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In the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems the United States and the Soviet Union agree that each may have only two ABM deployment areas, so restricted and so located that they cannot provide a nationwide ABM defense or become the basis for developing one. Each country thus leaves unchallenged the penetration capability of the others retaliatory missile forces. Precise quantitative and qualitative limits are imposed on the ABM systems that may be deployed. Both Parties agreed to limit qualitative improvement of their ABM technology
The ABM Treaty was signed at Moscow May 26, 1972, and ratified by the US Senate August 3, 1972. It entered into force October 3, 1972. The US and the USSR signed a Protocol to the treaty which entered into force in 1976 which reduced the number of ABM deployment areas from two to one, deployed either around each party's national capital area or, alternatively, at a single ICBM deployment area. The USSR deployed an ABM system around Moscow, but the US elected not to deploy an ABM system and in 1976 deactivated its site at Grand Forks, North Dakota, around a Minuteman ICBM launch area. The Treaty was further modified by amendments, various common understandings, and protocols. Five-year review meetings are held in Geneva. On 13 December 2001 President Bush submitted to the Russian Federation formal notification of intent to abrogate the Treaty. This presents a serious challenge to maintaining international peace, security, and multi-lateral arms control agreements. On 13 June 2002 the unilateral withdrawal of the United States of America from the ABM Treaty came into effect.
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Primary documents, including treaty text and associated memoranda, statements and other related material.
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