1. (U) DEFENSE PLANNING
a. (U) This Mission Need
Statement (MNS) provides requirements for tactical aviation (TACAIR)
sea-based platforms for the 21st century. It addresses the Department
of Defense "Defense Planning Guidance, FY-1997-2001,"
dated 9 May 1995, requiring the United States to:
(U) "... require the
best equipped, best trained and best prepared military forces..."
(U) "The primary mission
of United States military forces has always been, and will continue
to be, to protect the nation from direct threats and to deter,
and, if necessary, fight and win the nation's wars.... deter and,
if required decisively defeat aggression by projecting and sustaining
U.S. power in two nearly simultaneous major regional conflicts
(MRC);... Some U.S. forces must be forward-deployed or stationed
in key overseas regions in peacetime... This demands highly qualified
and motivated people, modern, well maintained equipment, viable
joint doctrine, realistic training, strategic mobility and sufficient
support and sustainment capabilities." (p.4&5)
PARAGRAPH ON FORCE STRUCTURE
b. (U) This MNS should guide
the 21st century TACAIR sea-based platform design, research, development
and acquisition program decisions, service and joint doctrine,
and cooperative efforts with U.S. allies.
2. (U) MISSION AND THREAT
a. (U) Mission.
The general missions of TACAIR sea-based platforms are to:
(1) (U) provide credible,
sustainable, independent forward presence during peace time without
access to land bases,
(2) (U) operate as the
cornerstone of a joint and/or allied maritime expeditionary force
in response to crises, and
(3) (U) carry the war to
the enemy through joint multi-mission offensive operations by;
(a) (U) being able to
operate and support aircraft in attacks on enemy forces ashore,
afloat, or submerged independent of forward-base land
(b) (U) protecting friendly
forces from enemy attack, through the establishment and maintenance
of battlespace dominance independent of forward-based land
(c) (U) engaging in sustained
operations in support of the United States and its Allies independent
of forward-based land facilities.
b. (U) Capabilities.
The primary function of the 21st century TACAIR sea-based platform
is to shelter, transport, launch, recover and maintain multi-mission
tactical aircraft and tactical airborne systems suitable for sea-based
operations. The core capabilities required for this platform
to perform the above missions include:
(1) (U) strategic mobility
- it must have the ability to independently deploy/respond quickly
and operate with sufficient tactical flexibility, whenever and
wherever required, to enable joint maritime expeditionary force
(2) (U) sustainability
- it must have the capacity to sustain itself, its aircraft and
escort for extended periods without access to shore facilities.
(3) (U) survivability
- it must be able to operate aircraft in hostile environments,
protect itself from attack by threat weapons, and if hit, degrade
gracefully and survive.
(4) (U) ability to deliver
precise, high-volume firepower - it must be able to operate
sufficient numbers of tactical aircraft, and carry sufficient
ordnance and fuel to conduct simultaneous power projection, battle
space dominance and surveillance operations for extended periods.
It must provide tactical air support to the Joint Force Commander.
(5) (U) joint command
and control - it must be interoperable and its communications
suite must be fully compatible with other naval, expeditionary,
interagency, joint, and allied forces. In addition, it must be
able to operate as a Command and Control center, integrate information
to develop a coherent tactical picture to support Joint Force,
Battle Force, Battle Group and Air Wing planning, coordinate actions
with other forces, and communicate the force's actions to appropriate
commanders. The platform must have the capability to fully support
a Joint Force Commander (JFC) and under limited circumstances
be able to host an embarked JFC. Connectivity must include seamless
integration of both organic and off-ship sensor inputs for power
(6) (U) flexibility
and growth potential - it must have the versatility to support
current and future sea-based aircraft. It must have the ability
to perform simultaneous multi-mission taskings and readily adapt
to changing operational needs. In addition, it must have the
flexibility to adapt to changes in future threats, missions and
c. (U) Threat.
d. (U) Shortfalls of
(1) (U) maintain required
force levels for forward presence, crisis response and warfighting,
(2) (U) maintain an effective
industrial base to assure continued support for sea-basing, and
(3) (U) take advantage
of new technologies and design concepts that offer opportunities
to develop sea-based platforms that are as capable, but more affordable
than current platforms.
3. (U) NON-MATERIAL ALTERNATIVES
(U) Changes in doctrine,
operational concepts, tactics, organization and training are not
sufficient to address the issue of maintaining an affordable and
capable sea-based aviation capability.
a. (U) U.S. or Allied
doctrine: Doctrine changes required without a 21st century
TACAIR sea-based platform would include: Acceptance of a decrease
ability to deter/contain regional crises; inability to project
expeditionary force strike power from the sea; severely degraded
ability to project precise strike power against land targets;
and, inability to maintain meaningful, visible forward presence
for coalition building which is "independent" of host
nation support and operational approval.
b. (U) Operational concepts:
A 21st century TACAIR sea-based platform optimized to leverage
technology to perform multiple roles in both open ocean and littoral/enabling
warfare environments, will be needed to execute the operational
concepts contained in the Joint Maritime Strategy.
c. (U) Tactics: Tactics
calling for the application of sea-based forces into the littorals,
enabling follow-on forces as well as influencing nearby events,
will place all naval forces at higher risk as technological development
and proliferation of adversaries' offensive systems grow. The
TACAIR sea-based platform will aid measurably in the protection
of those naval forces, but will need the enhanced self-protection
systems to balance that growing threat. Simple changes in tactics
would not provide the commensurate degree of protection that would
be the result of building a new platform with greater self-protection
areas of hull and bottom defense.
d. (U) Organization:
Organizational changes, such as increased forward basing and/or
double crewing of carries, in lieu of procurement were determined
to be infeasible. Acceptance of these alternatives may provide
insufficient assets for crisis response or joint warfighting in
a single or two nearly simultaneous MRC contingency.
e. (U) Training:
Training alternatives offering the potential to maintain force
capability in a smaller force manned with fewer personnel rely
heavily on holistic, embedded training. This training capability
must be an integral part of the total ship architecture called
out as a mission need in the 21st century carrier. Future aircraft
carriers must be ready to fight simultaneous multi-warfare engagements
in littoral warfare that will proceed so rapidly that crew response
times will be critical. Although improvements in embedded training
and changes in training concepts will mitigate to a degree the
increased threat, they will be insufficient in themselves without
the benefit of survivability and defensive systems improvements.
4. (U) POTENTIAL MATERIAL
a. (U) Alternative design
(1) (U) new ship designs,
which may include nuclear or non-nuclear propulsion or advanced/unconventional
(2) (U) a modified repeat
Nimitz class carrier
(3) (U) Mobile Offshore
Basing (MOB) Concepts
b. (U) The ongoing Nimitz
class acquisition program could potentially address this need
through a mod repeat program by capitalizing on advanced technology.
However, to do this, it would need to employ a significantly
different architectural approach in the design.
c. (U) As part of their
shipbuilding programs, various Allies have combat, hull, mechanical
and electrical system programs ongoing of under development that
offer possible cooperative opportunities. These subsystem designs
will be examined. All meaningful cooperative opportunities can
be realized without a formal cooperative development program for
a 21st century TACAIR sea-based platform.
a. (U) Key Boundary Conditions.
(1) (U) Architecture.
The ship design must employ a total ship, aircraft and weapons
system architecture/engineering approach that optimizes life cycle
cost and performance; permits rapid upgrade and change in response
to evolving operational requirements; allows computational and
communications resources to keep technological pace with commercial
capabilities and allows for full realization of the command, control,
communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) for the warrior
(C4IFTW) concept; and provides the capability to survive and fight
hurt. More specifically this implies physical element modularity;
functional sharing of hardware (across all services); open systems
information architecture; ship wide resource management; automation
of Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4I), combat,
aircraft support, ordnance handling, management; automation and
minimization of maintenance and administrative functions; integrated
systems security; and embedded training. The approach should
also promote commonality with other ship designs.
(2) (U) Design.
Consideration should be given to the maximum use of modular construction
design in the platforms infrastructure. Emerging technologies
must be accounted for during the developmental phase. Modern,
flexible information processing must be built into any new weapons
system. Since communication and data systems hold the greatest
potential for growth, and therefore obsolescence, their installations
must be modularized as much as possible to allow for future upgrades.
The inherent vulnerabilities of communications and data systems
requires information systems security to be engineered into the
design. Use standard man-to-machine interfaces among the systems
onboard. The man-to-machine interfaces should be consistent with
existing user friendly systems. This capability must comply with
applicable information technology standards contained the Technical
Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), Volume
7, Adopted Information Technology Standards (AITS).
(3) (U) Personnel.
The platform should be automated to a sufficient degree to realize
significant manpower reductions in engineering, damage control,
combat systems, ship support and Condition III watchstanding requirements.
Reduced manning concepts used by other Navies should be reviewed
to leverage advanced technologies and future advanced technology
concepts in an effort to minimize shipboard manning requirements.
Preventive maintenance manpower requirements must be reduced
by incorporating self-analysis features in equipment designs,
and by selecting materials and preservatives which minimize corrosion.
Manpower, Personnel and Training (MPT) analysis will be performed
in accordance with OPNAVINST 5311.7 (HARDMAN). This analysis
will recommend options to exploit the use of technology to reduce
MPT requirements. Trade-offs which reduce MPT requirements will
be favored during design and development. Final MPT determination
will be documented and validated in a Navy Training Plan in accordance
with OPNAVINST 1500.8.
(4) (U) Backfit.
Major functional elements of a 21st century TACAIR sea-based
platform must be applicable to other forward fit ship construction
programs. Consideration must also be given to the ability to
retrofit into existing carrier classes; however, this must not
be done at the expense of achieving performance in new construction.
b. Operational Constraints
(1) (U) The 21st century
TACAIR sea-based platform must remain fully functional and operational
in all environments regardless of time of day, whether conducting
independent of force operations, in heavy weather or in the presence
of electromagnetic, nuclear, biological and chemical contamination
and/or shock effects from nuclear and conventional weapon attack.
(2) (U) Any 21st century
TACAIR sea-based platform must meet the survivability requirements
of Level III as defined in OPNAVINST 9070.1. Topside systems
components shall be decontaminated through use of a countermeasure
wash down system and portable Decontamination (DECON) methods.
(3) (U) The 21st century
TACAIR sea-based platform must provide landing and hangar facilities,
and ammunition storage for operational support of required aviation
(4) (U) The platform must
be able to operate in U.S., foreign, and international waters
in full compliance with existing U.S. and international pollution
control laws and regulations.
(5) (U) All ship and combat
system elements must make use of standard subsystems and meet
required development practices. The 21st century TACAIR sea-based
platform must be fully integrated with other U.S. Navy, Marine
Corps, joint and allied forces, and other agencies (e.g., Theater
Air Defense Architecture) in combined, coordinated operations.
For example, linkage with standard data bases from the Defense
Mapping Agency (DMA) will minimize ancillary costs and promote
maximum interoperability with the widest number of weapons and
sensor systems. Joint goals for standardization and interoperability
will be achieved to the maximum feasible extent.
(6) (U) The platform must
be able to embark Special Operations Forces (SOF) and Joint Forces
when required for selected missions.
6. (U) JOINT POTENTIAL
(U) JPD overall is TBD. Service
assessments are as follows:
a. (U) USA. Recommend JPD
of Joint Interest based on the interoperability requirements implied
in paragraphs 2.b.(1) and (5) and 5.b.(5).
b. (U) USAF. Recommended
Joint Potential Designator for this MNS is "Joint Interest"
due to the need to be fully interoperable with other services'
Battle Management/C4I systems.
c. (U) USMC. No comment.
Last updated on November 19, 1996.
SOURCE URL: http://www.navsea.navy.mil/cvx/cvxmns.html