In 2014, FAS started a project, under the leadership of then FAS president Charles D. Ferguson, to examine two security and nonproliferation issues related to naval nuclear propulsion. The first issue is to understand the technical and policy challenges for converting U.S. naval nuclear reactors in submarines and aircraft carriers from weapons-grade uranium fuels to low-enriched uranium fuels (which cannot be used in nuclear weapons). The second issue is to assess the implications of non-nuclear weapon states such as Brazil or Iran deciding to develop nuclear powered naval ships. Under the provisions of nuclear safeguards agreements, these states could request from the International Atomic Energy Agency non-application of safeguards on nuclear materials used in naval propulsion, raising the concern that such materials might be diverted into nuclear weapons programs.
The project has proceeded in two phases. The first phase involved a task force of about 10 experts in nuclear engineering, naval operations, and political science. This task force produced a consensus report titled “Naval Nuclear Propulsion: Assessing Benefits and Risks,” published in March 2015. Members of the task force along with some graduate students also wrote four papers (three working papers are available on FAS.org with links below, and one journal article is available in the June 2015 issue of Nonproliferation Review).
The second phase, from late 2015 to summer 2017, delved more deeply into the two fundamental issues by forming two study groups: one group of about a half dozen experts has examined the experience of the French nuclear navy in its conversion from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuels (two reports by Alain Tournyol du Clos and George Moore are available on FAS.org with links below) and the other group of about a half dozen experts has explored the technical, policy, and legal aspects of possible non-application of safeguards on naval nuclear materials, the case of Brazil’s pending development of nuclear-powered submarines, and the implications of naval nuclear propulsion for the future of nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation. Publications by Laura Rockwood, Matias Spektor, and Thomas Shea are available on FAS.org with links below.
All participants in this project are very grateful for generous financial support from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Special Reports & Issue Briefs
Members of the phase one task force and phase two study groups authored three special reports and two issue briefs. Both the special reports and issue briefs are free and publicly available for education and information purposes.
by Thomas E. Shea (Special Report)
by Alain Tournyol du Clos (Special Report)
by George Moore (Special Report)
by Laura Rockwood (Issue Brief)
by Matias Spektor (Issue Brief)
Journal Article & Working Papers
Task force members and graduate-level students contributed the following journal article and working papers. Both the journal article and working papers are free and publicly available for education and information purposes.
by Andrew W. Reddie and Bethany L. Goldblum, July 2018, Nonproliferation Review
by Naomi Egel, Bethany L. Goldblum, and Erika Suzuki, February 2016, Nonproliferation Review
by the Independent Task Force
by Alireza Haghighat, Jack Bell, and Nathan Roskoff
by Alan J. Kuperman
by Nick Ritchie