Operations Billet Specialty

Surface Warfare Officers School Command

Department Head Combat Systems

Newport, Rhode Island



REV: 03/98




(a) NWP 10-1-10 (Operational Reports)

(b) COMNAVSURFLANT/COMNAVSURFPAC 3502.2 (Surface Force Training Manual)

(c) CINCLANT/PACFLT NOTICE C3120 (Quarterly Employment Schedule)

(d) COMNAVSURFLANT/PACINST 5040.1 Series (Inspections)

(e) COMNAVSURFPAC OPORD 201 Annex C (Notional Schedules)

(f) COMNAVSURFRESFORINST 3502.1A Volumes I through V (Master Training Plan)



Scheduling is a dynamic process that requires detailed planning, typically several months to a year in advance of a major evolution such as a deployment. The ship's Operations Officer is primarily responsible for the ship's schedule. Working with the CO's desires and inputs from the wardroom, the Operations Officer must compile a schedule that maximizes training and combat readiness. How well a ship meets it's requirements is a function of how well the Operations Officer has tracked and scheduled readiness and training requirements.

This lesson topic (72.2) begins the discussion of the scheduling process. It provides an overview on how an Operations Officer puts together the ship's long range schedule. It discusses notional schedules, which provide the framework for all fleet scheduling, deployment and major exercise cycles, long term maintenance schedules, periodic inspections, and training requirements, which are all key portions of a ship's long range schedule. Lesson topic 72.3 (Quarterly Employment Schedule Planning) continues the discussion on scheduling, covering how an Operations Officer compiles the ship's quarterly employment schedule and submits the proposal up the chain of command. Finally, lesson topic 72.4 will review the process of developing a short range underway schedule encompassing a typical Basic, Intermediate and Advance phase underway period.


The foundation for Long Range Schedule planning is the notional schedule. Each class of ship is covered by a notional schedule. Notional schedules are used by the Fleet Commanders, Type Commanders and their subordinates (Group Commanders and Squadron Commanders) in working out fleet schedules. The notional schedule for both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets is based on: SRA/ROH schedule, CINC naval presence requirements, and the Interdeployment tactical training strategy. The notional schedule represents a template for the ship as it works its way through its lifecycle. As a template, the notional schedule will provide the significant milestones from a individual schedule can be developed. For example, ROH/SRA packages are developed from lifecycle maintenance plans which are not necessairily coupled to real time funding constraints. Therefore, a long range ROH/SRA plan may not accurately reflect fiscal reality and cause a pertubation in the notional schedule.


B.. PHASE DESCRIPTION. The Surface Force Training Manual and Pacific Fleet COMNAVSURFPAC OPORD 201, Annex C, contain the notional schedules for each ship class. The following is a description of each phase in a notional ship schedule and the requirements for each phase:




a. Period: In preparation for ROH/SRA/PMA. Conducted following

ammo-offlload and 30 day ready battle group tether. (2 - 4 weeks)

b. Emphasis: Shipboard preparations for extended availability.

Intermediate work package development for concurrent maintenance


c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Identify any system upgrade/modification that requires training/formal schooling.

(2) Identify new PQS and implement.

(3) Conduct an administration and security review.

(4) Conduct a formal safety survey.

(5) Complete Quality Assurance (QA) training.

(6) Combat System Quick-look



a. Period: This is the period during ROH/SRA/PMA, new construction, or

post shakedown availability. (9 weeks to 9 months)

b. Emphasis: Formal school requirements, team training, and

equipment/systems testing and certification.

c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Complete individual and team training.

(2) Complete formal schools required for operator and maintenance personnel.

(3) Conduct watchstander/watch team training.

(4) Implement new PQS and determine watchstation

qualification for propulsion plant light-off and sea


(5) Participation in AW/USW school ship

recommended for CRUDES units and team training requirements.

(6) Commence Inspection Assist Visits.

(7) Organize shipboard training teams: DCTT/ETT/ CSTT/STT.

(8) Complete Crew Certification.

(9) Complete Fast Cruise.

(10) Obtain Aviation Facilities Certification

d. Readiness: Mission Areas (PRMAR) M-5, COVL/CRTNG C-5.


a. Period: This is the period from ROH/PMA/SRA completion to the beginning of the Intermediate Phase. (6 mos)

b. Emphasis: Equipment/systems operation, maintenance, testing, and watchstander qualification, and build individual and team knowledge and skill levels. Ensure the ship is able to train itself in all warfare areas.

CART Phase II - consists of a performance-based (demonstration) assessment of the ship's readiness and proficiency in each mission area. Propulsion Examining Board will augment ATG at ship's request to validate engineering operations in partial fulfillment of Engineering Certification requirements. (1 week)

TSTA I - will train the ship's training teams (CSTT, ECCTT, DCTT, and STT). Conduct watchstander fundemental functionality training. (1 week inport/3 weeks underway (Mon-Fri))

TSTA II - will refine skills and integrate watch teams into a single organization capable of coordinating their efforts

for mission accomplishment. ECERT is conducted during one of the three nderway weeks. (1 week inport/3 weeks underway (Mon-Fri))

TSTA III - Optional underway to conduct operations in order to achieve multi-training team integration. (5 days underway)

TSTA IV - will be conducted by all ships classes that require special warfare specialty training (salvage, mine warfare, amphibious warfare, special operations). (5 days underway)

Final Evaluation Period (FEP) - training assessment will be conducted during a final evaluation period before CHOP to the numbered fleet commander. FEP varies some between Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, but will normally include comprehensive battle and damage problems, and may include weapons firing exercises. The logistics management assessment is conducted inport during the weeks immediately preceeding the FEP. (3 -5 days underway)

Note: A satisfactory completion of the FEP is required to proceed to intermediate training. An unsatisfactory performance during FEP may significantly alter follow-on shipboard schedules.

c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Complete BASIC phase core training exercises listed in reference (b), appendix A.

(2) Complete required schools, and all required team training.

(3) Complete watchstation PQS qualified for Conditions I/III and special evolutions for at least two sections.


(5) Conduct SSRNM.

(6) Complete Damage Control training.

(7) Certification of all Combat Systems/Mobility/Special Warfare equipment/systems are fully operable.

(8) Complete NGFS Trainer and qualification.

(9) Complete OPPE/ORSE.

(10) Complete Surface Warfare Training Week (SWTW).

(11) Conduct Leaders to Sea (CNSP Only)

(12) Full-fill fleet commander service allocation


d. Readiness: PRMARs M-3, CRTNG C-3.


a. Period: Encompasses Battle Group exercises and team trainers. (4 months with 3 weeks BG U/W exercises)

b. Emphasis: Integrate Battle Group training in a fully coordinated multithreat environment.

c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Complete all intermediate/advanced phase exercises contained in the Surface Training Manual which

were not completed in the Basic Cycle.

(2) Participate in advanced watch team training/tactics AW WTT, SCC WCC, BFTT etc).

(3) Complete COMPTUEX.

(4) Complete warfare specialty training.

(5) Complete Battle Group weapons firings.

(6) Conduct warfare commanders conferences.

d. Readiness: PRMAR M-2, CRTNG C-2.


a. Period: Encompasses Battle Group exercises with Joint and ARG force integration. (2 weeks import/2 weeks at-sea)

b. Emphasis: Integrated scenario driven, multi-force battle problem.

c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Complete all intermediate/advanced phase exercises contained in the Surface Training Manual which

were not completed in the Intermediate Cycle.

(2) Participate in advanced watch team training/tactics BG-ARG IT.

(3) Complete JTFEX.

d. Readiness: PRMAR M-1, CRTNG C-1.



a. Period: From the completion of the advanced phase to

deployment. (30 Days)

b. Emphasis: Battle group operations and deployment preparations.

c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Conduct Predeployment IMAV.

(2) Conduct POM period.

d. Readiness: PRMARs M-1, CRTNG C-1.



a. Period: Any period of deployment in excess of four months.

b. Emphasis: Maintain M-1 for training in all PRMARs and CRTNG.

c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Conduct Engineering Mid-Cycle Assessment.

(2) Conduct CART Phase I, 12 to 14 weeks prior to the end of deployment.

(2) Conduct work definition conference for maintenance availability.


a. Period. This period is subdivided into consecutive 12-month modules that are designed to enhance the training of active duty and selected reservist (SELRES) personnel.

b. Emphasis: Maintain readiness and training for ship and assigned SELRES.

c. Specific Objectives:

(1) Complete watchstation PQS qualifications.

(2) Complete formal school requirements.

(3) Complete IMAV and/or SRA/PMA.

(4) Complete individual and team training.

(5) Conduct NGFS team training and qualification.

(6) Conduct SELRES Individual Duty Travel Training .

(7) Conduct Annual Training (AT) for SELRES.

(8) Participate in FLEETEX and/or designated fleet operations.

(9) Conduct CSRR/CSRT.

(10) Complete all training and readiness phases as listed in above paragraphs.

d. Readiness: PRMARs M-1, CRTNG C-1.

Note: This applies only to NRF ships and encompasses the period between fleet operations, Naval Reserve Training (NRT) for underway training, Reserves Embarked (REM) for inport training, and the beginning of the maintenance availability (SRA or PMA). NRF ships are tasked with the same readiness and training requirements as their active duty counterparts. Refer to reference (b) (p. 2-1-4) for allowable mission degradation.



The most important quality of the Operations Officer is being able to plan. Therefore, putting together a Long Range Planning Schedule is the Operations Officer's most important job. A ship that looks ahead, with an Operations Officer who plans ahead, has a better chance of being operationally ready. Before you can provide inputs up the chain of command for the quarterly employment schedule conference, you need to have a long range plan outlining where your ship is going and how the command intends to complete the mountain

of requirements. Here are some suggestions on how to put together your ship's Long Range Schedule:



a. Format. Get a long range schedule line form and map out a plan at least 18-24 months in advance (6-8 quarters). Some Operations Officers use a stack of Quarterly PMS boards, others use various software programs and construct their plan using a personal computer.

b. Where to Start the Schedule. The start date of your long range schedule may be several months down the road, since for the next 3-6 months your schedule is already pretty firm. Start your Long Range Planning Schedule about 3 months down the road and plan out 18-24 months. If your are mid-way through a six month deployment start your long range scheduling plan from the end of deployment to the end of the next deployment. Remember, your long range plan should be a continuum. As you get a few months into your plan, schedule an additional few months at the end so that you are always looking 24 months ahead.

2. MAJOR EVENTS. The first items that you want to schedule are your major events (deployments, major Fleet exercises, and major maintenance and repair periods like ROH and SRA). But, where do you find out this information?

a. Deployments. In the Atlantic Fleet, COMNAVSURFLANT periodically promulgates a message (ALNAVSURFLANT) outlining all the East Coast deployments (and major exercises, like Team Work, Ocean Venture, and Solid Shield) for the next five years, the start and end dates for each deployment/exercise, as well as those units tentatively scheduled for these deployments.

In the Pacific Fleet, COMNAVSURFPAC puts out a message (classified SECRET) to the Group Commanders containing the same information on long range deployment cycles and dates (normally 2 calendar years). Check these messages and your C3120 (EMPSKED) or check with your squadron, then put down your deployment and major fleet exercise dates on your 18 month schedule lines.








b. Major Fleet Exercises. COMSECONDFLT also puts out a quarterly message, entitled "EMPLOYMENT PLANNING, outlining the deployment and fleet exercise requirements for the next 12 months, in detail. COMTHIRDFLT puts out a message entitled "C3F AGENDA LETTER," which lists all the major fleet evolutions in East Pac.

c. Repair and Maintenance Periods. Each type commander targets ships for requisite maintenance periods based on their long range turn around schedule, (e.g. CNSP ships are targeted for 3 weeks of IMA maintenance per operational quarter). This guidance changes periodically and the Operation Officer needs to check with their ISIC scheduler for current guidance.

3. NOTIONAL REQUIREMENTS. Now check the Surface Force Training Manual for major notional and training requirements for each phase. Look at the Notional Schedules (CNSP 201) and pull out the major requirements.

For example, if you are going to be coming out of overhaul and into the BASIC Phase, look at all the post-ROH work-ups, inspections, certifications, and training evolutions and figure out which ones apply to your ship and figure out when, during that post-ROH period, you want to schedule these. Be sure to check with the other Department Heads to get their inputs.


4. INSPECTIONS, CERTIFICATIONS, EXAMS, and ASSIST VISITS. A ship will go through a huge battery of inspections, certifications, examinations, evaluations, readiness reviews, and mandatory assists visits during this long range schedule cycle. How do you know what inspections and assist visits your ship or class of ship has to complete? Review the last page of your training report, check with your squadron/group scheduler, and talk to your fellow Department Heads. In addition, review with your ISIC your CART II POA&M and TSTA I-IV requirements.

a. Types of Inspections, etc. There are three basic types of inspections, examinations, evaluations, etc: Post-Overhaul, Pre-Deployment, and Periodic.



(1) Post-Overhaul Requirements. These are inspections, evaluations,

certifications, examinations and assist visits required for a ship coming out of overhaul and working up to become a fleet unit. The Surface Force Training Manual and CNSP OPORD 201 list many of the major post-overhaul requirements. Some examples of post-overhaul requirements are:

- Light Off Examination (LOE)

- Combat Systems Ships Qualification Trials (CSSQT)

- Weapons Systems Accuracy Trials (WSAT)

- ASW System Calibration and Operational Testing (SCOT)

- Surface Ship Radiated Noise Measurement (SSRNM)

- Fleet Operational Readiness Accuracy Checks (FORACS)


- Degaussing/Deperming

- Towed Array Certification

- Aviation Facilities Certification (AVCERT)

(2) Pre-Deployment Requirements. These are items required specifically for deployment preparation, such as Combat Systems Readiness Reviews or Tests. On the East Coast, the Type Commander's Pre-Overseas Movement (POM) Guide (COMNAVSURFLANTINST 3500.3 Series) outlines detailed requirements for preparing for deployment. On the West Coast, COMNAVSURFPAC provides a tailored POM print out. Note: Review reference (b) for specific requirements to advance through each training phase. An example of a pre-deployment requirement is Combat Systems Readiness Review (CSRR).

(3) Periodic. These requirements occur on a periodic basis (every 15 months or every 24 months). In some cases these requirements may be the same as those for post-ROH work-ups or pre-deployment preparations. Some examples of periodic requirements are:

- INSURV (Board of Inspection and Survey)

- CMS Inspection

- Industrial Hygiene Survey


b. Where to Look: Each Type Commander puts out a 5040.1 series Instruction outlining all the inspections and assist visits for their ships, the periodicity of each inspection, how long they take, and lists additional references for preparing for and

conducting that inspection. The Surface Force Training Manual also contain major notional post-overhaul, pre-deployment, and periodic requirements.

c. Plan of Action and Milestone. See what inspections your ship is required to complete. Make a detailed list of these, note the last time this inspection was completed, the periodicity of the inspection, and note when this inspection comes due. Once you have spent the time to research the myriad requirements and put them down on your POA&M, you don't need to go through that big research effort again. When putting together the long range schedule, you can refer to your POA&M and put the major inspection requirements (and their dates) on your planning schedule lines. Your ship's TRASUM/TRA Verification also contains a list of inspections, etc., for your ship, when these inspections were last conducted, and when they are due again. However, this list is not all inclusive, and it is only as good as the database that you maintain.

5. BATTLE "E" REQUIREMENTS. Check the Surface Force Training Manual for all the Battle "E" requirements for your ship. The Battle "E" competition is on an annual basis (calendar year). Make sure that these major requirements (inspections and exercises) are on your long range schedule lines. Some exercises require services need to be scheduled months in advance, so do your research, check with your ISIC, and draw up a POA&M for completing all the Battle "E" requirements.

6. FLESHING OUT THE SCHEDULE. Once you have scheduled in all the major deployment, exercise, maintenance, inspection, and training requirements, fill in the remainder of your long range schedule with employments that support your long range plan. For example, after each lengthy inport period (greater than two months) or prior to any major underway period (like a Fleet Exercise or Deployment), schedule a "Ready For Sea (RFS)" period in order to get the ship up to speed for underway operations. During the Christmas/Chanukah and New Years holidays, schedule "Holiday Leave and Upkeep (HOLUPK)." After major repair/maintenance events or major at-sea operations, schedule an "Upkeep (UPK)" period.

Not every space has to be filled in. There may be portions of your schedule that has holes in it, "To Be Determined (DTMD)," because not every employment requirement can be nailed down so far in advance.

You may not have hard dates one everything, but at least your long range schedule provides you and the ship a framework for long range planning. It will also make your job in putting together your inputs for the Quarterly Employment Schedule significantly easier.




1. DOCUMENTATION. There are many ways in which to construct your long range scheduling plan, but at a minimum you should have these three items:

* Long Range Schedule Lines (as shown above).

* POA&M for Inspections, etc. (as described in paragraph B.4.c. and shown on page 72.2-15)).

* POA&M for Battle "E" Requirements and Training Exercises (as described in paragraph B.5.).

2. PERSTEMPO/OPTEMPO. PERSTEMPO and OPTEMPO refer to the same issues and are critical in scheduling and planning. They are also key in maintaining good morale and retention. The key issue for the Operations Officer is maintaining a balance on PERSTEMPO. OPNAVINST 3000.13A spells out the CNO's policy on PERSTEMPO. This policy is routinely modified by NAVOP's during contingency periods like Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

a. PERSTEMPO. PERSTEMPO is a number or value that reflects the ratio of days spent in homeport (HPO represented by positive numbers) and days spent away from homeport (NPHO represented by negative numbers) over a specific period of time. The goal for a ship over a five year period or from ROH to ROH is zero (0). For example, if, over a 180 day period, you spent 83 days in homeport and 97 days away from homeport, you're PERSTEMPO would be -14 for that period.

b. Turn-Around Ratio (TAR). The TAR is the ratio between the number of months a ship spends between deployments compared to the length of the last deployment. The goal for TAR is 2:1. If you just finished up a 6 month (180 day) deployment, your turn-around for the next deployment should be 12 months. PERSTEMPO and TAR are critical planning items, and key for morale. In preparing the long range schedule for the ship, the Operations Officer should try to achieve a balance between the number of days away from homeport and the number of days at home. The pendulum shouldn't swing radically,

where one quarter is back to back underway time (except for deployments) and the next is all inport homeport. However, a reserve of homeport days (PERSTEMPO of +90) should be built-up prior to deployment, so that the pendulum doesn't swing radically over that 6 to 9 month period. So watch your plus and minus PERSTEMPO days. It's guaranteed that the Squadron, Group, Type, and Fleet Commanders will be watching yours closely.

c. OPTEMPO. Operational Tempo is the number of underway steaming days per quarter. The target number in set by the fuel manager (C3F West coast anf CNSL east coast) and is currently 28 days for non-deployers and 51 days for deployers per quarter.

3. NON-MILITARY SCHEDULE ITEMS. Watch out for holidays. This is crucial for morale as much as PERSTEMPO. Try to work your long range requirements around federal holidays. Try not to schedule the start of major evolutions the day after a long holiday weekend or end just before one. Furthermore, be sensitive to non-military scheduling items like, the CO's anniversary or the Command Master Chief's daughter's high school graduation. Put some feelers out and determine when some of these "critical" non-military related dates occur and keep them in the back of your mind when scheduling. It's a good bet that the end of May and the beginning of June is going to be important to a lot of senior crew members for high school (and college) graduations.

4. INPUTS. Ensure that you have inputs from your fellow department heads. It is impossible to conduct scheduling in a vacuum. Communicate with your counterparts. Let them know what the overall goals of the ship are, and what the long range plan entails. This will allow them to plan better, and consequently, it will allow them to provide you with more detailed inputs.

5. CO'S APPROVAL. Every step of the way, keep the CO (and XO) cut in on your long range plan. Before this plan goes off the ship (whether you are sending your Quarterly Employment Schedule inputs up the chain of command or you want to informally run your long range plan across the Squadron N3's desk), get the CO's approval.






There are innumerable ways to construct and maintain the ship's schedule. Each Operations Officer has a different way of doing business. Below are some hints and lessons learned for successfully planning, tracking, and maintaining your ship's schedule:


1. Look Ahead. When you walk on board your ship, you will be inheriting a schedule from your predecessor. It's hard to take control of the ship's schedule, initially, but you need to think ahead and look down range at upcoming evolutions and inspections that your ship will have to fulfill. You need to be looking 18 months ahead (sometimes further). The more advance planning you do, the more you and the Captain can control the ship's destiny.

2. Research the Requirements. Even if your squadron has a comprehensive package, you still need to look at all the training and inspection requirements. CSSQT may be the Combat Systems Officer's show, but you may have to arrange the services, reserve the OPAREAs, and schedule the underway time.

3. Be Flexible. Dates for certain evolutions are not cut in stone until a few weeks before hand, so be flexible. Leave plenty of room in the schedule for planning major events. If you can, leave a 2 to 3 week time frame open for a 3 day inspection. Anticipate changes and be able to re-schedule.

4. Build in Redundancy. Have a back up plan. If your ship suffers a casualty to it's combat systems while you're trying to conduct an exercise missile shot, make sure that you have planned a back-up period for completing this requirement.

5. Get the Word Out. Don't keep your schedule plan a secret. Make sure the Captain is kept informed, but let your fellow department heads in on what is being planned. They are an important part of the schedule planning process, so keep them apprised of the schedule and factor in their inputs and desires.

6. Don't be a stranger at the Group/Squadron Office. The majority of the staff officers have completed their split Department Head tours, and have quite a few helpful hints on how to accomplish your ship's scheduling goals or have additional information and guidance on inspection requirements.

7. Update. Mapping out the ship's schedule is not something to be done once a quarter when the Type Commander or Squadron wants your inputs. Research, plan, massage, and update the ship's schedule on a daily basis.

8. Be Proactive. More than anyone on the ship, the Operations Officer has the biggest impact on the schedule and plays the most important role in controlling the ship's destiny. Don't let the Captain or the squadron do your job. Research the requirements, plan ahead, and keep everyone informed of what the schedule looks like. DO NOT delegate responsibility for running the ship's schedule to anyone.