAKE SURE THAT THE INVESTIGATION REMAINS ON TRACK:



TAPE:    CUT TWELVE  --  GALLOWAY: (:30)



         "OUR OBJECTIVE IS TO FIND ALL TREATY-RELEVANT CHEMICALS.

         WE WANT TO IDENTIFY THE CONTENTS OF MUNITIONS OR CLOSED 

         CONTAINERS NON-INVASIVELY.  THEN FINALLY TO ENSURE THAT 

         IT'S NOT TOO INTRUSIVE, WE DON'T WHAT TO FIND OUT WHAT 

         IS OUT THERE THAT IS NOT TREATY RELEVANT.  SO WE'VE GONE

         TO WHAT IS CALLED 'MASKING SOFTWARE.'  .... WHAT WE'RE 

         TRYING TO DO IS AUTOMATICALLY SUPPRESS THE NON-RELEVANT 

         OUTPUT SO THAT ONE DOES NOT LEARN ANYTHING THAT IS NOT 

         RELATED TO THE TREATY."



TEXT:    THE MASKING SOFTWARE WOULD BE INCORPORATED INTO ALL 

         SCREENING AND ANALYTICAL EQUIPMENT, SO THAT THE ONLY 

         RESULTS DISPLAYED ON A COMPUTER SCREEN OR PAPER READOUT 

         WOULD BE FOR THOSE CHEMICALS THAT ARE SPECIFICALLY 

         COVERED BY THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION.  MR. 

         GALLAWAY ADDS THAT, AS THESE TECHNOLOGIES ARE DEVELOPED,

         HIS AGENCY MAKES THEM AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE TO 

         COMMERCIAL DESIGNERS AND MANUFACTURERS TO ENSURE THAT 

         THEY ARE RAPIDLY EMBRACED AND USED -- EVERYWHERE IN THE 

         WORLD.



         IN ADDITION TO MAKING CHEMICAL WEAPONS SCREENING 

         TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE ELSEWHERE, THE UNITED STATES IS 

         HELPING NATIONS WITH WEAPONS STOCKPILES TO PROPERLY 

         DISPOSE OF THEM. ROBERT MIKULAK OF THE U.S. ARMS CONTROL

         AND DISARMAMENT AGENCY CITES THE EXAMPLE OF RUSSIA:  



TAPE:    CUT THIRTEEN  --  MIKULAK: (:58)



         "THE RUSSIAN STOCKPILE IS THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD -- 

         40-THOUSAND TONS OF NERVE AGENT AND MUSTARD AGENT.  

         GETTING RID OF IT IS A VERY COMPLICATED TECHNICAL 

         PROCESS WHERE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS HAVE TO BE 

         PARAMOUNT.  THE UNITED STATES, TO GET RID OF A SMALLER 

         STOCKPILE, IS SPENDING 12-BILLION DOLLARS.  THE RUSSIANS

         ESTIMATE THEIR OWN COSTS AT PERHAPS TWO TO THREE BILLION

         DOLLARS. THAT'S MONEY THEY DON'T HAVE RIGHT NOW.  SO 

         THEY'VE HAD  TROUBLE GETTING THEIR PROGRAM UNDERWAY.  

         THE UNITED STATES HAS BEEN TRYING TO PROVIDE SOME 

         TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AND WE ARE DISCUSSING WITH THEM 

         FUNDING A PILOT-SCALE NERVE AGENT DESTRUCTION FACILITY, 

         WHICH WOULD BE THEIR FIRST NERVE AGENT (DESTRUCTION) 

         FACILITY.



         /// OPT /// "BUT THE RUSSIANS WILL HAVE TO PAY FOR THE 

         BULK OF THEIR PROGRAM THEMSELVES.  IT'S THEIR 

         RESPONSIBILITY, EVEN THOUGH WE'RE TRYING TO HELP THEM.  

         AND THAT CERTAINLY IS A CONSIDERATION IN THE DUMA AS 

         THEY CONSIDER ENTERING THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION 

         WHICH REQUIRES DESTRUCTION OF ALL ITS STOCKPILES."  /// 

         END OPT /// 



TEXT:    ULTIMATELY, THE GOAL IS NOT ONLY TO DESTROY CHEMICAL 

         WEAPONS, BUT ALSO TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF CHEMICAL 

         WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY TO ROGUE NATIONS THAT WOULD USE IT TO

         INTIMIDATE THEIR NEIGHBORS. MR. MIKULAK ADDS THAT, BY 

         MAKING CHEMICAL WEAPONS ILLEGAL, THE CONVENTION WILL 

         PROVIDE SIGNATORY NATIONS WITH LEGAL LEVERAGE OVER 

         ONE-ANOTHER TO PREVENT TRANSFER OF MATERIALS OR KNOWHOW 

         TO COUNTRIES OR FIRMS OUTSIDE OF THE CONVENTION THAT 

         WOULD MISUSE THEM.  THE TREATY CONTAINS A SYSTEM OF 

         SANCTIONS THAT COULD CUT OFF TRADE EVEN IN COMMERCIAL, 

         NON-WEAPONS-RELATED CHEMICALS WITH THOSE NATIONS -- 

         SIGNATORIES OR NON-SIGNATORIES -- THAT DO NOT ABIDE BY 

         NON-PROLIFERATION GUIDELINES.  ALSO, ALL SIGNATORY 

         COUNTRIES ARE REQUIRED TO INCORPORATE THE TREATY'S 

         PROVISIONS INTO THEIR NATIONAL LAWS. THUS VIOLATORS 

         WOULD BE SUBJECT TO CRIMINAL PROSECUTION. ANYONE 

         CONVICTED OF MANUFACTURING OR SELLING CHEMICAL WEAPONS 

         COULD THEREFORE GO TO PRISON. AS MR. MIKULAK SEES IT, 

         IT'S ONLY THE "BAD GUYS" WHO WOULD BE HURT:



TAPE:    CUT FOURTEEN  --  MIKULAK: (1:00)



         "THE UNITED STATES IS ALREADY GETTING OUT OF THE 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS BUSINESS.  DURING THE MID-1980'S -- 

         1985 IT WAS DECIDED TO DESTROY OUR ENTIRE UNITARY 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS STOCKPILE. DURING OPERATION DESERT 

         STORM, IT BECAME CLEAR TO OUR MILITARY THAT IT WAS NOT 

         NECESSARY TO RETAIN ANY CHEMICAL WEAPONS AT ALL -- 

         EITHER AS A DETERRENT OR AS A RETALIATORY MEASURE; THAT 

         WE HAD OTHER MILITARY MEANS FOR DEALING WITH THE 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS THREAT.



         "SO YOU FIND UNIFORMLY OUR MILITARY LEADERS SAYING  THE 

         UNITED STATES DOESN'T NEED CHEMICAL WEAPONS. WE WANT TO 

         GET OUT OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS BUSINESS, AND WE WANT 

         OTHER PEOPLE TO GET OUT OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS 

         BUSINESS, TOO. THAT'S ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL ADVANTAGES WE

         SEE IN THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION -- THAT IT WILL 

         GET OTHER PEOPLE TO DO WHAT WE ARE ALREADY DOING 

         OURSELVES."



TAPE:    MUSIC THEME



ANNCR:   YOU'VE BEEN LISTENING TO -- NEW HORIZONS -- A WEEKLY 

         VOICE OF AMERICA PROGRAM ON DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE, 

         TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICINE.  TODAY YOU HEARD -- "BANNING 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS" -- A LOOK AT THE NEW INTERNATIONAL 

         CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION: WHAT IT IS, WHAT IT DOES, 

         WHOM IT AFFECTS.  THIS PROGRAM WAS WRITTEN AND PRODUCED 

         BY BRIAN CISLAK. 



01-May-97 2:41 PM EDT (1841 UTC)

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Source: Voice of America

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