RAN Maritime Studies Program
Working Paper No. 1

New Technology and Medium Navies

Norman Friedman
August 1999

  © Copyright Commonwealth of Australia 1999

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission from the Department of Defence

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All Defence information, whether classified or not, is protected from unauthorised disclosure under the Crimes Act 1914. Defence Information may only be released in accordance with the Defence Protective Security Manual (SECMAN 4) and/or Defence Instruction (General) OPS 13-4-Release of Classified Defence Information to Other Countries, as appropriate.

Requests and inquiries should be addressed to the Director General, Maritime Studies Program, HMAS CRESWELL, JERVIS BAY NSW 2540.

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry

Friedman, Norman, 1946-.
    New technology and medium navies.

    ISBN 0 642 29527 1

1. Navies. 2. Naval art and science. 3. Naval strategy. 4. Sea-power. 5. Navies - History. I. Australia. Royal Australian Navy. Maritime Studies Program. II. Title. (Series : Working paper (Australia. Royal Australian Navy. Maritime Studies Program; no. 1).



The views expressed are the author's and not necessarily those of the Department of Defence. The Commonwealth of Australia will not be legally responsible in contract, tort or otherwise for any statement made in this publication.

Royal Australian Navy Maritime Studies Program

In 1990 the Royal Australian Navy established the Maritime Studies Program (MSP) to undertake activities which would promote the study, discussion and awareness of maritime issues and strategy within the RAN and the defence and civil communities at large. The aims of the MSP are: to promote the awareness among members of the RAN and wider Defence community of maritime strategy, maritime issues and the role maritime forces play in the security of national interests; and to contribute to the development of public awareness of the need for sea power in the defence of Australia and her sovereign interests.

Comment on this Working Paper or any inquiry related to the activities of the Maritime Studies Program should be directed to:

Director General Maritime Studies Program

Telephone: +61 2 4429 7948
Facsimile: +61 2 4429 7969
E-Mail: [email protected]

Maritime Studies Program Working Papers

The Maritime Studies Program Working Paper series is designed as a vehicle to foster debate and discussion on maritime issues of relevance to the Royal Australian Navy, the Australian Defence Force and to Australia and the region more generally.

About the Author

Norman Friedman
is a naval historian and a consultant on defence affairs. He holds a Ph.D in theoretical solid-state physics from Columbia University, New York. Previously, he was a staff member (and, ultimately, Deputy Director for National Security Affairs) of the Hudson Institute and was a consultant to the Secretary of the United States Navy from 1985 to 1994. His many books include: The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems (biannually); British Carrier Aviation (1987); The US Maritime Strategy (1989); and The Post-War Naval Revolution (1986). He has also been widely published in the defence press, including a monthly column in the US Naval Institute's Proceedings.

* All opinions expressed in this paper are the author's, and should not be construed as necessarily reflecting those of the U.S. Navy or of any other organization with which he has been associated.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

AAW anti-air warfare
AEW Airborne Early Warning
AWACS Airborne Early Warning and Control System
ASW anti-submarine warfare
ASUW anti-surface warfare
ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System
CEC co-operative engagement capability
CIC combat information centre
CO Commanding Officer
DARPA Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency
DF direction finding
ECM electronic countermeasures
EORSAT ELINT (Electronic Intelligence) Ocean Surveillance Satellite
ESM electronic support measures
FCC Fleet Command Centre
FOSIC Fleet Ocean Surveillance Information Centre
FOSIF Fleet Ocean Surveillance Information Facility
GPS Global Positioning System
HF high frequency
HMS Her Majesty’s Ship
JMCIS Joint Maritime Command Information System
JORN Jindalee Over-the-Horizon Radar Network
JOTS Joint Operational Tactical System
LASM Land Attack Standard missile
MPA maritime patrol aircraft
NACCIS NATO Command and Control Information System
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NSA National Security Agency
NUWC Naval Underwater Warfare Centre
OIC Operational Intelligence Centre
OPV Offshore Patrol Vessel
OTH over-the-horizon
OTH-T over-the-horizon targeting
R&D research and development
RAAF Royal Australian Air Force
RAM radar absorbing material
RAN Royal Australian Navy
ROE rules of engagement
RORSAT Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite
SSIXS Submarine Information Exchange System
TFCC Tactical Flag Command Centre
UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
US United States
USS United States Ship
UUV unmanned underwater vehicle
VSTOL vertical/short take-off and landing
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