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Tanks / Assault Vehicles

The lethality and variety of weapons available to armored, mechanized, and infantry forces for the close fight require a continued and expanded use of heavily armored fighting vehicles (AFVs). Tanks are tracked, heavily armored vehicles with guns of generally 75 mm or more. Among modern trends in AFVs are: increased variety of systems worldwide, and a wider application of these systems for varied roles and missions on the battlefield. As a result, technology sharing and proliferation of upgrade packages have blurred lines among vehicles used for assault, antiarmor, combat reconnaissance and fire support missions. Another trend is increased weight for all types of armored vehicles. With heavier armor protection packages, higher-output engines and larger weapons, a significant proportion of medium tanks have grown into the heavy tank weight category. Therefore, the term main battle tank is more relevant than previous weight categories.

There are still light tanks on the battlefield, although increased armor and gun size on light armored fighting vehicles such as infantry fighting vehicles and armored reconnaissance vehicles have blurred lines of distinction. A number of AFVs, such as the British Scorpion and French AMX-13 can be characterized as reconnaissance vehicles, tank destroyers, fire support vehicles, or assault vehicles; but they have tracks, armor protection, and guns of 60 mm or greater. Thus, they can also be used for light tank missions. The term assault vehicle currently represents a narrow category of older vehicles used by (former) Soviet forces - medium-armored vehicles with medium-heavy guns and no turrets. With blurring of lines among roles and missions for heavier LAFVs and light tanks, the term assault vehicle will likely broaden to reflect a variety of modern programs for light - medium armored vehicles with medium to heavy guns, for use in the assault role.

Two notable trends for these vehicles are a reflection of increasing systems costs and declines or leveling of military budgets - development of variants off of established systems, and use of equipment/packages to extend the use life of systems and enhance their effectiveness. As a result, seemingly old and out-of-date tanks, some of which pre-date World War II, can be a threat to modern armored and mechanized forces. Systems-related trends can be divided among mobility, survivability, and lethality. To improve mobility and compensate for weight increases, many forces have replaced older engines with more powerful diesel engines. Swim capability is limited to a few light tanks.

Within the area of survivability, the most obvious consideration is increasing armor protection levels. A prominent trend is the application of additional armor, such as plate armor or panels on turrets, side-skirts over tracks, and addition of explosive reactive armor (ERA). Additional protection measures include use of entrenching blades for self-emplacement, mine-clearing plows and rollers, nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, vehicle smoke emission systems, and smoke grenade launchers. To complement these systems are sensors such as mine detectors, laser warning receivers, and radar warning receivers. A trend receiving increasing attention is the use of active measures: electro-optical countermeasures, such as infrared jammers, and active protection systems (also known as defensive aides suites) designed to intercept incoming projectiles and destroy them prior to impact.

The area of lethality has seen a variety of upgrades, including: gun replacement, improved stabilization and fire control systems, additional weapons such as antitank guided missile systems, and improved ammunition. Critical parameters include fire on the move capability, which can be linked to stabilization, rate of fire, integrated sights, acquisition ranges, and weapon range.

Battle tanks

  • M-1
  • M-60
  • M-48
  • M-47
  • Leopard 1
  • Leopard 2
  • AMX-30
  • Challenger
  • Chieftain
  • Centurion
  • M-41
  • NM-116
  • T-54
  • T-55
  • T-72
  • T-34
  • T-54
  • T-55
  • T-62
  • T-64
  • T-72
  • T-80
  • TR-85
  • TR-580

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Maintained by Robert Sherman
Originally created by John Pike
Updated Saturday, June 19, 1999 6:37:33 AM