Surface Warfare Officers School Command
Department Head Combat Systems
Newport, RI 02841-1209
TITLE: AMMUNITION STOWAGE, MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT, AND MAGAZINE OPERATIONS
(a) OP-4 AMMUNITION AFLOAT
(b) OP-3347 ORDNANCE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
(c) NSTM CH 700 SHIPBOARD ORDNANCE HANDLING AND STOWAGE
(d) NAVSEA SG420-AP-MMA-010 PERIODIC TESTING FOR ORDNANCE HANDLING EQUIPMENT
(e) TOPIC 73.10 EXPLOSIVE HANDLING PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAM (EHPQCP)
I. General safety regulations (OP-3347)
A. Only careful, reliable, mentally sound and physically fit personnel shall be permitted to work with explosives.
B. All explosives will be treated as if they were armed.
II. Formal Explosive Handling Personnel Qualification and Certification Program. (COMNAVSURFLANTINST 8023.4 (SERIES)/COMNAVSURFPACINST 8023.5 (SERIES))
A. Who must be certified?
1. All personnel whose duties require that they inspect, prepare, adjust, handle, or arm explosive devices.
2. Operators of handling equipment and gun/magazine crews.
3. Ammunition handlers for onload/offload working parties DO NOT have to be certified under this program, however they must be briefed before each evolution with respect to the safety precautions associated with handling weapons.
B. Certification board
1. A board shall be appointed by the Commanding Officer and shall include, as a minimum the cognizant department head and not less than one individual of the rate of E-6 or above who is himself, certified to perform the functions being certified.
2. The board chairman will be assigned by the Commanding Officer, he may designate a cognizant department head to fulfill the duty. All appointments to the board will be made in writing and by name.
III. Ammunition handling plan (onload/offload) Figure 1 is a sample of an Ammunition Onload/Offload plan.
A. An ammunition handling plan is required to ensure a smooth and safe onload or offload. These plans will be maintained onboard for one year and may be inspected by SESI, ESI, CART, OHSAT and Command Inspection Teams (OP 4).
B. The plan will include (as a minimum) the following information:
1. Date and Time.
2. Type of ammunition to be handled.
3. Personnel responsibilities.
4. Personnel assignments.
5. Ships plans containing traffic routes.
6. Specific safety precautions. (i.e., removal of rings, watches)
7. Designated smoking areas.
C. Handling philosophy (IAW Ref B):
Since it is not always possible to ascertain readily whether assembled ammunition components have been inadvertently armed during stowage or handling, assemblies with firing mechanisms shall always be handled and treated as if armed.
SAMPLE AMMUNITION ONLOAD/OFFLOAD PLAN
USS FOREVERSAIL (DDG-XX) NOTICE 8000
Subject: Ammunition Onload/Offload Plan for WPNSTA_________
(a) OPNAVINST 8023.2C
(b) CNSL/CNSPNOTICE 8023.4/8023.5 (SERIES) (EHPQCP)
(c) NAVSEA OP 4 (SAFETY AFLOAT)
(d) SW010-AC-SAF-010(VOL1),020(VOL2),030(VOL3) TRANSPORTION & STORAGE DATA FOR AMMUNITION EXPLOSIVES & RELATED HAZAROUS MATERIAL
(e) NAVSEA OP 3347 (U.S. NAVY ORDNANCE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS)
(f) NAVSEA OP 3365 (HERO)
(g) WPNSTA INSTRUCTION
(1) Sequence of Onload/Offload
(2) Shipboard Personnel Requirements
(3) Safety Procedures for Handling
(4) Sequence of Events for Offload
(5) Onload/Offload check list
1. Purpose. References (a) through (g), enclosures (1) through (5), and information defined in this document shall be used by supervisors and handlers to effectively carry out the FOREVERSAIL ammunition onload/offload at Naval Weapons Station , on __________
2. Action. On _______ USS FOREVERSAIL will commence onloading small arms ammunition on the aft VLS deck while offloading Tomahawk missiles forward. Ammunition will be onloaded/offloaded in the sequence provided in enclosure (1). LT XXX, Ammunition Handling Officer (AHO) for this evolution, will act as coordinator and will ensure HERO restrictions are met prior to arrival at NWS Seal Beach. While pierside, the following word will be passed every fifteen minutes over the 1MC, "THE SMOKING LAMP IS OUT THROUGHOUT THE SHIP WITH THE FOLLOWING EXCEPTIONS: WARDROOM, CPO MESS, CREWS LOUNGE. THERE IS TO BE NO HOT WORK, GRINDING, OR TRANSFERRING OF FUEL ONBOARD FOREVERSAIL WHILE HANDLING AMMUNITION."
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
Commanding Officer, shall be responsible for:
a. Provide a qualifed safety observer (EHPQCP) to supervise ammunition handling onboard the ship and assist the OIC of the evolution (CSO) as required. He will be GMC (SW) YYY during this evolution.
b. Providing personnel to can ammunition on the pier under the direction of the waterfront foreman.
c. Striking the ammunition below and stow it properly.
d. Providing for security of shipboard spaces.
e. Monitoring all shipboard magazine sprinkler systems.
3. Safety. As with all ammunition movements, safety is paramount. Safety should never be sacrificed for speed. All hands involved must consider themselves safety observers and be ready to respond correctly to any unsafe situation. General safety procedures are listed in enclosure (3).
4. Ammunition Responsibility. The Commanding Officer's responsibility for ammunition commences when the ammunition is spotted on the deck and ends when lifted from the deck by the pierside cranes. NWS shall be responsible for the correct performance of the crane operators, rigging supervisors, and riggers. The Commanding Officer shall be responsible for all FOREVERSAIL personnel.
5. Training. Training of procedures and safety precautions shall be conducted prior to onload/offload by the Gunnery Officer, Tomahawk Officer, and the ASW Officer. Additionally, ship's force will be certified to handle ammunition in accordance with references (a), (b), and (c). Handling check sheets will be utilized where required.
6. Security. Only authorized personnel shall be allowed access to magazines while handling ammunition. All magazines containing ammunition shall have controlled access. Magazine keys will remain under positive control at all times by the Magazine Supervisor.
7. Magazines. Magazines will be clean and free of fire hazards. Sprinkler and flooding alarms and magazine sprinkler systems shall be operational and tested in accordance with PMS.
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
8. Arrival Conference. An arrival conference will be held prior to commencement of the onload/offload. It will consist of NWS personnel, the Commanding Officer, Combat Systems Officer, Weapons Officer, Gunnery Officer, Tomahawk Officer, ASW Officer, Chief Engineer, Operations Officer, Damage Control Assistant, and the Explosive Safety Supervisor.
C. O. Signature
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
AMMUNITION ITEMS FOR ONLOAD/OFFLOAD
NALC NOMENCLATURE QTY LIFTS LOCATION
A130 7.62 F/M-60 10000 1 AFT VLS
A475 .45 CAL BALL 2000 1 " "
NALC NOMENCLATURE QTY LIFTS LOCATION
A675 20MM CIWS 16000 8 FORECASTLE
D295 HE-CVT 96 2 " "
D326 FSC 147 4 " "
2280 SM-2 8 8 FWD VLS
1148 TASM 2 2 " "
2280 SM-2 14 14 AFT VLS
1148 TASM 2 2 " "
1472 MK46 TORPEDO 7 7 HELO DECK
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
SHIPBOARD PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Navy Explosive Onload/Offload Coordinator LT XXX
Navy Explosive Safety Supervisor GMC (SW) YYY
Handling Safety Supervisor GMM1 ZZZ
Handling Team (Shipboard) GMM2 AAA
Launcher Personnel GMM2 FFF
Checksheet Reader FC2 HHH
Handling Safety Supervisor GMC III
Handling Team (Shipboard) GMM1 JJJ
Launcher Personnel GMM2 OOO
Checksheet Reader FC2 QQQ
TORPEDO HANDLING TEAM
Torpedo Handling Safety Supervisor TMC RRR
Handling Supervisor (Helo Deck) STG1 SSS
(Torpedo Room) TM2 TTT
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
SHIPBOARD PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
MK45 Handlift Truck Operators STG2 UUU
Torpedo Crane Operator TM2 WWW
Torpedo Handling Crew (Torpedo Room) TM2 ABC
(Helo Deck) STG3 ABF
Safety Observer Check Sheet Reader STG2 ABF
Ammunition Handling Team
Safety Observer (Forecastle) GMG1 ABK
(FWD Magazine) GMG2 ABL
Elevator Operator (Forecastle) FC2 ABM
(FWD Magazine) GMG3 ABN
FWD Magazine Supervisor BM2 ABO
Pallet Truck Operator GMG2 ABP
Magazine Crew BM3 ABQ
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING AMMUNITION
1. General Notes:
a. The exercise of the utmost care and prudence in the handling of ammunition is mandatory. No relaxation of vigilance will be permitted.
b. Each loading or offloading operation will have assigned a qualified safety supervisor in accordance with references (a), (b), and (c). This person shall ensure that safe handling procedures and fire prevention measures are taken and shall have the authority to stop any unsafe handling operation.
c. There will be no smoking, hot work, electrical repairs or transferring of fuel while ammunition is being handled. Smoking will be permitted only in the area designated by the Ammunition Handling Officer and the Navy Explosive Safety Supervisor.
d. No spark producing devices, excluding motor vehicles required in the handling evolution, shall be permitted or used in the work area. Motor vehicles for ammunition handling shall meet the requirements of references (d) and (f).
e. Fire hoses shall be laid out and charged for quick use during the entire operation. Hoses shall be of sufficient length so that all ammunition on the pier and on the ship's weather decks can be reached immediately by two streams. Water supply will be from the ship's firemain with a minimum of ___psi continuous supply pressure. Fire hose source valves shall be cracked open so casual observation of the hoses can be made to verify operation. The DCA will brief the repair parties on ordnance fire fighting, OTTO II fuel hazards, and will ensure the fire hoses are laid out and charged.
f. Each loading area shall have safety signs to indicate no smoking and no hot work within 100 feet. An audible announcement over the 1MC shall be made every 15 minutes.
g. NWS Fire Department will be on standby while handling ammunition.
h. Ammunition shall be kept under positive control at all times during the handling evolution. At no time will ammunition be thrown, tossed or freely slid. Rough handling of ammunition shall not be permitted.
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING AMMUNITION
i. All personnel involved with ammunition handling shall be thoroughly indoctrinated with the safety precautions of this instruction. Only qualified and certified personnel will be utilized in supervising ammunition handling evolutions.
j. If at any time during the operation it becomes apparent that personnel are not sufficiently indoctrinated consistent with proper ammunition safety practices, operation shall be terminated and shall not be resumed until personnel are full indoctrinated.
k. No equipment will be involved with ammunition handling operations unless certified specifically for ammunition handling and PMS requirements have been completed.
l. Ammunition taken onboard ship will be struck below immediately and stored in the designated magazine.
m. Unauthorized personnel will not be allowed within the safety barrier, and authorized personnel will be kept to a minimum.
n. Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) restrictions for all radar, radio, and other electronic equipment shall be in effect while located at NWS. Walkie Talkies may/may not be utilized on low power. (Check with NWS on actual restrictions on VHF usage)
o. Ammunition handling evolutions will not be undertaken unless environmental conditions are suitable.
p. Handlers shall remove all watches, rings, keys, and cigarette lighters from their person. Belt buckles will be reversed. Steel toed safety shoes and the setting of battle dress is required for all personnel involved. Hard hats are required for all topside personnel.
q. Two lines, capable of being used to move the ship, will be dipped to the outboard side. Fire axes will be placed by each mooring line ready for use if required.
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
SEQUENCE OF EVENTS FOR OFFLOAD
1. Ammunition will be offloaded in the following order:
Forward/Aft VLS (simultaneously): SM-2's
Forecastle/Helo Deck (simultaneously): Torpedoes
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
ONLOAD/OFFLOAD CHECK SHEET
_______ Wardroom brief, all supervisors, safety observers and DCA.
_______ Magazine safety walk-through conducted by ORDO/Leading GMG.
_______ Verify operation of all ammunition elevators.
_______ Ammo pallet truck batteries charged/checked for operation.
_______ Magazine sprinkler system confirmed operational.
_______ All lights in and around magazines operable.
_______ Verify operation of torpedo handling crane, torpedo lift dolley (and air
ASWO air motor) and torpedo handling rails are laid out.
_______ Ensure OOD has all emergency phone numbers on the Quarterdeck.
_______ Have OPREP-3 notebook placed in the pilot house for duty OPS.
_______ Hose teams on station and dressed out, hoses laid out and charged.
_______ Repair 5 manned and ready.
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
_______ Torpedo handling check sheets on station with grease pencils.
_______ All other ordnance handling check lists on station.
_______ Handlers, supervisors, safety observers on station.
_______ Phone lines checked out and on station for elevators VLS.
_______ On station safety brief conducted by safety observers, and proper dress for all
WEPS handlers verified by safety observers.
_______ VLS handling equipment inventoried and on station.
_______ HERO set.
_______ All magazine doors latched open.
_______ OOD/CDO informed "manned and ready" to commence.
_______ Cease ringing Ship's Bell and sounding alarms except for actual emergencies.
_______ Hoist "BRAVO" flag.
_______ Commence passing the word "The smoking lamp is out..." IAW ships inst.
_______ Pier safety inspection conducted by WEPS.
FIGURE 1 (Continued)
_______ Safety Observers report ready for onload to WEPS.
_______ Request permission from Commanding Officer to commence ammunuiton CSO handling.
D. Atmospheric conditions:
1. While fair weather is never a sure thing, use sound judgement and never load in an electrical storm. (5 MILES RADIUS)
2. The Commanding Officer of the weapons station is charged with making decisions concerning the environment.
3. Ammunition handling is not permitted at night while inport without a waiver.
E. HERO restrictions, as they apply to ordnance, may be found in OP-3565.
F. Concurrent operations, such as refueling, hot work and rearming at the same time is strictly prohibited.
IV. Stowage spaces for ammunition (OP-4)
A. How do I know if my magazine is ready for ammunition stowage?
1. Request an Explosive Safety Inspection (ESI) from NAVSEA.
(a) The Operations Officer needs to schedule in quarterly employment schedule as part of the "Concurrent Employment Schedule."
(b) Required by OPNAV every 18 months.
B. Ammunition spaces shall be kept neat, clean and ready for sea at all times.
1. Rags, wood, oil, or water on deck is unacceptable.
2. Magazines will be inspected daily using the appropriate MRC cards.
3. Ammunition stowage devices will be in good repair.
4. "AMMUNITION FARSIDE, NO SMOKING" signs must be posted on all bulkheads, decks, and overheads in all spaces adjacent to magazines.
5. Sprinkler systems must be in good working order. (Should be tested at least one week prior to onload.)
V. Stowage of Ammunition
A. Each magazine shall contain a diagram depicting its ammunition arrangement displaying NALC's, Nomenclature, LOT # and quantity for each bin.
1. All Lots should be stowed by NALC
2. Older Lots should be stowed for use first
3. Separate and identify Reduced Charge ammunition
4. Do not stow drill ammunition in the magazine if possible. At the very least put it in a separate bin.
5. Ensure munitions are stowed in accordance with the compatability charts in OP-4.
VI. Maintenance of ammunition
A. Inspect upon receipt, do not accept if it meets rejection criteria. Consult OP-4 and OP-3347 for guidance.
B. If ammunition has been subjected to oil or water, clean and inspect for damage.
C. Ammunition malfunctions are to be reported through the MISHAP reporting system.
1. These Mishap reports are used to generate Notice of Ammunition Reclassification (NAR's) normally received via message.
2. Two copies of NAR's shall be kept, one by NALC and one by LOT number. These files shall be maintained until the annual incorporation into NAVSEA TWO24-AA-ORD-010 "Ammunition Unserviceable, Suspended and Limited Use." An incoming log of all NAR serial numbers and message DTG's should be maintained to help ensure continuity.
D. Gun projectiles must be returned to weapons station if they have been onboard for 5 years, this requirement facilitates rework. Powder charges must be returned after 3 years.
VII. Ordnance Handling Equipment
A. There are several different categories of ordnance handling equipment. All equipment must be weight tested and certified on a periodic basis. In addition, all handling equipment has associated PMS coverage that must be accomplished.
B. With the exception of nuclear weapons handling equipment, ordnance equipment may be utilized for handling non-ordnance loads, as long as the weight limits are not exceeded.
C. Weight tests include a static test 200% of rated load, a dynamic test 150% of rated load and a no load test.
VIII. Magazine Temperatures and Alarms
A. Temperatures will be taken and reported daily through 12 o'clock reports. The high and low temps need to be recorded on the daily temp log. Thermometers should be bi-metalic (maximum/minimum normally) and must be calibrated annually by the MEASURE program. Mercury filled thermomneters are not authorized.
B. Used to compute Initial Velocity (IV) in a ballistic computation.
C. Serve as a record of what temperatures your ammunition has been exposed to, and is kept onboard for one year.
D. Individual temperature cards for each magazine are located in a holder next to the thermometer.
E. A permanent log book containing magazine locations by number and daily temperatures for that magazine is required. This log is used for such things as determining what atmospheric conditions your ammunition has been exposed to over long periods of time. These logs were quite useful in recent inquiry into the proper operation of missile ventilation systems.
F. Smokeless powder begins to breakdown, and WP begins to melt at 100oF.
G. Low temperature limits have not been identified for gun ammunition.
H. Temperatures over 100oF are considered HIGH and the following requirements exist:
1. Temperatures must be taken and logged hourly in red and actions taken to reduce temperatures will also be logged.
2. Artificially cool as practical. Actions could include, but are not limited to:
(a) Increase ventilation
(b) Provide water cooling
(c) Rig awnings
3. If ammunition is exposed to high temperatures (110-119oF for 500 hours it must be expended or turned into the weapons station.
4. If temperatures reach 120-130oF for 100 hours it shall be expended having the highest priority, or turned into a weapons station.
5. If temperatures exceed 130oF the ammunition should be turned into the weapons station.
I. Magazine alarms consist of three separate alarm systems that are normally monitored at the DC console, and may have remote indicators on the Bridge and all Quarterdeck locations. They are:
1. "F" alarm: High temperature alarm located throughout all magazines. The number of the sensors is determined by the size of the magazine, but are never less than two. They are set to alarm at 105oF.
2. "FH" alarm: This alarm activates when the CLAVALVE in the magazine sprinkler system lifts and allows water into the magazine. It is located downstream of the CLA VALVE and could also be activated by a seal leaking by. Normal automatic activation occurs at approximately 160oF in the magazine.
3. "FD" alarm: This alarm is located at the lowest point in the magazine, approximately 1/2" above the deck. It has a float in it that raises as the magazine floods and activates a flooding alarm.
IX. Magazine Support Systems
A. Fire Suppression Systems
1. Gun magazines are covered by Dry Sprinkler systems.
2. Missile magazines are covered by a combination of sprinkler and injection system.
(a) GMLS MK 13 Mod O, covered by dry sprinkler and missile injection system.
(b) GMLS MK 13 Mod 4 and 5, covered by wet sprinkler and missile injection system.
NOTE: The GMLS MK 13 sprinklers are being converted to a dry sprinkler system by shipalt 015500-0.
(c) GMLS MK 26, covered by dry sprinkler system and injection system.
(d) VLS covered by dry module deluge system and sprinkler in the magazine.
3. CO-2 Systems can be found in the GMLS MK 13.
(a) Will trip at 160 degrees.
(b) Alarm bell sounds and light indicates activation just prior to system activation.
(c) Shut off valve on CO-2 systems will be turned off prior to entering any part of magazine for any length of time.
(d) After activation the following rules apply:
(1) Must wait 30 minutes.
(2) 15 minutes to cool/15 minutes to air out.
(3) Use the two man rule upon entry.
X. Magazine Ventilation Systems
A. In the last two years an increasing trend of missile corrosion damage has been noted. Recently, assist teams consisting of NSWSES/NAVSSES personnel conducted visits of 67 missile platforms. Of the 67 ships visited only 8 ships had fully operational automatic ventilation systems. Why only 8 ships? The following reasons were sighted for the less than adequate operations of installed systems:
1. General Fleet Findings:
(a) Noteworthy lack of ability of ships personnel to locate, identify and/or operate environmental controls.
(b) Thermometers were improperly mounted and/or wrong type of thermometer was used.
(c) Thermometers were out of calibration.
(d) Chilled water was incorrectly operated continuously in manual bypass mode which precluded automatic temperature control and resulted in excessively low magazine temperature.
(e) Missile magazine thermostatic control devices in the fleet are not standardized. At least four types have been found in use, with choice apparently governed by shipyard preference. Lack of standardization has impeded good understanding of controls and complicated supply requirements.
(f) Steam to magazine coils was manually secured in all West Coast ships, precluding proper temperature and humidity control.
(g) Missiles on both sides of GMTR showed an increased amount of corrosion and salt buildup in ships with MK 13, launching systems.
(h) Most ships keep the magazine significantly below minimum 70 degree temperature recommended by NSWSES in the incorrect belief that "cooler is better".
(i) There is no PMS for maintenance checks of the thermostatic control devices and associated solenoid valves.
(j) Current medium range STANDARD missile MRC S-1 recommends maintenance be conducted at sea. This PMS is a cleanliness check of the missile. The missile must be put on the rail in order to inspect the lower half of it. Performing this PMS at sea exposes the missile to more potential salt spray and weather damage than if done in port.
2. Ship Class findings:
(a) CG-47 Class
(1) Detroit thermostatic devices 222-10N were set at too low a temperature. Complexity of the control system required by the use of this type device confused the crew.
(1) No humidistat control devices are installed.
(2) There is a one inch gap between launcher platform and deck, creating a condensation problem.
(3) Magazines are kept excessively cold as a way to get cold air into launcher machinery space.
(4) Thermostatic control devices were incorrectly operated in manual mode. Manual control is meant to only be used as a casualty mode.
(5) When operating, the anti-icing system steam pressure regulator vents into the magazine. When secured, it leaks into the magazine because of bad piping.
(c) FFG-7 Class
(1) No humidistatic control devices installed.
(2) Winter disconnect switch is incorrectly used because its purpose and operation are misunderstood.
(3) Heaters are manually secured. Philadelphia homeported ships noted that the heater could not get magazine temperature above 50 degrees in the winter.
(4) Condensate drain containment tank is to small under humid conditions. Mayport homeported ships are reporting that they are ducting the container two or three times daily but overflow into the plenum still occurs.
1. Where installed, humidistats should be placed in operation. However, no additional humidistats should be installed. Their contribution to control of relative humidity is low.
2. GMTR and T-SAMs should be brought up to the rail for PMS only, and only under benign conditions.
3. Repair ventilation systems and place in automatic operation. All repair requirements noted in the assist team visits are considered to be within shipforce capability.
4. Add missile magazine environmental control and maintenance training to GMM rate.
5. PCO, PXO, Weapons Department Head and Division Officer, Missile Division Officer should receive a missile corrosion briefing in pipeline training.
6. All remaining STANDARD missile capable ships should receive an assist visit.
7. Standardize all missile magazine thermostatic control systems, replace existing Detroit 222-10N control devices with 2PD control devices. The 2PD control is cheaper than the Detroit 222-10N ($74.00 vice $110.00). The 2PD controls two solenoid valves, Detroit 222-10N controls one. Thus fewer 2PD's are required.
8. MRC'S S-1 for SM-1 MR should be changed to recommend the PMS be done inport in order to reduce risk of corrosion.
9. Develop ILS for thermostatic control system devices and associated solenoid valves including PMS, training, technical manuals.
10. Develop and publish a clear description and operating guideline for the Winter Disconnect Switch.
11. Publish clear guidance on the proper choice of magazine thermometer to obtain proper high/low readings and how to mount it to read air temperature and not bulkhead temperature.
12. Develop updates for OP-4 and the STANDARD Missile OP's which clarify the various guidelines for temperature limits and relative humidity to help the ships understand the requirements and eliminate the current ambiguities.
13. Develop and install a FFG 7 Class SHIPALT, increasing the heating capacity of the missiles magazine heater.
XI. COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION
NOTE: See Figure 2 Air Conditioning System Diagram.
1. Two-Position-Dual (2PD) thermostat are generally used for controlling solenoid valves on cooling and heating coils and also for controlling electric reheaters. Designed so the cooler and heater cannot be operated together.
2. Type 222-10N thermostats are used when a remote bulb is required due to explosion-proof requirements in the space to be controlled.
3. Type "R" thermostats and temperature regulator valves are sometimes used for reheater control. The temperature regulator valve is a simple packless valve actuated by a self-contained fluid thermostatic control (Type "R" thermostat).
B. Replenishment Air
Replenishment air from the weather is provided in air conditioning systems for odor removal, oxygen replenishment and carbon dioxide dilution. The required amount of replenishment air (or rate of change) is given in ship design drawings and/or specifications.
The Navy standard fans provide the forced air circulation through the system. The two common types of fans are the centrifugal and the vaneaxial; their descriptions are as follows:
1. Centrifugal Fans- Centrifugal units are usually selected for use in systems which exhaust an explosive or flammable gas because their motors are located outside the airstream. Therefore, centrifugal fans having been isolated from the airstream by virtue of location, are preferred for these applications except where compactness is a prime consideration. See Figure 3.
2. Vaneaxial Fans- Vaneaxial fans are installed in the ductwork with the air passing through the impeller and then over the motor. Fans are attached to the motor casing to straighten out the spiralling flow of air from the impeller. Axial fans are ideal for use in all applications where there are both inlet and outlet ducts where there is no change in direction of air flow. See Figure 4.
FIGURE 4. VANEAXIAL FAN
Navy standard air filters are the cleanable, viscous, high-velocity impingement type where dirt particles and fine lint in the air stream are collected on the filtering media by the application of a thin film of oil (filter adhesive). These filters are provided in front of cooling coils in air conditioning systems to prevent rapid fouling of the cooling coil. After cleaning (washing, thorough rinsing and drying) the filters shall be re-oiled. If a thin coat of air filter adhesive is not applied to the filtering media, dirt particles and fine lint will not adhere to the filtering media, but will pass through the filter and collect on the cooling coil. For detailed maintenance of air filters see Maintenance Requirement Cards.
Some filters are equipped with automatic filter load gages or vanes. Gages and vanes should be marked or set to indicate when pressure drop across the filter has increased to three times the pressure drop of a clean filter, at which time filters require cleaning.
E. Cooling Coils
Navy standard duct cooling coils are utilized for cooling the air in the missile magazine. The tube and fin type coil utilize the ships chilled water (450F) passing through the tubes to cool the air. As the air passes over the coils, the air temperature drops and moisture condenses on the tubes, if the temperature drops below the dew point. The moisture drains into the coil drain pan and into the ship's drain system.
The amount of chilled water flow through the coil is controlled by a constant flow regulator which provides a constant flow through the coil independent of chilled water system pressure. Older systems may utilize Venturi flow meters and lock shield valves. Increasing the coil flow beyond the design flow will generally make only a slight increase in performance.
The space temperature is controlled by a thermostat type 222-10N or 2PD. The thermostats control the solenoid valve on the chilled water line to the coil.
F. Heating Coils
Heating coils are always installed downstream of the cooling coil and utilize steam or electricity for heat. Steam heaters are controlled by a thermostat, type 222-10N 2PD or Type "R". Type 222-10N and 2PD send an electrical signal to the steam line solenoid valve. The Model "R" thermostat is connected to a temperature regulator in the steam line. Electric heaters are controlled by a thyristor power controller and type "J" thermocouple or by a 2PD thermostat. The heater may be additionally controlled by a humidistat.
G. Humidity Control
Air conditioning systems incapable of inherently meeting the 55% maximum relative humidity limitations shall have humidistats connected to control the reheater. As humidity increases beyond the humidistat set point, the reheater is energized, increasing the space temperature. As the temperature increases beyond cooling thermostat set point, the cooling coil is energized, thus condensing moisture from the air and lowering the humidity.
XII. HUMIDITY AND THE MISSILE MAGAZINE
A. Magazine Design Conditions
The design conditions of Gun Ammunition and Missile magazines, per the Air Conditioning, Ventilation, and Heating Design Criteria manual, NAVSEA 0938-018-0010, is 75oF/55% relative humidity for the cooling season and 65oF for the heating season. Individual ship design specifications may deviate slightly from these requirements. When magazine temperatures are kept to these limits, the amount of condensation in the magazine is reduced to a minimum. COLDER IS NOT BETTER!
1. Humidity - dampness in air
2. Relative Humidity - expressed as percentage ratio of partial pressure of water vapor of air-vapor mixture to the pressure of saturated water vapor at the dry bulb temperature. NOTE: This can be used to approximate percentage of maximum amount of water air can hold.
3. Condensation - physical process by which a liquid is removed from a vapor or vapor mixture.
d. Dry Bulb Temperature - the temperature indicated by a thermometer with a clean, dry sensing element that is shielded from radiation.
e. Wet Bulb Temperature - lowest temperature indicated by a moistened thermometer bulb when evaporation of the moisture takes place in a current air-vapor mixture as it moves over the instrument; and indication of moisture in the air.
The amount of water or dampness the air can hold at standard pressure is dependent upon temperature. The amount of water air can hold increases quickly with temperature. As warm, moist air is lowered in temperature, and the air can no longer retain all the moisture, the excess moisture will condense out of the air on any cooler surface.
Since no personnel are stationed in the magazine, the only source of moisture is from the weather, replenishment air, air leakage, and/or open hatch. Replenishment air passes over the cooling coil prior to entering the space, therefore, all excess moisture condenses on the coil. Air leaving the coil is generally at a high relative humidity (due to its low temperature) but a low moisture content. As the air heats to space temperature, the relative humidity will decrease to below 50%.
During the heating season when the cold weather air can hold little moisture, condensation should not be present.Only during the cooling season is condensation a possible problem. To minimize condensation it is of paramount importance that the magazine be maintained at 80oF and no colder. Air at 80 degrees can hold twice as much moisture as 60oF air. Since the only source of condensation will be weather leakage, the warmer the compartment, the less chance of condensation.
The manual operating stem on the solenoid valves must be in the fully clockwise position for automatic operation by the thermostat. The manual operating valve opens the valve when in counter-clockwise position.
XIII. PARTS IDENTIFICATION (For Information Purposes Only)
DETROIT CONTROL SWITCH MODELS 222-10NB3 and 222-10NB7 ADJUSTMENT.
Range adjustments may be made without removing the cover plate. To adjust the differential adjusting screw, it is necessary to remove the cover. Proceed as follows:
1. Turn the differential screw to a larger differential position.
2. Bring the pressure (or temperature) to the point where it is desired to have the switch close the circuit.
3. Turn the range screw until the switch closes the circuit.
4. Increase (or decrease) the pressure (or temperature) to the desired opening point.
5. Turn the differential screw counter-clockwise until the switch opens the circuit.
6. Changing the range adjustment raises or lowers both the closing and opening points, but does not alter the differential.
AMMUNITION HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS DOCUMENTS
(Technical manuals on specific equipment are not included)
1. Allowance Equipment Lists (AEL)
2. Ammunition Afloat OP-4
3. Ordnance Safety Precautions OP-3347
4. Ammunition Ships; Handling and Stowage OP 3206
of Naval Ordnance Aboard
5. Amphibious Ships; Handling and Stowage OP 4550
of Amphibious Assault Ammunition Aboard
6. Aviation Maintenance Program; Naval (NAMP)
7. Approved Handling Equipment for Weapons OP 2173
8. Handling Equipment, Ordnance; Allowance NAVSEAINST
for Ships and Shore Activities 10490 (Series)
9. Handling Ammunition Explosives and OP 4098
Hazardous Materials With Industrial
Materials Handling Equipment (MHE)
10. Handling equipment, Procedures for OP 67
Utilization of; Approved
11. Helicopter Operating Procedures; Shipboard NWP-42
12. Loading of Hazardous Materials, Index to M/L-HDBK-236
Standards for palletizing, Truck Loading,
Railcar Loading and Containers
13. Maintenance Requirements, PMS, for Shipboard OPNAVINST 4790.4
14. Merchant Type Ships; Shiploading and Dunnage OP 3221
of Military Cargo Aboard
15. Missile Transfer Dolly MK 6 Mod 5 OP 3192
16. Nuclear Weapons Handling Equipment SWOP-H1
Maintenance Instructions; Navy
17. Nuclear Weapons; Loading and Underway NWIP-14-1
18. Palletizing Amphibious Unit Loads of Weapons MIL-STD-1324
19. Domestic Unit Load Palletizing MIL-STD-1322
20. Fleet Issue Unit Load Palletizing MIL-STD-1323
21. U.S. Navy Regulations OPNAVINST
22. Replenishment at Sea WP-14
23. Underway Replenishment Hardware and 0918-LP-000-2010
24. Underway Replenishment Ordnance Handling S9571-AA-MMA-010
Equipment and Transfer Units
25. Safety Precautions for Forces Afloat, Navy OPNAVINST 5100.19
26. Safety Precautions, Ordnance, Their Origin OP 1014
27. Strongback Equipment, STREAM Missile/Cargo 0978-LP-061-4010
28. Testing Arrangements for Ordnance SG420-AA-MMA-010
Handling Equipment, Periodic
D. B. ADLER, LCDR USN
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