Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist (ESWS)STUDY GUIDE
July 25, 1997
This Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist (ESWS) study guide has been written to assist personnel on Kitty Hawk in becoming designated as an Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist. Any updates or corrections to this study guide contact DT1 (SW/AW) Buchanan.
ESWS STUDY GUIDE
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION, OPERATIONS AND DEPARTMENTS
100 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
0101 ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
0101.1 Discuss the following as defined in Ship's Organization and Regulations Manual (SORM) and Ship's Instructions:
a. Administrative Organization - concerned with overall policies and provides the framework for these policies to be effective. Executive Department manages the administrative duties of the ship.
b. Watch Organization - the Commanding Officer establishes such watches as necessary that are required for the safety and proper operation of the command.
Senior Watch Officer - organizes the minimum requirements for security. Only the Engineers do not fall under this watchbill, they have their own watch standing requirements.
(1) Normally the Ship's Navigator on Kitty Hawk
(2) Currently ___________________________
c. Administrative Bills - establishes uniform policies for assignment of personnel, berthing, maintenance, visiting, recall and zone inspections.
d. Operational Bills - set forth policies and procedures in such areas as the boat bill, civil disaster, cold weather, darken ship, EMCON, etc.
STATE THE VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF READINESS AND THEIR PURPOSE:
Condition I - General Quarters, all hands at battle stations
Condition II - Modified General Quarters, used in large ships to permit some relaxation among personnel
Condition III - Wartime Cruising, generally one third of the crew is on watch, and strategic stations are
manned or partly manned. (e.g. weapons)
Condition IV - Optimum Peacetime Cruising, provides adequate watch manning, provides personnel economy. It
is normal peacetime cruising condition.
Condition V - Not normally a condition, IN-PORT ROUTINE.
ENGINEERING OPERATIONAL SEQUENCING SYSTEM (EOSS) - set policies and procedures for the safe operation of the ships engineering plant, boat drills, rescue, etc.
e. Emergency Bills - provide and organize prescribed procedures and assign responsibilities for controlling the effects of a major emergency or disaster suffered by the ship. (e.g. man overboard, assist another ship when dead in the water, crash on the flight deck, or collision at sea.)
f. Special Bills - assign responsibility for and promulgate procedures for defense against sneak/swimmer attack, evacuating civilians, prisoners of war, troop lifts, etc. (e.g. the Vietnamese Boat People)
g. Shipboard Procedures - provide for standard routines for in-port and at sea evolutions. (e.g. UNREP, VERTREP)
h. Ship's Regulations - created to supplement and amplify those regulations contained in the SORM. CNO sets the guidelines.
i. Abandon Ship Bill - assigns each crew member to a boat or liferaft. (ON KITTY HAWK, ASSIGNS A MUSTER STATION ON THE HANGAR DECK OR FLIGHT DECK) Provides for mustering of the crew by the senior man present, and specifies procedures to be followed upon entering the water, where lifevests are located, etc. The Watch, Quarters and Stations Bill tells you where to go and muster.
0101.2 Describe the duties, responsibilities and authority of the following personnel:
a. Commanding Officer - charged with the absolute responsibility for the safety, well-being, and efficiency of his command, except when and to the extent he may be relieved therefrom by competent authority.
(1) Duties and responsibilities of the CO are established by U. S. Navy Regulations, general orders, customs, and traditions.
(2) The authority of the CO is commensurate with his responsibility, subject to the limitations prescribed by law and U. S. Navy Regulations.
b. Executive Officer - is the direct representative of the CO. He will conform to and effect the policies and orders of the CO and keep him informed of all significant command matters.
(1) He is primarily responsible for the organization, performance of duty, and good order and discipline of the entire command. Specifically, he will:
(a) Prepare and maintain the bills and orders for the organization and administration of the command.
(b) After completion of indoctrination training, assign the personnel to departments or other major subdivisions of the command.
(c) Maintain the records of personnel, except those records assigned as the responsibility of some other officer.
(d) Supervise and coordinate the work, exercises, training, and education of the personnel of the command.
(e) Supervise and coordinate the operational plans and schedules of the command as a whole.
(f) Prepare and promulgate, as appropriate, a daily schedule of employment and such other advance schedules as may serve to aid subordinates in planning their work.
(g) Make frequent inspections in company when practicable, with subordinates concerned; and take such remedial action to correct defects as appears necessary.
(h) Ensure that all prescribed or necessary security measures and safety precautions are understood and strictly observed.
(i) Maintain high morale within the command. The discipline, welfare, and privileges of the individuals of the command will be a chief concern of the Executive Officer; and he will, to the extent of his authority, ensure that these and related matters are administered in a just and uniform manner.
(j) Perform such other duties as assigned.
c. Department Head
(1) He is the representative of the CO in al matters that pertain to the department. All persons assigned to the department will be subordinate to him, and all orders issued by him will accordingly be obeyed by them. In the performance of his duties as a Head of Department, he will conform to the policies and comply with the orders of the CO. The Department Head will confer directly with the Commanding Officer concerning any matters relating to his department whenever he believes such action to be necessary for the good of his department and especially of any circumstance or condition which may adversely affect the safety or operation of the command.
(2) Specific responsibilities of the Department Head, subject to the orders of the Commanding Officer are:
(a) Organize and train his department to ensure readiness for battle.
(b) Prepare and maintain the bills and orders for the organization and operation of the department.
(c) Assign personnel to stations and duties within the department.
(d) Be responsible for the effectiveness of the department; to this end he will plan, direct, and supervise the work and training of personnel within the department.
(e) Ensure that all prescribed or necessary security measures and safety precautions are strictly observed by all persons within the department and by others who may be concerned with matters under his control. He will ensure that al applicable safety precautions are kept properly posted in conspicuous and accessible spaces and that personnel concerned are frequently and thoroughly instructed and drilled in their observance.
(f) Make frequent inspections of the personnel and material of the department, including the spaces assigned thereto.
(g) Control the expenditure of funds allotted and operate the department within the limit of such funds.
(h) Ensure economy in the use of public money and stores.
(i) Be responsible for the proper operation, care, preservation, and maintenance of the equipment and material assigned to the department.
(j) Be responsible for the maintenance of records and the submission of reports required of the department.
(k) Be the custodian of the keys of all spaces and storerooms of the department.
(l) Be responsible for the cleanliness and upkeep of the spaces assigned to the department, except as prescribed by regulation or other competent authority.
(m) Anticipate the personnel and material needs of the department, and submit timely requests to fulfill requirements.
(n) Contribute to the coordination of effort of the entire command by appropriate cooperation with other heads of departments.
(o) Ensure that optimum conditions of readiness within his department are in accordance with NWP 62-1.
d. Division Officer
(1) Responsible, under the Department Head, for the proper performance of the duties assigned to his division and for the conduct of his subordinates in accordance with regulations and the orders of the CO.
(2) Keep himself informed of the capabilities and needs of each of his subordinates, and, within his authority, take such action as may be necessary for the efficiency of his division.
(3) Train his subordinates in their own duties and in the duties to which they may aspire.
(4) Report to the Executive Officer, via his Department Head, all infractions of regulations, orders, and instructions which are deserving of disciplinary action.
(5) By personal supervision and frequent inspection, ensure that the spaces, equipment, and supplies assigned to his division are maintained in a satisfactory state of cleanliness and preservation.
(6) Report promptly to his department head any repairs which may be required or other deficiencies which need to be corrected.
(7) Carefully instruct his subordinates in all applicable safety precautions, and require their strict observance.
(8) Maintain an up-to-date copy of OPNAVINST 3120.32 Series and other orders for his division, and ensure that pertinent parts thereof are kept posted.
(9) Ensure optimum material conditions of readiness within his division in accordance with NWP 62-1.
(10) Supervise the administration of PQS within the division, providing personnel with guidance and incentives for the accomplishment of PQS. Select and designate Petty Officers qualified to authenticate completion of individual PQS qualifications.
(11) Initiate enlisted performance evaluation sheets for personnel of his division.
(12) Maintain a division notebook containing personal data, training program data, a space and equipment responsibility log, the watch and battle stations required to be manned, and such other data as may be helpful to the division.
e. Division (Chief) Petty Officer - Assists the Division Officer in the administration, supervision and training of division personnel, assigning cleaning stations, prepares requisitions and reports as required by the Division Officer. Performs division musters, passes information to the division. Generally is the senior enlisted in the division.
f. Work Center Supervisor - Leads a maintenance or work group. Required to be familiar with the Ship's 3-M System, responsible for the smooth operation and administration of the divisions 3-M/PMS program. Responsible to the Division Officer via the Division (Chief) Petty Officer.
g. Division Damage Control Petty Officer - Responsible for all division damage control equipment, trains divisional personnel, sets and/or verifies material conditions and assists the Division Officer in inspections of damage control equipment in assigned spaces.
h. Command Master/Senior Chief - Senior representative for the enlisted crew, he is in direct communication with the CO. Assists the Commanding Officer and Executive Officer in formulating policy that concerns the enlisted personnel of the command. The C M/C's advice is particularly helpful to the command on matters concerning the morale and quality of life for enlisted personnel and their dependents, as well as helping to solve personal problems or correcting situations that could be potential problems. Through the Command Master/Senior Chief, every sailor, regardless of rank or station, has a secure line of communications.
0101.3 Discuss the purpose of a shipboard battle organization.
The battle organization is designed to assign men with certain qualifications to specific tasks within a ship, for all conditions of readiness anticipated.
0101.4 State the purpose of the following battle organization elements:
a. Command and Ship Control - Command Control is exercised by the CO at his battle station. From this station he directs the ship's course of action in battle by exercising control over all the primary battle control stations. His main responsibilities are to inform primary battle control officers of his objectives and to render decisions in matters having major influence on combat effectiveness. Ship Control is under the immediate direction of the OOD who is located on the bridge. The main functions of ship control are conning, maintaining operational control and keeping other stations informed of the current situation. Conning is the act of controlling the ship.
b. Operations Control - Assists command control in planning the correct course of action and to assist command and key battle control officers in executing that plan. Operations control is collectively applied to those activities under the cognizance of the ship's Operations Officer.
c. Weapons Control - Provides centralized coordination and monitoring of missile systems and gun batteries. Part of Operations Department on board Kitty Hawk.
d. Engineering Control - Engineering Officer's battle station, located in a central control station. Supervises control of the main propulsion and auxiliary equipment.
e. Damage Control - located in a central control station, responsible for maintaining an up to the minute picture of sustained damage, repair party action, etc. Very important at GQ when lots of decisions are made.
f. Primary Flight Control - consists of the control of shipboard aircraft handling and those operations incidental to launching and recovery of aircraft. During flight operations, the Air Officer is responsible for these operations as well as the visual traffic control related to these functions. Balance of the ship must be coordinated with the Chief Engineer. (e.g. transfer fuel between tanks to balance the ship)
g. Mine Countermeasures Control - a collective term applied to all minesweeping and mine-hunting functions which are within a ship's capability to perform. EOD's assist the command in disarming and disposal of explosive materials.
h. Debarkation Control - the entry and exiting of personnel from designated stations. The ship's 1st LT must ensure all his equipment is in operating condition.
0101.5 State the purpose of the Battle Bill or the Ship's Manning Document.
The Ship's Manning Document is a relatively new system of accounting for some ships which, rather than basing crew assignments on billets in the battle bill, relates tasks to man hours as already implemented in the Navy's 3-M System. Each ship included on this system is supplied with rates and ratings that are outlined in the SMD (Ship's Manning Document) for that class of ship.
0101.6 Describe your ship's underway watch organization.
(TO BE ADDED)
0101.7 Describe your ship's in-port watch organization.
(TO BE ADDED)
0102 SURFACE SHIPS' CHARACTERISTICS
0102.1 State the primary mission of each of the following major classes of surface ships:
a. DD - escort and protect carrier task forces or
amphibious forces from air, surface and submarine attack and track down and destroy submarines in hunter/killer operations. Provide valuable missile (Harpoon) and gunfire support in attacks on shore or surface targets. Versatile work horse.
(i.e. USS Spruance DD-963 and DD-991 USS Fife (Spruance Class)
b. DDG - same as above with surface to air missile capabilities. (i.e. USS Callaghan DDG-994 (Kidd Class) and USS Hoel DDG-13 (Adams Class))
c. FF - same as DD. with emphasis in ASW (i.e. USS Stein FF-1065 and USS Barbey FF-1088 (Knox Class))
d. FFG - similar to DDG, but with increased emphasis on ASW as a primary mission area. Has some surface to air missile capabilities. (i.e. USS Vandegrift FFG-48 (Brook Class) and USS Ramsey FFG-2 (Perry Class))
e. CG/CGN - conduct anti-air and anti-submarine missions, act as scouts, protect task forces from surface attacks, serve as control ship or flagship. provides support and cover for amphibious operations. May have staff aboard.
(i.e. USS Halsey CG-23 (Leahy Class), USS South Carolina CGN-37 (California Class) and USS Long Beach CGN-9 (one of a kind))
f. AO - fuel replenishment. (i.e. USS Willamette AO-180, USS Cimarron AO-177 and USNS Ponchatula TAO-148)
g. AOE - fuel, ammunition replenishment. They are fast combat support ships. (i.e. USS Camden AOE-2 and USS Sacramento AOE-1)
h. AOR - fuel, stores replenishment. (i.e. USS Wabash AOR-5 and USS Witchita AOR-1)
i. AFS - refrigerated replenishment. (i.e. USS Mars
AFS-1 and USS Niagra Falls AFS-3)
j. AE - missile and ammunition replenishment.
(i.e. USS Mount Hood AE-29 and USS ShastaAE-33)
k. LCC - command communications ship, serves as Head Quarters for task force commanders and landing force commanders. Are equipped with helo landing platforms. There are only two in the fleet. (i.e. USS Blue Ridge LCC-19 and USS Mount Whitney
l. LPH - transport troops and equipment for helicopter delivery. May also participate in ASW operations.
(i.e. USS Tripoli LPH-10, USS New Orleans LPH-11 and USS Okinawa
m. LPD - lands troops and equipment mainly by landing craft, can use helicopter if needed. They have a well deck where craft move troops or equipment out of. (i.e. USS Nashville LPD-13 and USS Raleigh LPD-1)
n. LKA - transport equipment, personnel, ammunition and supplies, often by helicopter delivery. (i.e. USS St. Louis
LKA-6 and USS Union LKA-106)
o. LSD - deliver waterborne landing craft via a floodable well deck in the after section. (i.e. USS Pensacola LSD-38 and USS Anchorage LSD-36)
p. LST - provide beach delivery of tanks, artillery and logistic vehicles via a nested bow ramp. (i.e. USS Newport
LST-1179 and USS Fairfax County LST-1193)
q. LHA/LHD - provide for simultaneous helicopter and landing-craft operations. Some have Harrier V/STOL aircraft. (i.e. USS Tarawa LHA-1 and USS Belleauwood LHA-3)
r. MSO/MCM - a nonmagnetic ship used for minesweeping. Constructed of wood, aluminum, or fiberglass. (i.e. USS Affray MSO-511 and USS Enhance MSO-437)
s. ATF - a fleet ocean tug used primarily for towing. (i.e. USNS Navahoe)
t. ARS - ship salvage and diving operations.
(i.e. USS Conserver ARS-39 and USS Recovery ARS-43)
u. ASR - submarine rescue. (i.e. USS Pigeon ASR-21 and
USS Sunbird ASR-15)
v. AR - auxiliary repair and service. (i.e. USS Jason
AR-8 and USS Ajax AR-6)
w. AD - provide repairs and maintenance for destroyer type ships. (i.e. USS Yellowstone AD-41 and USS Dixie AD-14)
x. AS - provide repairs and maintenance for submarines and has mobile support capabilities. (e.f. USS Dixon AD-37 and
USS Hunley AS-31)
y. BB - shore bombardment with some surface to surface missile capability. (i.e. USS Iowa BB-61, USS New Jersey BB-62, USS Missouri BB-63 and USS Wisconsin BB-64)
z. CV/CVN - provide maintenance and support for an embarked air wing with multipurpose offensive roles.
(i.e. USS Midway CV-41, USS Forrestal CV-59, USS Kitty Hawk
CV-63, USS Enterprise CVN-65 and USS Nimitz CVN-68)
aa. PHM - intercept and destroy coastal shipping, carries out patrols, blockades and surveillance tasks.
(i.e. USS Pegasus PHM-1 and USS Taurus PHM-3)
0103 CASUALTY REPORTING (CASREP)
0103.1 Explain the purpose of a CASREP, including the conditions requiring its submission.
The Casualty Report (CASREP) provides the operational chain of command, supporting commands and other agencies with early information concerning equipment casualties that affect the combat readiness of the unit. The Casualty Report (CASREP) has been designed to support the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) and Fleet Commanders in the management of assigned forces. The effective utilization and support of U. S. Navy units and organizations require an up-to-date, accurate operational status for each unit. An important part of operational status is equipment casualty information. The reporting of casualties results in operational commanders and support personnel being advised of the status of significant equipment malfunctions which may result in the degradation of a unit's readiness. The CASREP also reports the unit's need for technical assistance and/or replacement parts to correct the casualty.
Units shall submit a CASREP as soon as possible but not later than 24 hours after the occurrence of a significant equipment casualty which cannot be corrected within 48 hours.
Through the submission of Initial, Update, Correction and Cancellation CASREPs, the current status of each outstanding casualty can be monitored. Through the use of high-speed computers, managers are able to collectively gather data concerning the history necessary to maintain and support units dispersed throughout the world.
Unit commanders must be aware that alerting seniors to the operational limitations of their units brought about by equipment casualties, is as important as expediting receipt of replacement parts and obtaining technical assistance. Both of these functions of CASREP serve extremely beneficial purposes. They provide necessary information, not only in the role of command and control of U. S. Naval Forces, but in maintaining the unit in a truly combat ready status.
A casualty is defined as an equipment malfunction or deficiency which cannot be corrected within 48 hours and which:
a. Reduces the unit's ability to perform a primary mission, or
b. Reduces the unit's ability to perform a secondary mission, or
c. Reduces a training command's ability to provide a major segment of its program, and cannot be corrected relatively quickly by local action alone.
Those units required to submit CASREPS shall do so within 4 hours of the time it is determined that the casualty has affected the unit's readiness status.
0103.2 Explain the information contained in the following:
Reports of equipment casualties are submitted utilizing a combination of two or more messages, depending on the situation and contributing factors. The four different types of CASREPs are:
a. CASREP - An INITIAL casualty report (CASREP) identifies to an appropriate level of detail the status of the casualty and parts and/or assistance requirements. This information is essential to allow operational and staff authorities to apply resources at the proper priority. Only one Initial Casualty may be submitted per CASREP message. An Initial CASREP may be submitted if a unit is in need of outside assistance only, i.e., no parts are required to correct an equipment casualty.
b. UPDATE CASREP - An Update CASREP is used to report information similar to that in the Initial CASREP. With the exception of the CASUALTY and ESTIMATES sets, only previously unreported casualty information, or information which has changed need be reported. A unit shall submit an Update CASREP for a casualty when:
(1) There is a need to complete information reporting requirements or to revise previously submitted information.
(2) The casualty situation changes, i.e. the estimated repair date has changed, parts status has changed significantly, additional assistance is needed, etc.
(3) Additional malfunctions are discovered in the same item of equipment. Inclusion of the date of receipt is required.
There shall only be one outstanding CASREP for each item of equipment. Additional problems or malfunctions on the same item will be reported via an Update CASREP and do not require the submission of a new Initial CASREP.
c. CASCOR - CORRECTION CASREP - A unit shall submit a Correction CASREP when equipment which has been the subject of casualty reporting, is repaired and back in operational condition.
CASREPs which report the correction of a casualty situation will include the following information in an AMPN set:
(1) The delay, expressed in hours, in correcting the casualty due to parts unavailability, caused by the supply system.
(2) A final parts status, including a list of all parts requests and dated received.
(3) The number of man-hours expended in correcting the casualty.
A Correction CASREP shall be submitted as soon as possible after the casualty has been corrected. Units are herein reminded that the correction of a casualty may affect the unit's readiness rating and may require the submission of a SORTS report to report the change in unit readiness.
d. CASCAN - Cancellation CASREP - A unit shall submit a CASCAN when equipment, which has been the subject of CASREP, is scheduled to be repaired during an overhaul period or other scheduled availability. Outstanding casualties which are not to be repaired during such availability shall not be cancelled and shall be subject to normal follow-up procedures as previously specified.
A Cancellation CASREP shall be submitted upon the commencement of the availability period during which the casualty will be corrected.
Casualty Categories - A Casualty Category is associated with each reported equipment casualty. The category (2,3 or 4) reflects the urgency or priority of the casualty.
CASUALTY CATEGORIES EQUIPMENT CRITERIA
1 DELETED ________________________________________________________________
2 a. A deficiency exists in mission
essential equipment which causes a minor degradation in
any primary mission, or a major degradation or total loss of a secondary mission.
b. The unit must have reported an
Equipment Readiness Resource-
Specific Rating of 2, 3 or 4
in primary missions affected
by this casualty.
3 a. A deficiency exists in mission
essential equipment which
causes a major degradation but
not the loss of a primary mission.
b. The unit must have reported an
Equipment Readiness Resource-
Specific Rating of 3 or 4 for
a primary mission affected by
4 a. A deficiency exists in mission
essential equipment that is
worse than casualty category 3, and causes a loss of at
least one primary mission.
b. The unit must have reported an
Equipment Readiness Resource-
Specific Rating of 4 for a
primary mission affected by this casualty.
0103.3 Discuss the interrelation between a CASREP and the following:
a. 3-M System - The critical nature of requisitions submitted for Casualty Reports (CASREPs) make complete and accurate reporting of the related 3-M MDS essential.
b. Supply System - The Supply Officer will furnish equipment casualty parts and MILSTRIP information to maintenance personnel for the preparation of CASREPs in accordance with NAVSUP Publication 485. Prior to release of the CASREP message, the Supply Officer will personally review the message to ensure that the repair parts information is complete and accurate.
0104 MOVEMENT REPORT (MOVREP)
0104.1 Discuss the purpose of the MOVREP.
It is the primary source of location information for Navy, Coast Guard and MSC ships. The purpose of the MOVREP system is to collect location data, process the information by applying dead reckoning (DR) routines as applicable and distribute current location information to all with a "need to know" in the operational and administration chains of command. Movement report data resides on the same data base as employment schedule (EMPSKD) data, casualty report (CASREP) data and status of resources training systems (SORTS) data. This information comprises the Navy Status of Forces (NSOF) file within the Navy WWMCCS Software Standardization (NWSS) systems data base. The Navy Command Center at CNO and the Fleet Command Centers (FCC) at CINCLANTFLT, CINCPACFLT and CINCUSNAVEUR utilize NSOF data to provide a timely and accurate presentation of assigned assets. As required, this data is forwarded to the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Command Authority. The MOVREP system provides the World Wide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS) with ship location information. Movement information is normally submitted by message.
A unit must send a formatted MOVREP, message within 48 to 24 hours prior to getting underway and must send an arrival report immediately after arrival. The MOVREP system does not require communications from a unit at sea, so long as the unit remains within prescribed tolerances along its planned move.
0104.2 Discuss the information contained in the movrep.
Access provides location, employment, ETA, ETD, mission and other similar information regarded necessary from an operational force.
0105 LOGISTICS REQUIREMENT (LOGREQ) REPORT
0105.1 Explain the purpose and time of submission of a LOGREQ request.
Unless otherwise directed by operation orders, area commanders, or SOPA instructions, prior to the arrival of a commissioned naval or fleet auxiliary ship at any U.S., British, or Canadian port, the CO shall make known to appropriate naval authority the logistic requirements (LOGREQ) of his ship during the period in port. This information is submitted by speedletter where possible, but is usually sent by message so as to be received at least three working days prior to ships ETA. Ships proceeding in company will furnish this information to the senior commander embarked who will coordinate the data and submit it as a single message. These requests may be for stores that are needed, number of brows, number of cars on the pier, etc.
0106 STATUS OF RESOURCES/TRAINING SYSTEMS (SORTS)
0106.1 Discuss the purpose of the SORTS.
The Status of Resources/Training Systems (SORTS) Report is the principal report within the U. S. Navy and Military Sealift Command (MSC) to provide combat readiness data to the National Command Authority (NCA), the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), fleet commanders-in-chief (e.g. CINCUSNAVEUR, CINCLANTFLT), and other operational commanders.
The SORTS is constructed in a computer-readable format to enable automated updating of the Navy Status of Forces (NSOF) data base within the Navy Command and Control System (NCCS)/World Wide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS).
0107 NAVAL SUPPLY
0107.1 Discuss how repair parts and the consumable items are ordered from the supply department, including the following:
a. How an item's National Stock Number (NSN) is determined.
(1) The National Stock Number (NSN) for an item of supply consists of a four digit Federal Supply Classification (FSC - Group and Class), and a nine digit National Item Identification Number (NIIN).
(2) Three methods of obtaining information on an NSN are available:
(a) Entry into the supply catalogs with a known NSN, which may or may not be current. NSN may be checked in the Master Cross Reference List (MCRL) to obtain most current NSN.
(b) Entry into the supply catalogs with a reference number. Cross the reference number in the MCRL to obtain the NIIN, verify the Federal Supply Code (FSC) for Manufacturers coincides with that of the manufacturer of the part.
(c) The NIIN for a common-use item may be found by entry into the Afloat Shopping Guide (ASG) or General Services Administration (GSA) Catalogs using a noun name/physical characteristics description. The ASG is sequenced by Federal Supply Groups (FSG) and Classes (FSC). A noun-name to item number index for the ASG is contained in the Introduction and Master Index.
b. Data required on an ordering document - the following DATA BLOCKS must be filled in prior to submission for issue of material:
BLOCK A, SEND TO - Identification of the supply source
BLOCK B, REQUISITION IS FROM - Identification of requisitioner (e.g. USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63)
BLOCK C - at the discretion of the Supply Officer
Card Column (CC) 8-22, STOCK NUMBER - the four-character Federal Supply Classification is entered in CC 8-11; the two character National Classification Bureau (NCB) code and the remaining seven characters of the NIIN are entered in CC 12- 20. When applicable to a designated item, the two-character Special Material Identification Code (SMIC) must be entered in CC 21-22.
Card Column 23-24 UNIT OF ISSUE - enter the two-letter Unit of Issue abbreviation for the item being requisitioned. (e.g. Each = EA, Pound = LB, Hundred = HD, etc.)
Card Column 25-29, QUANTITY - enter the quantity of the item required. Match Quantity and Unit of Issue carefully.
Card Column 30-43, DOCUMENT NUMBER
CC30 - Service Designator Code, V=Ship; N=Navy Shore Base
CC31-35 - Requisitioner's Unit Identification Code
(CV 63 = 03363)
CC36-39 - Julian Date of the requisition
CC40-43 - Serial Number of the requisition
Card Column 44, DEMAND - ___________________________________
Card Column 45-50, SUPPLEMENTARY ADDRESS - Service Code/UIC
Card Column 51, SIGNAL - single alphabetic code that designates the activity to receive the material (Ship To) and the activity to be charged for the issue (Bill To).
Card Column 52-53, FUND CODE - two-character code entered in all requisitions except for free issues which are identified in CC-51 by a Signal Code D or M. CC 52-53 is left blank on a free issue requisition.
Card Column 54-56, DISTRIBUTION - CC54 indicates a monitoring activity, usually blank, CC55-56 indicates the cognizance symbol.
Card Column 57-59, PROJECT - three-character entry used to identify the purpose or nature of the requirement.
Card Column 60-61, PRIORITY - numeric code assigned by the requisitioner to indicate the mission of the requisitioner and the urgency of need for the material.
Card Column 62-64, REQUIRED DELIVERY DATE (RDD) - _________
Card Column 65-66, ADVICE - provides specific instructions or required information to the supplier.
c. How a work center supply log is maintained - The Work Center Supervisor shall assign a separate JSN for each maintenance action reported from that work center. These JSNs shall be in sequential order. He shall ensure that an identical JCN is assigned to the maintenance action and to any material request associated with it.
d. How does the 3-M System interface? - Proper material control is essential for maintaining adequate supply support of the 3-M System. The information reported in supply documents is used to determine COSAL quantities and to perform engineering analysis of equipment problems.
0107.2 Discuss the use and maintenance of the ship's Coordinated Shipboard Allowance List (COSAL), including ways to keep it up-to-date with configuration and equipment changes.
a. The COSAL is the list of all operating equipment and equipage aboard a particular ship. It is broken down into three parts:
(1) Part 1 - Lists all equipment and major components
(2) Part 2 - List of repair parts associated with each piece of equipment/major component listed in Part 1. (Anything listed in Part 2 is available aboard ship?)
(3) Part 3 - NIIN sequence list of authorized on-board allowance quantity for a repair part. Items that are common to more than one department are totaled in this section. Part 3 will tell how many are to be on board and how many are allotted to each department.
b. Updating of the COSAL is accomplished utilizing the OPNAV 4790/CK Configuration Change Form. The 4790/CK reports additions, deletions, shipalts, and changes required to support equipment on-board but not COSAL supported. May also have support removed for equipment not on board.
0107.3 Discuss the purpose of an Allowance Change Request (ACR) (NAVSUP 1220-2), including the situation requiring its submission.
An ACR is submitted to request a revision to an authorized published allowance list. The ACR is utilized to request a revision to either a repair part allowance or a revision to the allowances for equipment/components or equipage.
0107.4 Explain use of a Configuration Change Form (OPNAV 4790/CK), a PMS Feedback Report (PMS FBR) (OPNAV 4790/7B) and a Fleet COSAL Feedback Report (FC FBR) (NAVSUP 1371(4-80)).
a. OPNAV 4790/CK - The importance of configuration change reporting cannot be overemphasized. Whenever any system, equipment, component or unit within the ship is installed, removed, modified, or relocated, the change MUST be reported. This action will ensure proper accounting of configuration changes, and will improve supply and maintenance support to the fleet.
b. OPNAV 4790/7B - The PMS FBR is a form used by fleet personnel to notify the NAVSEACEN and/or TYCOM, as applicable, of matters related to PMS. The FBR is a five-part form composed of an Original and four copies. There are two categories of FBRs:
(1) Category A - Non-technical in nature and is intended to meet PMS needs which do not require technical review, order replacement MIPs/MRCs only. Submitted directly to the NAVSEACEN.
(2) Category B - Technical in nature. Submitted to the applicable TYCOM and pertains to the following:
(a) Technical discrepancies inhibiting PMS
(b) Notification of shift of maintenance
responsibilities from one work center
(c) TYCOM assistance in the clarification
of 3-M instructions.
(d) Safety hazards encountered while
FBRs are submitted by the Work Center Supervisor via his Departmental chain-of-command to the Ship's 3-M Coordinator for dating and serialization prior to mailing to the TYCOM/NAVSEACEN.
c. NAVSUP 1371 - The Fleet COSAL Feedback Report (FC FBR) is used to request changes to inadequate, incomplete, or erroneous APL/AEL support. Completion instructions are printed on the back of the form. Whenever a FCFBR is submitted, attach copies of the reference material (drawings, TM excerpts, etc.). The FCFBR will be processed faster if accompanied by reference material.
200 SPECIAL OPERATIONS AND EVOLUTIONS
0201 SURVIVAL AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT
0201.1 Describe the functions of the following:
a. Ready Lifeboat - A boat rigged and ready for lowering in the event of a man overboard. Located on sponson seven. A boat crew consists of seven men; a boat officer, coxswain, signalman, corpsman, engineman, gunnersmate and boatswainsmate (bow hook).
b. CO2 Inflatable Liferafts - Provided to keep personnel out of the water and to provide shelter from the elements in the event of abandon ship. Kitty Hawk has 212 on board. Constructed of neoprene coated fabric (cotton or nylon). Liferafts can be released one of three ways:
(1) Trip manual release
(2) Cut retaining straps
(3) Water pressure in excess of 5 ft.lbs. will trip the automatic release. (approx. 10-40 ft.)
c. CO2 Inflatable Lifejackets - Used to keep personnel afloat. Carried in a pouch and fastened around the waist, inflated by CO2 Cartridge or mouth.
d. Inherently Buoyant (KAPOK) Lifejacket - Used by personnel working topside during hazardous conditions or evolutions to ensure flotation in the event the wearer falls overboard. UNREP and boat crews wear them at all times. Sometimes called the MAE WEST.
e. Yoke Lifejacket - Primarily designed for pack-carrying troops in an amphibious operation. It will keep a man afloat even with a full pack of gear.
f. MK-1 Lifejacket - Primarily designed for carrier flight deck personnel. It is also used by other topside working personnel when required.
g. Ship's Boat (excluding amphibious assault craft) - May be any such designated boat that is continuously made ready for contingency operations in emergency operations, or as directed. MK-10 is 26 ft. with a capacity of 18 people, 30 gallons of fuel, the diesel engine runs at 1800 RPMs cruising, 2400 RPMs maximum. The hoist weight is 6800 lbs. Kitty Hawk has two MK-10s and a paint punt which is located on the fantail.
0201.2 Describe the following as applied to CO2 Inflatable Liferafts:
a. Survival Gear - packed in a nylon bag with food and water for 25 men for 5 days. Includes an air pump, dye marker, first aid kit, flashlight, knife, paddles, sea anchor, signaling gear, water desalting kit and a whistle.
b. Hydrostatic Release - is secured by two nylon bands, one end of each secured to the outboard section of the rack and the other to a hydrostatic release. Released by pushing the pin located on the backside or by water pressure automatically when the ship sinks.
c. Sea Anchor - cone shaped, made of canvas,open at one end or both ends. Equipped with a tow-line at the large end and a tripping line at the other. Designed to keep the bow of the liferaft heading into the seas.
d. Medical Kit - contains emergency supplies, such as seasick pills, bandages, splints, etc.
e. Air/Sea Rescue Kit - has a combined day and night distress signal which is a hand-held pyrotechnic. Also has some navigational equipment. Point flare at a 45 degree angle away from the body and raft before firing.
f. Signaling Equipment - a mirror which can be seen from a distance of 8 to 10 miles, whistles, dye markers, and the pyrotechnics. Distress flares are for day and night use. One end of the signal tube produces an orange smoke for day use and the other end produces a red flare for night use. The night flare can be identified in the dark by a series of small bead-like projectiles embossed around it. The flares burn for approximately 18 seconds.
0201.3 Describe the proper procedures for donning each of the following items, including the methods of water entry:
a. CO2 Inflatable Lifejackets - carried in a pouch at the back and fastens around the waist. Enter the water by lowering yourself down a line or similar method. If it is necessary to jump, enter the water feet first on the windward side of the ship with arms crossed over the chest. Do not inflate the lifejacket until in the water. To inflate, pull the pouch around to the front of the body, remove the preserver and slip it over the head and jerk the lanyard downward. In the event of failure to automatically inflate, inflate using manual tube.
b. Inherently Buoyant (KAPOK) Lifejackets - tie the upper tape at the waist fairly tight to keep it from sliding up in the water. Adjust the chest strap and fasten the snap-hook into the ring. Tie the collar tapes to keep it snug under the chin, and pull straps between the legs from behind as tight as possible without discomfort. Enter the water same as in item a.
c. Yoke Lifejacket - preserver is placed about the neck and brought down in front. Tie tapes at the neck so they may be untied with one hand if necessary. The waist strap is passed to the front of the body and strung under the segment of straps stitched to the life preserver and snapped into quick disconnect studs. Adjust studs and straps snugly. Enter the water the same as in item a.
d. MK-1 Lifejackets - slide arms through armholes and snap in front. Water entry same as item a.
0201.4 Discuss the following in terms of safety precautions and considerations:
a. Overcrowding boats/rafts - it is the responsibility of the senior officer or petty officer in charge of the raft or boat to ensure that it does not capsize or overturn due to overcrowding. If too many personnel are in the boat or raft, they must be shifted to another less crowded craft. Shift personnel from boat to boat PRIOR to entering water.
b. Rotating personnel in the water with regard to time and water temperature - when in cold water, everyone must get into the craft as soon as possible. If it is necessary to stay in the water, keep arms and legs moving to prevent numbness, which can strike in as little as 30 seconds. Personnel in the water should be rotated every 5 minutes in moderate temperatures, and more frequently when the water temperature is lower. Hypothermia, a condition where the body loses too much heat, may set in if a person remains in the water too long.
c. Food/water conservation - survival at sea depends upon your knowledge, your self-control, and your training. The time to find out as much as possible about survival and rescue at sea is before you abandon ship not after you find yourself in the water. The one absolutely essential requirement for survival is drinking water. Without it, death will most likely occur in 8 to 12 days. Normally, a person needs about 2 quarts of water a day, but because of inactivity and lack of food, persons in a lifeboat can survive on as little as 6 ounces per day. If water is scarce, eat sparingly. Do not drink all of your daily water ration at one time, it is better to drink small amounts three or four times daily. Do not take any food or water the first 24 hours. Food is much less important for survival, however, than water. With water, a person can survive for 4 weeks or longer without food. Never discard any article that will hold water. Cover all open containers to slow down evaporation, and use those open containers first. During the rain, drink all you can hold.
0202 SPECIAL/EMERGENCY EVOLUTIONS
0202.1 Define the following:
a. Emergency Breakaway - An accelerated standard breakaway using an orderly and prearranged procedure. The objective is for the receiving ship to disengage quickly without damaging the rigs or endangering personnel. The commanding officer of either ship can order an emergency breakaway. The danger signal (5 short blasts) is sounded on the ship's whistle to warn other ships of the emergency action.
b. Collision - A violent crash between two objects having a steady bearing and decreasing range.
c. Hard Aground - A vessel lodged with its bottom aground that is unable to free itself without assistance.
d. Soft Aground - A vessel that is aground but that can free itself without outside assistance. Done by shifting ballast and reversing screws.
e. Special Sea and Anchor Detail - Expert navigation along with extra manning required when a ship leaves and enters port or anchorage or in close navigational waters.
f. Mine Countermeasures - Until 1971, all minesweeping was conducted by wooden-hulled boats and ships that steamed through suspected mined areas and trailed special minesweeping gear. In 1971 the helicopter came into use as a minesweeping platform, which resulted in an increase in the speed of sweeping an area and a decrease in the danger. The minesweeping helicopter is under the control of a specially trained shipboard Mine Countermeasures Helicopter Air Controller (MCMAC). H-53 helicopters are used to perform the towing.
0202.2 Discuss the effects of the following engineering casualties on the control of the ship:
a. Loss of lube oil - Will stop and lock the shaft.
b. Loss of vacuum - Necessarily limits speed. When vacuum level drops below normal, a RED alarm light in DCC will warn the EOOW. If the vacuum drops to 21 inches the ship's speed will be limited to 2/3, and at 18 inches the ship will be limited to 1/3 and eventually stopping ship's engines when vacuum drops to 15 inches.
c. Low water in the boiler - Secure boiler(s), shaft(s), and SSTG's. Will limit speed and maneuverability, and could cause an excessive steam temperature which might warp the turbine blades.
d. High water in the boiler - Same as low water. Wet steam droplets could form and act as FOD (Foreign Object Damage) destroying the steam turbine.
e. Loss of generator - All power stops, emergency generator takes over providing enough power to sustain vitals until repairs are completed.
f. Loss of pitch control - Will limit attainable speed.
g. Loss of steering control - Reduced control of ships heading.
h. Jammed throttle - Loss of speed control and maneuverability.
i. Jammed rudder - Loss of steering control.
j. Hot bearing on main engine - Requires the stopping of that shaft, resulting in loss of even thrust through the water and decreasing maneuverability and speed.
0202.3 Discuss the purpose and contents of the Abandon Ship Bill, including the following:
a. Who decides to abandon ship - The Commanding Officer after all efforts to save the ship have failed.
b. Word to be passed - "Prepare to abandon ship, nearest land is ___ degrees (magnetic), friendly/unfriendly, mileage, deep or shallow water destruction instruction". All headings are given in magnetic bearings so a compass can be used to navigate life rafts.
c. Actions of crew - Proceed to lifeboat stations for muster and further instruction.
d. Actions of personnel assigned to emergency destruction - Proceed to station and carry out duties when directed by the CO. In water less than 100 fathoms, important documents must be burned. In water greater than 100 fathoms, they may go down with the ship.
0202.4 Discuss how the following are used during the recovery of a man overboard:
a. Life ring/buoy - When a man is sighted in the water, a ring should be thrown as close to him as possible to provide flotation and make him easier to sight.
b. Smoke float - Thrown in the water in the vicinity of the man overboard to assist in spotting. After pulling the tab, this device has a chemical that activates when exposed to saltwater.
c. Strobe light - Attached to life buoys, it will automatically activate once in the water and provide assistance in spotting.
d. Searchlights - Activated during nighttime operations to aid the recovery team.
e. Rescue swimmer - Deployed from a rescue helicopter to assist in the recovery of the victim.
f. Lookouts - Under direct supervision of the OOD, they man stations on the fantail and sponsons to look specifically for the man overboard.
g. DRT/NC-2 - A DRT (dead reckoning tracer) plotter is indispensable when a man overboard situation occurs. When a man overboard is reported, a plotter must quickly mark the spot indicating the ship's present position, and change the DRT scale to 200 yds. to the inch. The ship's position must be determined where the person actually went over the side. A plotter then determines the bearing and range to the person every 15 to 30 seconds. The NC-2 plotting table utilizes five optical projectors for displaying own ship's and target symbols on the plotting surface. Own ship's position is located at the center of the polar diagram. During normal operations in the geographic plot mode, own ship's position (and, therefore, the polar diagram) move geographically across the plotting surface according to the DRT information supplied by the DRAI (dead reckoning analyzer-indicator).
0202.5 Describe the following man overboard recovery procedures:
a. Helicopter - To search wide area, or to provide immediate recovery ability. Useful in weather too heavy for motor whaleboats.
b. Boat - When the ship has slowed sufficiently for launch, the motor whaleboat will trek toward the target guided by signals, searchlight or radio. Most common method of recovery.
c. Shipboard - Under conditions of low visibility, weather is too heavy for boat recovery or it is believed that a person fell overboard some time previously but was not seen or heard, it is desireable for the ship to turn so as to pass back down her track. This is achieved by the Williamson turn. The turn is started using full rudder (30 degrees). When the ships heading is about 60 degrees beyond the original course, the rudder is shifted and the ship is brought around to the reciprocal of her original course.
When the ship is turned about lines, swimmers and/or cargo nets are lowered when alongside the target.
0203 UNDERWAY REPLENISHMENT
0203.1 Define the following:
a. Replenishment course - A predetermined course that will permit ships to maintain course with a minimum of stress on rigs, etc. The course is determined by the Delivery ship with considerations given to the mission of the battle group and the condition of the seas.
b. Replenishment speed - Speed maintained during the actual UNREP operation. Generally between 12 and 16 knots. Determined by wind and sea conditions and set by the Delivery ship.
c. Control ship - Local guide for the underway replenishment and is responsible for maintaining a steady speed and course.
d. Approach ship - Makes approach alongside the control ship and keeps station on the control ship.
e. Delivery ship - Normally the control ship, provides lines, rigs, etc.
f. Transfer station - A predesignated area aboard each ship where the rig is located and hooked up. Kitty Hawk's are located on the starboard side, with two fuel stations on the port side.
g. Underway replenishment group (URG) - Comprised of ships to be unrepped and delivery ships with OTC (Officer in Tactical Command) in charge.
h. Receiving ship - Ordinarily the approach ship, receives lines, rigs, etc. from the delivery ship.
i. Waiting station - An area approximately 2,000 yards aft of the delivery ship.
j. Lifeguard station - 1,000 yards astern of the delivery ship and mans man overboard stations.
k. Standby station - On your side of approach 300 to 500 yards astern.
0203.2 Discuss the following equipment:
a. Inhaul/Outhaul line - A line used to recover any piece of gear such as a trolley block. The vessel providing the gear retains the inhaul and sends the outhaul to the other ship. It consists of two wire whips connected at a trolley block.
b. Messenger - 800 feet of continuous graduated manila or nylon line used to bring the rig aboard.
c. Winch - The primary source of power for cargo handling and replenishment at sea rigs. Does all the inhaul/outhaul work.
d. Bolo - A nylon shot line with a padded lead weight. It is used in place of a line throwing gun.
e. Line throwing gun - Generally an M-14. Fires a projectile from the delivery ship to the receiving ship carrying a light nylon line. The exception to this is aboard aircraft carriers, who deliver the projectile to the delivery ship so as not to strike any aircraft.
f. P&D line - Phone and Distance line contains a salt and pepper phone line with different colored flags attached to tell the bridge how far apart the ships are during the day. The flags are colored green (00), red (20), yellow (40), blue (60), white (80), repeating out to 300 feet separated by 20 foot increments. At night, chemical lights (clusters of three) mark the 60, 100, 140 and 180 foot markers.
g. Fair-lead block - Usually a snatch block located at an area where an obstruction is to be bypassed.
h. Snatch block - A single sheave block with a hinged strap that can be opened and the bight of a line inserted.
i. King post - One of a pair of short, strong uprights used to support cargo booms and unrep rigs. 1 mainstay and 2 back-stays where delivery ship's stations are located. Most newer combatants have the king post located on the helo-deck or fantail.
j. Sampson post - Same as King post, except permanently mounted.
k. Riding lines - Four inch manila lines about 45 to 60 feet in length used for hogging to prevent double heads from popping out due to weight.
l. Tiedown lines - Used in securing various rigs and hoses.
m. Easing out line - A length of line that is secured at one end, with a bight thrown over the hook on the hose and run back to a cleat, allowing the hose to be gently retrieved. Used during high line operations.
n. Contour lights - Two blue lights shown by the control ship during the approach and while the receiving ship is alongside. If the control ship is over 600 feet in length, a third blue light is used. Blue lights are used to show the contour of the delivery ship and 6 red lights are displayed in a horizontal line along the deck edge or on a level with the highest obstruction outboard of the receiving stations landing or work area.
o. Whips - Wires 1/2 or 3/4 inches in diameter. The minimum length of a whip is 450 feet and is used for heaving in or slacking off.
p. Hose saddles - The two types of hose saddles for use with a 7 inch hose are Type A, which is 19 inches long and is used with the single hose rig; and Type B, which is 32 inches long and is used in the upper hose on the two hose rig. Both are flow through hose saddles, so hoses will not kink.
q. Ram tensioner - Hydraulic device used to keep a constant strain on the span wire. It consists of a ram cylinder, accumulator cylinder, air flasks and an indicator assembly.
r. Trolley - Connected to hose saddles and rides the span wire, used to bring hose over.
s. STREAM (Standard Transfer REplenishment Alongside Method ) - There are two basic STREAM rigs, the surf and concord. They are equipped with two hauling winches and are used for transferring cargo and ammunition.
t. Cargo drop reel - Device that lowers the load from the tensioned highline allowing the STREAM rigs to be used by ships having only fixed padeyes, a pendant station or support legs. Provided by the delivery ship and is attached to the STREAM trolley.
u. Sliding padeye - Raises and lowers the attachment padeye, bringing the rig down to the deck. Kitty Hawk has two permanently mounted to the overhead, one in hanger bay 1 and the other in hanger bay 2.
v. STREAM support leg - Combines the features of a fixed padeye and pendant receiving station. Generally installed on carriers.
w. End fitting - Any one of numerous fittings used for rig conversion.
x. Star assembly - An all tensioned wire rig with the highline and the inhaul and outhaul lines being tended by winches in the delivery ship. It is a bell shaped assembly which is bolted to the traveling surf.
y. Pendant receiving station - Being phased out of the Navy.
z. Span wire/highline - 3/4 inch diameter galvanized steel wire.
aa. Traveling surf - An all tensioned wire rig with the highline, inhaul/outhaul lines being tended by winches on the delivery ship.
ab. Probe/ROBB coupling - Used to receive fuel. The combined quick release (ROBB) coupling and valve consist of a female and a male end. The male end, rigged on the receiving ship, is the slightly tapered tube with a flange at one end. Despite the name, the ROBB coupling does not qualify as a quick release device because uncoupling is virtually impossible when the fitting is under strain. Any strain must be taken by the riding line, and to connect or disconnect the ends must be lined up perfectly. To provide for emergency breakaway, a breakable spool is inserted between the receiving ship's manifold and the male end. Only U.S. ships are fitted with the ROBB coupling.
ac. Surf block - Same as traveling surf block.
0203.3 Describe the duties of the following replenishment personnel, and their hard-hat/vest color:
a. Safety observer (rig and bridge) - Looks for unsafe practices during operations. Uniform consists of a white jersey and helmet with a green cross.
b. Rig captain - In overall charge of the detail. Uniform consists of a yellow helmet and yellow jersey.
c. Riggers - Connect and tend tag-lines, prepare for breakaway and disconnect the rig. Uniform consists of a blue helmet and jersey.
d. Signalman - Receives orders from the rig captain and transmits to the other ship. Uniform consists of a green helmet and jersey.
e. Corpsman - Maintains watch on station to provide first aid in the event of an injury. Uniform consists of a white helmet and jersey with a red cross.
f. Gunner's Mate - Mans his station with a line-throwing gun and spare shot lines. Uniform consists of a red helmet and jersey. Operates line-throwing gun.
g. Winch operator - Maintains even tension on the STREAM line. Uniform consists of a brown helmet and jersey.
0203.4 Discuss hand held police whistle signals between the delivery and receiving stations:
a. One blast - Prepare to fire.
b. Two blasts - All clear to fire.
c. Three blasts - Completion of firing.
0203.5 Discuss the following visual flag hoists when displayed by delivery ship or receiving ship:
The flags of a hoist are always read from the top down. When two or more are flying they are read from outboard to inboard, or from forward to aft. During unreps, the hoists are displayed on the yardarm toward the rigged ship.
a. Romeo at dip - 3/4 way up toward the point of the hoist. On the control ship this means - "I am steady on course, speed and am prepared to receive you alongside on side indicated". On the approaching ship this means - "I am ready to come alongside".
b. Romeo close up - Romeo is at the top of the hoist touching the point of the hoist, or as high as it will go. On the control ship this means - "I am ready for your approach". On the approach ship this means - "I am commencing my approach".
c. Romeo hauled down - Means the first messenger is in hand for controlling and receiving ship. Displayed at outboard yardarm.
d. Prep at dip - Expect to disengage in 15 minutes.
e. Prep close up - Replenishment completed and am disengaging at final station.
f. Prep hauled down - Means all lines are clear.
g. Bravo at dip - Displayed where best seen. On the control ship means - "I have temporarily stopped supplying". On the receiving ship it means - "I have temporarily stopped receiving".
h. Bravo close up - On both ships this means fuel or explosives are being transferred.
i. Bravo hauled down - On both ships this means delivery is complete.
0204 SHIPBOARD POLLUTION ABATEMENT
0204.1 State the purpose of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs).
MSDs enable ships to comply with sewage discharge standards without compromising the ship's mission capabilities such as limiting the ship's speed.
0204.2 Discuss the principles of operation of all MSDs installed on your ship.
This may vary, however, a general example is provided. The CHT system is designed to provide the capacity to hold shipboard sewage generated over a predetermined period. The CHT system will accept soil drains from water closets and urinals, and waste drains from showers, laundries and galleys.
0204.3 Explain the function and general use of the following:
a. Oil Spill Containment Kit - Consists of absorbment mats, herding agent, rags, buckets, swab handles, etc. Used by the ship's oil spill team. On Kitty Hawk it is located on sponsons 1 and 5.
b. Oil Disposal Raft (ODR) (Donut) - Used for the off-loading of waste oil.
c. Ship Waste Offload Barge (SWOB) - Serves as an intermediate between a ship and pier risers.
d. Waste Oil Raft (WOR) - A small boat used to hold personnel who physically clean waste oil spills.
e. Oil Spill Containment Boom - Basically used to surround and contain oil spills until such time as they can be cleaned up. Made up of flotation devices strung together. These orange colored floating devices extend into the water 1 foot and above the water 1 foot.
f. Skimmer - Prepositioned for fast deployment, it physically removes the oil from the water by separation of contanimants from the water.
0204.4 Describe the action to be taken if a collection and holding tank (CHT) system component is leaking sewage in excess of its norm.
It must be reported to the Executive Officer, Medical Officer and Engineering Officer, and corrective action initiated to arrest the leak and then clean and disinfect the area.
0204.5 List the equipment, protective clothing and disenfectants used during sewage spill cleanup operations, and describe cleanup procedures.
Personnel should wear protective clothing consisting of coveralls, rubber boots, rubber gloves and hair covering as appropriate when contact with sewage is likely during maintenance or cleanup operations. In the event of a waste spill, the area should be flushed thoroughly and washed down with a detergent. Care should be taken to not pollute any other areas or systems.
0204.6 Explain why making potable water hose and sewage transfer hose connections/disconnections simultaneously is prohibited.
To insure no infectious diseases will be transfered, personnel who handle sewage hoses will not subsequently handle potable water hoses without first washing and changing into clean clothes.
0204.7 Describe the action to be taken if either food or potable water is suspected of being contaminated by sewage.
Suspected or contaminated water or food shall be dumped after being inspected by the Medical Officer.
0204.8 Describe the most common way that sewage can transmit infectious disease to personnel.
Hand to mouth. While performing daily functions personnel come in contact with sewage that may be contaminated and through normal activities becomes infected.
0204.9 Describe three activities that must not be performed by personnel repairing MSD components or exposed to sewage.
No eatng, drinking or smoking while work is in progress. Additionally, they will be directed to wash with soap and water prior to leaving the area.
0204.10 Discuss the distance for off shore limitations for disposal of trash, garbage, sewage and oily wastes.
Sewage cannot be dumped within 3 miles of shore. Oil and garbage cannot be dumped within 50 miles of shore.
0205 MINE COUNTERMEASURES
0205.1 Discuss the purpose of each of the following passive mine countermeasures actions taken by your ship when entering suspected mined waters.
a. Energize Degaussing - Used to counter Magnetic Influence type mines, that are activated when they sense a magnetic field change. Initiated by applying a current that is equal and opposite to the earths magnetic field making the ship look magnetically invisible.
b. Reduce Ship's Speed - Since Acoustic Influence type mines are activated by underwater sound generated by a passing ship, this will reduce the amount and amplitude of noise produced by the ship and its propulsion machinery.
c. Implement Quiet Ship Bill - Turn off certain equipment and limit the movement of the crew.
d. Post Mine Watches - Extra lookouts are posted to decrease the area searched by each watch and increase the probability of sighting a mine field.
e. Set Material Condition Zebra - Provides the highest material condition and watertight integrity in case a mine should detonate and damage the hull of the ship.
0301 SHIPBOARD PRESERVATION
0301.1 Discuss the purpose of the following:
a. Red Lead (quick dry) Formula 116 paint - General purpose primer for use on most surfaces except aluminum. It is no longer used on ships because it contains lead. Mare Island Green (Formula 150) has taken its place.
b. Zinc Chromate (yellow 84/green 84D) paint - An after pickling primer and general purpose primer suitable for exteriors. Mainly used on aluminum surfaces.
c. Formula 117 Paint - Wash primer pretreatment for metals.
d. Haze Grey Paint - For exterior vertical surfaces.
e. Deck Grey Paint - For all steel horizotal surfaces and
deck edging around non-skid
Machinery Grey Paint - For equipment, machinery and furniture.
g. Flight Deck Compound - Special nonskid coating.
h. Varnish - May be used as a vehicle or as a separate coating. As a vehicle it is a dryer or thinner. It can be used to enhance other paints or used by itself to coat woods.
i. Hand Wire Brush - Used primarily for light work on rust spots.
j. Power Tools - May be powered by electric motors or by air (pneumatic) motors. These include drills, power hammers and grinders. All power tools must be inspected and safety checked by qualified personnel before being issued for use.
k. Formula 150 - Commonly known as Mare Island Green. It is a general purpose rust resistant primer.
0301.2 Discuss the safety precautions to be followed for the following:
a. Using Paint - Ensure space ventilation, eye and breathing protection, and keep off the skin. Use waterless handcleaner for skin cleanup.
b. Using Primers - Ensure space ventilation, eye and breathing protection, skin protection, and use explosion proof equipment.
c. Using Varnish Remover - Ensure space ventilation, eye and breathing protection, and keep off skin. Wear rubber gloves, faceshield and a long sleeve shirt.
d. Using Turpintines, Spirits, Thinners - Ensure space ventilation, eye and skin protection.
e. Using Paint Removal Devices - Ensure space ventilation, eye and breathing protection and keep off the skin.
f. Entering Closed Spaces - DO NOT ENTER until applicable safety regulations have been complied with, e. g. gas free check and oxygen safe check.
g. Men Working Over the Side - When working over the side, you must wear a standard Navy safety harness with a safety line attached and tended by someone on deck. An inherently buoyant lifejacket must be worn over the safety harness. Tools and equipment must be secured to lanyards to prevent being lost overboard or dropped on personnel below.
h. Men Working Aloft - Before any work may be done aloft, permission must be obtained from the OOD. Prior to granting permission, the OOD will ensure all applicable emitters are secured and tagged. Safety harnesses and ball busters must be PMS'd and a thorough review of safety precautions while working aloft conducted.
0302 DECK SEAMANSHIP
0302.1 Describe the purpose of the following as applied to ground tackle:
a. Bitts - Cylindrical objects made of cast iron or steel. Arranged in pairs, either bolted or welded to the deck and are used for securing lines. Figure 8 the line 3 or 4 times and secure with a half-hitch. These lines are usually run over to the pier and are attached to bollards.
b. Chock - Heavy fitting through which mooring or towing lines are passed. There are three types of chocks: closed, open and roller.
c. Cleat - Device consisting mainly of a pair of projecting horns used to secure a line. Figure 8 the line and secure it with a half-hitch.
d. Bullnose - Closed chock on the bow used for leading the bowline. Located at the very forward section of the bow and is used to tow the ship.
e. Hawse Pipe - Located at the bow of the ship where the anchor is housed and the chain runs through as the anchor is let go.
f. Chain Pipe - Pipe where the chain passes through, leading from the forecastle deck to the chain locker. Kitty Hawk's chain pipe reaches from the aft part of the forecastle down five decks to the chain locker.
g. Anchor - A device used to hold a ship or boat fast to the bottom. Kitty Hawk has two standard MK 2 stockless type weighing 30 tons each.
h. Chain Stopper - Used to hold anchor taut in the hawse pipe. Consists of a pelican hook, turnbuckle, shackle and two detachable links.
i. Pelican Hook - A hook used to provide instantaneous release of the anchor while under strain by knocking away the locking ring that holds it, or to hold the anchor fast. There is always one BM there to knock it loose, and another to pull him away by means of a safety line when the chain starts feeding out.
j. Turnbuckle - Used to set-up the chain stopper tightly. Also used to equalize strain on two chain stoppers.
k. Anchor Windlass - Electric motor used to haul in the anchor chain.
l. Gypsy Head - Cylindrical device at the end of the shaft or a winch on horizontal shaft windlass on which the turns of a line or wire are taken for heaving. Also called a Cathead. Used extensively during UNREP. When you let line out on a gypsy head, you are surging.
m. Capstan - Cylindrical device at the end of a vertical shaft windlass on which the turns of the line or wire are taken for heaving hawsers.
n. Detachable Links - Used to join two shots of anchor chain. The Kitty Hawk's weigh 364 lbs. each.
o. Chain Markings - RED, WHITE OR BLUE markings on detachable links. Used to mark each fathom of chain and to give warning of the approaching bitter end. The next to the last shot is lpainted YELLOW, and the last shot is all RED. If the identifying paint is worn off the shot can be identified by the number of turns of wire on the detachable link for that particular shot. Kitty Hawk has 12 shots of chain or 1080 feet per anchor.
Color of Number of Turns of
Detachable Adjacent Links Wire on Last
Shot Number Link Painted White White Link
1 (15 fathoms) Red 1 1
2 (30 fathoms) White 2 2
3 (45 fathoms) Blue 3 3
4 (60 fathoms) Red 4 4
5 (75 fathoms) White 5 5
6 (90 fathoms) Blue 6 6
p. Wildcat - It is a device fitted with ridge whelps, which engage the links of chain and prevent it from slipping while holding the anchor. It has 5 speeds forward and reverse.
q. Brake - Used to temporarily hold chain during anchoring while the chain stopper is being let go. It is also used to completely stop the chain during anchoring to prevent the chain from piling on top of the anchor. Kitty Hawk has a two brake system consisting of a friction brake and a motor operated hydraulic brake.
r. Anchor Buoy - A small buoy secured by a light piece of line to the anchor to indicate the position of the anchor.
0302.2 Define the following as applied to marlinspike seamanship.
a. Hawser - Heavy line of fiber that is over 5 inches in circumference, used for towing or mooring.
b. Line - A piece of rope, either fiber or wire, which is in use or has been cut for a specific purpose, such as lifeline, heaving line or lead line.
c. Wire - Individual wire is made of steel or other metal laid together to form strands. The number of wires in a strand depends on the intended purpose or use.
d. Spring Lay - A rope in which each strand consists partly of wire and partly of fiber. It is composed of six main strands laid around a fiber core. It will show fish hooks after it has been stressed.
e. Small Stuff - A general term used for any fiber line less than 1-1/2 inches in circumference. It can also be classified by the number of yarns (threads) it contains.
f. Flemish - Method of disposing a line by coiling it tightly flat on deck with the second inside the first, and so on. Can also be used for fancy work by forming mats around the deck of the CO's gig.
g. Coil - Lay the line in circles, roughly one on top of the other.
h. Fake - The act of disposing a line, wire or chain by laying it out in long, flat bights, laid one alongside the other to prevent tangling.
i. Heaving Line - Light cotton cord or sash, weighted line thrown across to a ship or pier when coming alongside to act as a messenger for a mooring line.
j. Monkey Fist - Weighted knot in the end of a heaving line. Usually made up of 2 or 3 ounces of lead wrapped in a rag.
k. Rattail Stopper - A braided tapered line used on mooring lines to eliminate losing slack when doubling or singling up. Its purpose is to hold tension while tieing off to bitts. The rattail is usually secured to an eye on the deck near the bitts. The tension goes from the CAPSTAN to RATTAIL to BITTS.
l. Marlin - Two strand, left-laid tarred hemp small stuff. Used to tie down loose gear in the hanger and the shops.
m. Bight - Loop of any rope, line or chain.
n. Bitter End - Inboard end of a chain or wire.
o. Eye - A temporary or permanent loop in a line.
p. Eye Splice - A loop formed at the end of a rope, by turning it back and splicing in the end strands. Used on mooring lines. You must have 3 strands minimum to start.
q. Long Splice - Joining two lines together when it is necessary that lines run over sheaves in a block. A long splice does not change the diameter of the rope materially.
r. Short Splice - Joining two lines together that are not necessarily of the same size.
s. Marlinspike - A pointed metal spike used to separate strands of wire in splicing and are available in various sizes.
t. Fid - A large, wooden tapered pin used to open strands of rope prior to splicing. Used instead of a marlinspike to prevent damaging the rope. An extra large one is called a COMMANDER.
u. Mousing - A small line strung across a hook. It is used to prevent slings or straps from slipping out of the hook and to strengthen the hook if there is danger of the load bending it or slipping off.
0302.3 Define the following as applied to mooring:
a. Mooring Line - Line used to secure a ship to a pier or another ship. The Kitty Hawk uses 14 lines of doublebraided samson, 8 inch for the bow and afterquarter and 6 inch for the breast lines.
b. Breast Line - A line that leads to a right angle to the centerline of the ship and controls the distance from the pier.
c. Forward Spring Line - Leads forward from the ship and keeps the ship from moving aft.
d. After Spring Line - Leads aft from the ship and keeps the ship from moving forward.
e. Bow Head Line - Runs through the bullnose and controls aft movement and assists the breast lines. Forward Spring.
f. Stern Line - Runs through the stern chock to control forward movement and assists the breast lines. Aft Spring.
g. Storm Line/Wire - Used as a reinforcement during heavy weather. If really bad weather conditions arise, the anchor can be dropped to help hold the ship.
h. Tattletale - A bight of heavy cord as light small stuff ranging from two measure points on the working line to determine when the safe working load has been reached. When it parts, the main line will go next. It is a 40 inch loop spaced 30 inches apart.
i. Round Turn - A 3-strand, right laid line. NOTE: Right laid line is always coiled clockwise to prevent assholes (a bulge) from forming in the line which weakens it.
j. Figure Eight Turn - Method used to belay a line to cleats or bitts.
k. Dip the Eye - Running the eye of one line through the eye of another line on the bollard. Permits casting off one ship without removing both lines. It is common courtesy between all seagoing mates.
l. Single Up - Take in all bight and extra parts of the double-up mooring lines so that only a single part of each line remains on the dock.
m. Double Up - To pass an additional line on mooring lines for extra strength.
n. Heavy Strain - Great tension on the lines, but they won"t part.
o. Moderate Strain - Intermediate amount of tension, allows enough surge for small movement.
p. Light Strain - Relatively minimal tension on the line.
q. Frap - Joining or wrapping two or more lines together for looks.
r. Rat Guards - Circular metal disks lashed onto mooring lines to prevent rats from boarding the ship via mooring lines. Medical Department requires these devices.
s. Chafing Gear - Made up of canvas and put on mooring lines under ratguards to prevent the lines from being cut or damaged.
t. Check - Slow or ease; to pay out just enough line to prevent its parting when under strain.
u. Stopper - A short length of braided line wrapped around another line to prevent it from running while doubling up or singling up.
v. Slack - To allow a line to run out.
w. Hold - To secure the line, to prevent anymore line from running out.
0302.4 State how lines and wires are classified in accordance with dimensions (circumference or diameter):
a. Line is measured by circumference if it is 1-3/4 inches or more; if less, it is described as small stuff.
b. Wire size is designated by its diameter in inches, rather than by its circumference.
0302.5 Discuss the difference between identical sizes of synthetic and natural fiber mooring lines with respect to the following:
a. Strength - Nylon lines are nearly 3 times as strong as natural fiber. b. Stretching Characteristics - Synthetic line has a high stretch point, but will resume its shape. This characteristic is called "memory". Natural fiber will stretch, but will not return to its normal shape, especially if wet.
c. Ease of Handling - The synthetic line is much more flexible and therefore easier to handle than natural fiber. Some knots which offer good characteristics for securing manila line, such as the square knot are not adequate for belaying or securing synhetic line. The coefficient of friction insynthetic fiber is lower than that of natural fibers which means that synthetic lines will slip more easily than manila. The bowline knot offers reasonable security.
d. Breaking Characteristics - Synthetic line has a higher breaking strength than natural fiber. A synthetic line parting under tension will snap back at near the speed of sound, giving no time for reaction.
e. Durability - Natural fiber is less durable because of stretch, dry rot, abrasions and lessened strength through wear. Synthetic line will last nearly 5 times as long as natural fiber. A major saving in dollar value.
f. Safe Working Load - To ensure long life, a line must be used within its safe working load. The SWL of line ranges from 1/15 to 1/5 of its breaking strength, depending on the type of line, the condition of the line, the weather, the blocks and other gear being used with the line. A tattletail cord should be attached to every line when it is subjected to loads that may exceed its SWL. The line, when tensioned to its SWL will stretch to a certain percentage of its length. When this point is reached, the tattletail cord becomes taut, warning that there is danger of exceeding the lines SWL. A line may be brought to its SWL without impairing the line or reducing its useful life.
0302.6 Explain the numbering sequence of standard mooring lines:
Mooring lines are numbered from forward to aft:
#1 - bow line, #2 - after bow spring, #3 - forward bow spring, #4 - waist breast, #5 - after quarter spring,
#6 - forward quarter spring, #7 - stern line.
Kitty Hawk mooring lines:
#1 - bow line #8 - waist breast
#2 - after bow spring #9 - after waist spring
#3 - bow breast #10 - after quarter spring
#4 - forward bow spring #11 - quarter breast
#5 - forward waist spring #12 - forward quarter spring
#6 - after waist spring #13 - stern line
#7 - forward waist spring #14 - stern line
0302.7 Describe the purpose of breast, forward and aft spring lines:
Breast - keeps the ship from moving away from the pier.
Forward Spring - keeps the ship from moving aft.
Aft Spring - keeps the ship from moving forward.
0302.8 Describe and discuss the purpose of "dipping the eye" of a mooring line:
If two bights or eye splices are to be placed over the same bollard, the second one MUST be led up and through the eye of the first and then placed over the bollard. This makes it possible for either line to be cast off independently of the other.
0302.9 Describe the ship's anchors and ground tackle, including the following:
(1) Patent or Stockless - used by most combatants because of ease of stowage and handling.
(2) Lightweight - two types
(a) Northill - for small boats
(b) Danforth - used as bow anchors on most destroyer ships.
NOTE: DD's, CG's and FF's have their anchors aft of the bow to prevent damage to the sonar dome on the bow
when dropping or raising the anchor.
KITTY HAWK HAS TWO (2) STOCKLESS MK II, 30 TON ANCHORS.
b. Chain Size and Length - 4-3/4 inches indiameter, and are the largest made. Kitty Hawk has 12 shots (1080 feet) of chain on each anchor.
c. Weight - Each link weighs 360 lbs. and the detachable links weigh 364 lbs.
d. Chain Markings - Every 90 feet or 15 fathoms (one shot of chain), the detachable links are colored red, white or blue. Each shot of chain is connected by a detachable link and is marked ahead and behind by a white link indicating how many shots have been lead out.
0302.10 Explain and state the use of the following:
a. Swing Circle - The ship swings to the combined effects of the wind and currents. It is necessary to have an unobstructed area equal to a circle whose radius is the length of the ship plus the scope of the chain used to have a safe arc of swing.
b. Drag Circle - The navigator can plot a drag circle using the actual anchor position as a center and the horizontal component of the anchor chain length plus the hawsepipe to bearing instrument distance (bridge) as the radius. Therefore, any bearing check, taken to determine if the anchor is holding, must fall within this circle, which is of smaller diameter than the swing circle.
0302.11 State the purpose and types of the boat davits aboard your ship, and describe their operation.
One of three types of davits are used on most ships, as follows:
a. Radial Davits - Also known as round bar davits, generally used for motor whaleboats. When the boat is stowed, the davits are pointed inward. To get the boat out to the lowering position it must be hoisted high enough for the keel to clear the skids and swing aft until the bow of the boat will clear the forward davit. It is then swung out, forward, and aft to the lowering position.
b. Crescent Davits - Used in all classes of naval ships. Can handle boats of 26-30 ft. and up to 7 tons. The arms are racked in and out by handcrank or power.
c. Welin Gravity Davits - KITTY HAWK HAS THIS TYPE OF DAVIT. Most commonly found on amphibious ships, but are also used with motor whaleboats. Consist of two track ways and davit arms fitted with rollers which travel in the trackways. Power is not required to lower boats. Welin Gravity Davits are rigged in such a way that when the falls are raised to the davit arms, continued heaving pulls the davit arms up to the stowed position.
0302.12 State the procedure of anchoring for your ship.
The ship's 1ST Lieutenant is in charge on the forecastle while dropping and weighing anchor. An Engineman (EN) or Machinist's Mate (MM) is present to operate the anchor engine, and an Electrician's Mate (EM) must be in the anchor engineroom to take care of any electrical failure. The 1ST Lieutenant has a telephone talker whose duty is to relay orders and information between the forecastle and the bridge. On ships with two wildcats, both anchors are made ready for letting go. The following tasks must be performed: the windlass is tested, the anchor in the hawse is freed, the anchor is walked out if anchoring in deep water or, if the bottom is rocky, the brake is set, and the wildcat is disengaged. All but one stopper is taken off and the anchor buoy line is shackled to the chafing chain or pendant. The chain locker is checked for any loose gear, such as chain hooks, that may become wedged in the chain pipes or come flying out, endangering personnel on deck. When the anchor is ready for letting go, that fact is reported to the conning officer of the bridge.
At the command "Stand by", the brake is partially released, and two seaman, one with a maul, take stations at the stopper. When the command "Let go" is given, one seaman puls the pin from the stopper tongue. The seaman with the maul knocks the bail off the tongue of the pelican hook and steps clear. As soon as the seaman is clear, the brake is fully released.
The chain is stopped completely by applying the brake to prevent the chain from piling on top of the anchor. The brake is taken off gradually, and the chain is laid out on the bottom as the ship moves ahead or back until sufficient chain is out to ensure that the pull on the anchor is horizontal. The brake is now applied and the anchor is set. Once the anchor is set and is holding, the brake is taken off and the chain is veered to the desired scope.
When the desired scope of chain is out, the order is given to "Pass the stoppers." The brake is set and the stoppers are applied and evened up, the brake is taken off, then the chain is slacked between the windlass and stopper. The brake is set, and the wildcat is left disengaged. The usual scope of chain is 5 to 7 times the depth of water.
0302.13 Define the following terms as applied to small boats:
a. Sea Painter - First line attached to the boat before getting in davits and brought aboard. It is a long, strong manila line that hangs over the side of the ship and is located forward of the spot where the boat will be hoisted. The eye of the sea painter is lowered to the boat by means of a light line, called a lizard line. The bowhook (BM) hauls in all the slack and secures the eye to the inboard bow cleat, the cleat nearest the side of the ship. The sea painter is never secured to the boats stem (dead on the center of the bow) nor to the side of the bow away from the ship. To do so would cause the boat to dive against the ship when the boat begins to ride the painter and probably capsize. It is important that the boat be driven ahead and allowed to drop back on the sea painter so it will be exactly under the davit before lifting.
b. Raymond Release Hook - An automatic releasing hook that cannot come open until the weight of the boat is removed from the davit. When the boat is lowered and the falls slacken, the weight comes off of the hook and the hoisting eye is thrown clear.
c. Man Lines (Monkey Lines) - Knotted lines that hang down into the motor whaleboat. Each person in the boat not actively engaged in the launch or recovery operation must keep a man line in hand during the lowering and hoisting process. Man Lines are provided for your safety.
0303.1 Define the following:
a. Surge - The motion in which the ship moves forward or ahead. The distance gained or lost while changing speed, for Kitty Hawk the general rule is 100 yards per knot.
b. Pivot Point - A ship's pivot point is the fore and aft location about which the ship pivots when her rudder is put over or when steering with engines. With the ship dead in the water, the ship pivots about a point 30 percent of the distance from the bow to the stern. When underway and proceeding ahead, the pivot point is abaft the stem about 15 to 20 percent of the length of the ship. Kitty Hawk's pivot point for low speeds is approximately at frame 70 on the centerline. This is abreast elevator #1 near the #1 Jet Blast Deflector (JBD). The location of the pivot point must be considered in turning into and out of the wind. Since a greater portion of the ship's sail area" is aft of the pivot point, winds from the port will tend to speed up a turn to starboard and slow a turn to port; and conversely, winds from the starboard side will tend to speed up a turn to port and slow a turn to starboard. The pivoting characteristics must also be considered in close maneuvering, as alongside another ship or when entering or leaving port with sharp bends in the channel. Failure to allow for lateral displacement of the stern as the ship turns can lead to hazardous conditions. A special
shiphandling problem is encountered with the added topside weight of the angled deck. Under normal conditions Kitty Hawk tends to heel more to starboard on port turns, than to port and starboard turns. In any event, turns which will result in large angle of heel in either direction should not be made when all aircraft are not tied down without PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS concurrence. Heeling should always be minimized. Unsecured aircraft could either roll off the deck or tip over. Whenever possible, all turns downwind during air ops will be to starboard to allow continued use of the starboard side elevator in the down position. Heeling is accentuated by speed. Below 12 kts, the ship can tolerate large rudder angles; above 25 kts, rudder angles above 5 degrees must be used with caution.
c. Side Force - May be defined as a force which walks the stern of the ship in the direction of propeller rotation. Clockwise direction of the screw tends to turn the ship in the opposite direction the screw is turning.
d. Shaft - A long rotating metal rod leading from the ship's engines aft through the hull connecting with the screw. Usually supported on bearings and carrying gears. The shafts on Kitty Hawk each weigh the same amount although the lengths are different for each. The shaft is a hollow structure filled with sand. The #2 and #3 shafts are 26.5 inches in diameter and #1 and #4 are 27.5 inches in diameter. When changing from full ahead to emergency reverse, the shaft can twist up to 1-1/2 times. Maximum shaft RPM is 170.
e. Screw - A device used to drive all modern ships, various number of blades and pitch. Kitty Hawk has 4 variable pitch screws, each having 5 blades and a diameter of 21.0 feet. The Kitty Hawk's screws have a designed pitch at .7 radius of 24.8667 feet per turn.
f. Target Angle - The relative bearing of own ship from the target craft, measured in relative bearing; bridge to bridge.
g. Bearing Drift - Direction of craft drift in relation to a permanent object. Bearing increase - right bearing drift, bearing decrease - left bearing drift.
h. Twist - On multiple screw ships, the effect of screws rotating in opposite directions.
i. Bow Thruster - A propeller in a fixed transverse tunnel at the bow used as a maneuvering assistance device on low speed operations. Found on LST's and most large slow speed vessels.
j. Steerage Way - Refers to the ability to maintain course with minimum way on.
k. Rudder - Device used to control ship's direction through the water. Angling the rudder to the flow of water creates a high pressure force on the leading surface and a low pressure force on the trailing side. This forces the stern in a direction opposite that in which the rudder is set. Kitty Hawk has two rudders, one behind shaft #2 and one behind shaft #3, each having an effective area of 490 square feet and weight of 50 tons.
l. Advance - The distance gained in the original direction prior to a course change. Advance will be a maximum when the ship has turned thru 90 degrees.
m. Transfer - The distance gained at right angles to the original course when the ship has turned thru 90 degrees.
n. Relative Bearing - The angular measurement in degrees between own ship's head and an object. Measured clockwise from 000 (dead ahead) to the line of bearing of the object.
o. True Bearing - The angular measurement in degrees between true north and the line of bearing of an object. Always measured clockwise from true north.
p. Auxiliary Propulsion Units (APU's) - Any system or unit of machinery that supports the main propulsion units or helps support the ship.
q. Skag - The additional support that helps hold the long portion of shaft that extends out the bottom of the hull.
0303.2 Using your Ship's Tactical Characteristics Folder, describe the following:
a. Location and Number of Screws - The Kitty Hawk has 4 variable pitch, 5 bladed, magnesium bronzed, 21.0 foot diameter screws numbered from starboard to port. The #2 and #3 screws are set deeper in the water for maximum power transfer. The #1 and #4 screws are outboard, and are used for maneuvering. The #1 and #2 screws are right hand twist (clockwise) and rotate counterclockwise, #3 and #4 screws are left hand twist (counterclockwise) and rotate clockwise.
b. Location and Number of Rudders - The Kitty Hawk has 2 L-shaped 25 foot rudders, behind screws #2 and #3, each having an effective area of 490 sq. ft.
c. Height of Eye of Bridge/Flying Bridge - 108'/114'
d. Length of Ship - 1069 ft. on the flight deck, and 990 ft. 9 in. at the waterline.
e. Beam of Ship - 273 ft. on the flight deck, and 128 ft. 2 in. at the waterline.
f. Location of Pivot Point - when the ship is dead in the water, the pivot point is about 30% of the distance from the bow to the stern. When underway and proceeding ahead, the pivot point moves forward as the speed increases until at normal operating speed, where it is abaft the stem about 15 to 20 percent of the length of the ship. Kitty Hawk's pivot point at low speed is approximately frame 70 on the centerline. This is abreast elevator #1 near Jet Blast Defector (JBD) #1.
g. Acceleration/Deceleration - Kitty Hawk accelerates rapidly up to 25 knots, after which acceleration is slow. Refer to chart.
NORMAL ACCELERATION/DECELERATION TABLE
| KNOTS | MINUTES | RATE |
| CHANGE OF SPEED | TIME REQUIRED | TTL ELAPSED | KTS PER | |_ FROM_________ TO_ |__ FOR CHANGE___ |____ TIME_____ |_ MINUTE__|
| | | | |
A| ZERO 15 | 3.3 | 3.3 | 4.50 |
C| 15 19 | 2.1 | 5.4 | 1.90 |
C| 19 24 | 6.2 | 11.6 | .80 |
E| 24 28 | 8.4 | 20.0 | .48 |
L| 28 30 | 8.0 | 28.0 | .25 |
/| 30 28 | 5.5 | 5.5 | .36 |
D| 28 25 | 4.3 | 9.8 | .70 |
E| 25 21 | 3.4 | 13.2 | 1.18 |
C| 21 18 | 2.0 | 15.2 | 1.50 |
E| 18 15 | 1.1 | 16.3 | 2.72 |
L|__ 15________ ZERO_ |_____ 3.2_______ |____ 19.5_____ |___ 4.70__|
LAG TIME X ACTUAL SPEED IN KNOTS X 100/3 = DISTANCE IN YARDS _____________________________________________________________ | |
A| 30 |
C| 25 1217 |
C| 22 260 2640 |
E| 20 70 608 3650 |
L| 19 12 140 800 |
E| 18 12 47 233 1015 |
R| 17 7 37 90 325 1213 |
A| 16 9 30 80 153 440 1440 |
T| 15 9 33 70 140 233 572 1683 |
I| 14 9 33 75 127 217 330 720 |
O| 12 17 33 100 167 240 362 507 983 |
N| 10 23 80 142 220 315 413 570 750 |
|__ 5__ 92_ 210_ 345_ 467__________________________________________|
LAG TIME X ACTUAL SPEED IN KNOTS X 100/3 = DISTANCE IN YARDS
D| 25 407|
E| 22 130 |
C| 20 50 341 |
E| 19 8 100 460 |
L| 18 12 40 180 618 |
E| 17 8 40 85 267 773 |
R| 16 5 27 75 133 350 914 |
A| 15 5 20 55 120 192 443 1066 |
T| 14 7 24 50 100 183 270 560 |
I| 12 20 50 87 133 210 327 440 799 |
O| 10 8 74 125 180 244 347 495 633 |
N| 5_ 108_ 200___ 345__ 450__ 550__ 660__ 823_ 1049_____________________|
Kitty Hawk handles very smartly despite her size. The factors to be considered by the Conning Officer are basically the same as for any other multishaft ship. However, the magnitude of some of these factors and therefore the forehandedness required of the Conning Officer, is somewhat greater than a smaller ship.
In conning, one of the hardest lessons to learn is to compensate adequately for momentum. Appreciable amounts of time are required for acceleration and deceleration due to the great mass of this ship. Kitty Hawk accelerates rapidly up to about 25 kts, after which acceleration is slow. In taking station in formation, using speeds in excess of that of the guide, 100 yards relative distance from station per knot of excess speed should be allowed using normal deceleration. The ship responds smartly to the rudders at 10 knots and above. With medium to high winds, 8 knots is the minimum practical maneuvering speed. When operating from 8 to 10 knots during high wind conditions with approximately 35 knots of relative wind desired for flight operations, it may be necessary to shift to maneuvering combination and use the engines to help start a turn into or out of the wind. Use of rudders has a marked effect on speed required for flight operations, remember that the ship will accelerate slowly during the turn into the wind. At speeds above 25 knots Kitty Hawk heels greatly with as little as 5 degrees rudder, easily causing serious injuries to personnel or the loss of an aircraft. One or two degrees of rudder is usually sufficient for amounts that may be required to hold a healing while steaming downwind.
The location of the bridge presents various problems to the Conning Officer. The bridge is offset approximately 95 feet from the centerline of the hull; this fact, combined with the tapered design of the flight deck, can cause the Conning Officer to misjudge where "dead ahead" (000 degrees relative) is. Objects that appear to be "dead ahead" are in reality well to starboard; while those that appear to be about 10 degrees to port are actually dead ahead. When either of the white lines on the flight deck forward of the pilot house are lined up, dead ahead is known. While transiting narrow channels or when in a column formation, it must be remembered that this dead ahead is in relation to the pilot house and not the centerline of the hull. Don't be guilty of actually taking up the left center portion of the channel or being well to port in column because the centerline pelorus shows the channel or stern of the ship ahead to be 000 degrees relative. (Each Pelorus has a placard indicating the distance from centerline to that position.)
h. Draft of Ship - Draft from the bottom of the keel is 33 ft. 9 in. and from the bottom of the screws is 36 ft. The navigational draft is 40 ft.
i. Turning Radius at Standard and Full Rudder - 15 degrees standard, and 30 degrees full.
0303.3 Discuss the usefulness of the following equipment/
devices in assisting the OOD to perform shiphandling duties:
a. Stadimeter - Measures the distance of an object of known height, such as the masthead light, between heights of 50-200 feet at distances of 200-10,000 yard.
b. 7X50 Binoculars - Gives a wide range of vision and are best suited for searching over a wide area or for following a swiftly moving target.
c. Bearing Circle - Device fitted over a compass bowl or repeater which allows taking bearings of terrestrial objects and azimuths of celestial objects by sighting through vanes. It has a simple flip up sight.
d. Telescopic Alidade - Used with a gyro repeater for taking visual bearings. Similar to a bearing circle except that the azimuth circle mounts a telescope instead of sighting vanes, for greater precision because the image is magnified. Because of the constant motion of the ship, it is sometimes difficult to keep an object in the telescopic field of vision. This problem has been overcome by development of the self-synchronous alidade. The self-synchronous alidade is mounted on a gyro repeater card and is stabilized by a synchro-motor driven by the master gyrocompass. When viewing the target, the outer circle is indicating relative bearing and the inner circle is indicating true bearing.
e. Anemometer - Measures wind force, speed and direction.
f. Rodmeter (Pitsword) - Contains a sensing device used to determine speed. As the ship moves through the water, the forward side of the rodmeter is exposed to dynamic pressure which is proportional to the speed of the ship.
g. Gyrocompass - Indicates true north, allows for more accurate navigational fixes.
Pelorus - Metal stanchion supporting a gimballed gyro repeater used by the helmsman to take bearings, consisting of a movable ring, graduated like a compass card and a pair of sighting vanes.
h. Radar - Surface scanning, navigational, plotting, target (air and surface) detection.
i. Fathometer - Depth assurance chart comparison, provides a very accurate reading at a wide range of depths.
j. RPM Indicator - Enables the lee helmsman to make minor changes in shaft speed by stepping up or lowering the indicated RPM speed. There is a permanent graph at the helm which gives the RPMs to speed conversion. Sometimes called an enunciator.
k. Auto Pilot - Device designed to automatically control the ship's predetermined course and speed.
l. Collision Avoidance System (RAYCAS) - An automatic navigation radar detection and tracking system that gives an audible and visual (marks the target on the repeater) alarm for contacts with constant bearing and decreasing range. Generally the maximum range utilized with RAYCAS is 24 miles.
m. Propeller Pitch Indicator - On ships equipped with controllable-reversible pitch propellers (CRP), indicates the pitch of the propeller at any given time.
n. Barometer - An instrument for determining the atmospheric pressure, useful in predicting weather. There are two types, aneroid and mercurial.
0303.4 Discuss the following factors relating to forces affecting the ship and describe the influence of each upon shiphandling.
a. Inherent Factors
(1) Rudders - Designed to produce the lateral forces used in the control of the ship's heading. The rudder force acts through the rudder stock, pushing the stern to starboard or port as the rudder is angled to the passing water.
(2) Screws - Produce forward thrust to propel the ship through the water.
(3) Freeboard - The vertical distance from the waterline to the weather deck, usually the main deck. It is determined by the ships mean draft. Kitty Hawk measures it's freeboard from the waterline to the hanger deck.
(4) Sail Area - The area above the main deck, which in strong winds will complicate maneuvering and require compensating navigational corrections.
(5) Screw Wash - Turbulence produced by the screws turning against the liquid medium. While twisting or operating astern, negatively effects a short radius turn by decreasing the efficiency of the rudder.
(6) Side Forces - Side thrust produced by the screw's rotation through the water. Noticeable at the stern of the ship. The twin screw ships cancel side force created by the rotation of the screws by turning one shaft clockwise and the other counterclockwise.
(7) Steerageway - Sufficient speed on to permit a vessel to be maneuvered.
b. Environmental Factors
(1) Wind - Normally acts to force the ship bodily downwind. The force it exerts is proportional to the square of the velocity of the wind.
(2) Current - The movement of water, force exerted on the hull is very similar in effect to the resistance of the superstructure to the wind, however, the force resulting is much larger for a given current velocity due to the density of water.
(a) Flood Tide - That period when a tidal current is flowing landward.
(b) Ebb Tide - That period when the tidal current is flowing from the land.
(c) Slack Water - That period between the Ebb Tide and Flood Tide when the current changes direction and no horizontal motion can be detected.
c. External Factors
(1) Mooring Lines - Assist in securing the ship along side.
(2) Ship's Speed through the Water (less than 5 kts) -Produces a sluggish ship which is difficult to control.
(3) Ship's Speed through the Water (greater than 5 kts) - Produces a lively ship, requires shorter turning area, etc.
1. Describe the navigation lights your ship must show under the following conditions:
a. Underway - in general, the ship must show a masthead light, sidelights, stern light and a range light.
b. In port, moored - in general, a mast light, jackstaff, bow, stern and aircraft warning lights. Shipboard lights are constant and land based lights are pulsating.
c. At anchor - two 32 point white lights, with one forward and another aft stationed, the aft lower than the forward light.
d. Engaged in Special Operations - in addition to normal underway lights, there are many required combinations of lights to be displayed when engaged in special operations (towing, underway replenishment, etc.). Example: When Kitty Hawk is engaged in underway replenishment operations, the vertical Red-White-Red combination on the mast is used to warn other vessels.
0304 BRIDGE EQUIPMENT SYSTEM
0304.1 Describe the function of the following component parts in terms of what each does for the system:
a. Helm Unit - Mechanical device used to control the rudder.
(1) Wheel - Operated by the helmsman. The steering control console controls and indicators required to control the course of the ship.
(2) Mechanical Helm Indicator - Shows the number of degrees the wheel is turned. Usually this is the same as the rudder.
(3) Rudder Angle Indicator - Dual purpose. During normal steering situations, it shows the actual angle of the rudder which usually lags the wheel angle indicator by about 2 degrees because of the time required for the steering mechanism to operate. For emergency steering, this instrument becomes useful in transmitting visual orders to the helmsman in after steering. By operation of the control knob, the rudder order is displayed on the instrument when the pointer marked "ORD" is moved to the desired rudder angle. The order is displayed in after steering on another rudder angle order indicator-transmitter, from which the after helmsman receives orders. A push switch next to the rudder angle order indicator-transmitter on the bridge operates a bell in after steering to call the helmsman's attention to a change in rudder angle.
(4) "Steer by" Indicator - Illustrates the course to be steered by the helmsman. It differs mainly from the ship's course indicator in that its dials are positioned from a synchro transmitter located in sonar, CIC, or other Weapons Control Station. This repeater enables sonar, CIC, or other station to steer without having to use a means of voice transmission.
(5) Steering Cable-Selector Switch - Allows selection of hydraulic, electric, gyro or aft steering.
(6) Steering Casualty Alarm - A means by which the pilothouse can warn the after steering station that a steering emergency has occurred and that steering must be controlled from after steering.
(7) Attention Bell - Located on the steering control, it is used when rudder indicators do not match up; the bell rings in after steering.
(8) Course Ordered Indicator - Provides a means of electrically transmitting rudder angle orders from the steering control console to the steering gear room when the ship is being steered from there.
(9) Magnetic Compass - Located in the pilot house, consists of a magnetized compass needle attached to a circular compass card, usually 7-1/2 inches in diameter. The card and needle are supported on a pivot that is set in a cast bronze bowl filled with a petroleum distillate fluid. The card remains stationary, pointing at the magnetic pole which is a north-south line lined up with the north-south (magnetic) directions on the Earth.
(10) Gyrocompass - Points constantly to the true rather than the magnetic north pole. It may have a slight mechanical error, but this error is computed easily and remains constant for any heading so that it does not interfere in any way with the instrument's practical value.
(11) Auto Pilot - Device used to automatically keep the ship at a predetermined speed and course.
(12) Portable Steering Control Unit (PSCU) - When a ship losses control of steering at the helm, the PSCU can be rigged to send throttle signals down to engineering and rudder commands to after steering.
b. Engine Order Telegraph - Equipped with separate handles for port and starboard engines used to control speed and direction of the ship.
(1) Bell Selector and Hand Lever - Speed is selected by the bridge, then the engine room watch sets the engine throttle for the same speed and notifies the bridge by moving an answering pointer to the same sector.
(2) RPM Enunciators - Enables the OOD to make minor changes in speed by ordering the engine rooms to increase or decrease RPM of the propeller.
(3) Attention Bell - Primarily used when speed changes are not answered by the engine room.
c. Bridge Alarms
(1) Collision - Sounded in event of impending collision. Has precedence over all other bridge alarms. Color coded YELLOW and shaped like a STAR.
(2) Chemical - Set off when chemical attack is eminent or detected. Color coded GREEN and shaped like a SQUARE.
(3) General - Serves to call crew to general quarters. Color coded RED and shaped like a CIRCLE.
(4) Helo Crash - Sounded in event of impending or actual helo crash on the flight deck. Color coded GRAY and shaped like a LEVER.
(5) FZ (Security) - Consists of a bell and indicator lamp which provides an audible and visual indication of entry into a special weapons magazine when the system is energized.
(6) Gyro - Provides an audible indication of a casualty in the gyro system.
(7) Magazine High-Temperature - Provides an audible and visual indication of high temperatures in a magazine.
(8) Magazine Flooding - Provides an audible and visual indication of flooding in a magazine.
(9) Sonar Contact - Initiated by sonar control, alerts the bridge and CIC of the contact.
(10) Engineering Casualty - The 26 MC is used to provide direct voice communications with the bridge in case of a casualty.
(11) Missile Warning Alarm - Sounded when the fire control tracking radar detects a high speed inbound target.
d. Information and Display Equipment
(1) Gyrocompass Repeater - That part of a remote indicating gyrocompass system which repeats at a distance the indications of the master gyrocompass. It is also used in taking bearings on objects outside the ship.
(2) Magnetic Compass - Located in the pilot house, consists of a magnetized compass needle attached to a circular compass card, usually 7-1/2 inches in diameter. The card and needle are supported on a pivot that is set in a cast bronze bowl filled with a petroleum distillate fluid. Marked on the compass bowl is a line, called the lubber's line, which agrees with the fore-and-aft line of the ship or boat. By reading the compass card direction, lined up with the lubber's line, you can tell the direction the ship is heading.
(3) Radar Repeater - Indicators that provide radar presentation at various locations. The indicator itself is not a radar.
(4) Rodmeter Repeater (Pitsword) - Indicates the speed of a ship and the distance traveled by measuring water pressure on a tube projected outside the ships hull.
(5) Rudder Angle Indicators - Dual purpose. During normal steering situations, it shows the actual angle of the rudder, which usually lags the wheel angle indicator by about 2 degrees. May also be used to assist aft steering.
(6) Anemometer Repeater - Provides display of wind speed and direction. The upper dial of the repeater is graduated in 10 degree intervals and shows the apparent relative direction from which the wind is blowing. The lower dial indicates the apparent wind speed (true wind speed when the ship is stationary).
(7) Inclinometers - Indicate the amount of pitch and roll on the ship.
(8) Shaft Tachometer - Indicates shaft RPM.
(9) Status Boards - Provides a listing of current tactical information for the OOD.
(10) MK 78 Position Indicator - A repeater unit that provides a display of the ship's target and tactical information.
(11) Fathometer UQN-1H - Used primarily for navigational purposes as an aid in gathering depth information for oceanographic topography and occasionally as a sonar contact classification aid. 100 to 1000 feet with CRT on the bridge, or 600 to 6000 feet with graph.
(12) Electronic Navigational Display Equipment
(a) LORAN (LOng RAng Navigation) - Enables a navigator to determine his ship's position by means of radio signals broadcast by stations of known position.
(b) RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) - Developed originally as a means of detecting and ranging on targets in warfare, but it has been developed to the point where it is a valuable electronic navigational aid.
(c) SATNAV (Navigation by Satellites) - A global, all-weather system. Navigators in ships on or below the ocean surface can obtain a fix to within a fraction of a mile, night or day, in all parts of the world.
(d) OMEGA - Enables navigators to obtain reliable positions comparable in accuracy to LORAN on a worldwide and nearly continuous basis, when the system is in full operation, with only eight transmitting stations.
(e) Several other electronic navigational systems that are available but less widely used in the Navy are Decca, Consol, Shoran, Star Tracker, SINS, and NAVDAC.
(13) Bridge Wing Display Unit (BWDU) - Provides for a readout of rudder angle, gyro repeater, propeller pitch and RPM indicator.
(14) Barometer - An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
e. Navigation Light Panels - Control, supply and telltale panel. Provides an audible and visual signal when the primary filament burns out in any one of the five running lights, and automatically switches to the second filament so the lights remain in service.
f. Communications Equipment
(1) Secure/Unsecure Radiotelephone (R/T) Handsets and RHMS Controls - Provide for secure voice communications between various units of the fleet. Unsecured provides voice or teletype communications between various units through UHF, VHF and HF transceivers.
(2) Sound-powered Phones and Growlers - Primary source of shipboard communications as they require no external power for operation.
(3) Ship's Whistle - Used primarily for warning other ships of your own ship's intentions or executions. Two blasts for port turn and one blast for starboard turn, five or more emergency.
(4) General Announcing System (1MC) - Central amplifier announcing system designed to furnish amplified voice communications and alarm signals to the various speaker systems aboard ship, which cover the entire ship.
(5) 21MC - CO's command circuit which provides communications with various command stations such as CIC, MAIN Control, etc.
(6) Voice Tubes - Used as a means of communications from secondary conn to the bridge and the conning officer and bridge watches. On smaller ships, used for communications between the bridge and CO's cabin.
(7) Pneumatic Tube - Provides for communications between radio, CIC, the bridge and other strategic locations by means of written messages without the possibility of interception.
(8) Call Bell/"E" Call System - Has various circuits for notification of communications.
(9) Ship's Service Telephone - Provides for the connection of various dial telephone stations throughout the ship via a telephone switchboard. Kitty Hawk has 2400.
(10) Underwater Telephone - Use primarily during EMCON conditions for communications between various units, with a range of 3 to 4 miles. Commonly called GERTRUDE.
0304.2 Describe the override priority of the collision, chemical, general, helo crash alarms and voice transmissions over the 1MC; identify the control switch color and describe the sounds of the alarms.
From highest to lowest priority as follows: Collision (YELLOW), Chemical (GREEN), General (RED), Helo Crash (GRAY).
0304.3 Describe the function and location of the following components and component parts:
a. Dial Telephone System (Similar or same as ship's service telephone)
(1) Switchboard - Provides the means of connection between various dial telephone stations throughout the ship. Kitty Hawk's switchboard is located in AFT IC room.
(2) X1J Sound Power Phone System (as applicable) - Auxiliary ship administration circuit.
b. General Announcing System (1MC) - Primary ship-wide communications. (1) Transmitting Stations - Quarterdeck, bridge and AA Stations. Provides the means of connection of the microphone and switches for the various receiving groups.
(2) Transmitting Station Microphone - Provides means for voice communication using the 1MC. Located at each transmitting station.
(3) Transmitting Station Selector Switches - Allows for the selection of one or more circuits from the transmitting station. Located at each station.
(4) Receiving Stations - Speakers and loudspeaker groups located in various compartments and work spaces, including topside and throughout the ship.
c. Carbon Dioxide Release Alarm (FR) - Produces an audible and visual alarm warning of carbon dioxide presence in specific compartments, such as the paint stowage locker, missile magazine, flammable storage areas, etc.
d. Flooding Alarm (FD) - In specific compartments, will provide an audible warning of flooding. Also, flooding is announced over the 1MC to alert the response team.
0305 NAVAL GUN SYSTEMS
0305.1 Describe the function and location of the following major components:
a. Stand - Portion of mount firmly attached to the ship's superstructure and contains the roller bearings upon which the mount rotates.
b. Training Circle - A large internal spur gear bolted to the stand. A large pinion gear in the train gearing meshes with the training circle. When this pinion is rotated the pinion walks around the training circle, turning the mount.
c. Carriage - Normally made up of two parts, the base and gun carriage. The base is a platform which supports the gun carriage and rotates on the stand. The gun carriage supports the gun assembly in the pivot points, called trunnion bearings.
d. Trunnions - A part of the gun mount slide. The center of rotation in elevation movements.
e. Slides - Does not actually slide, but are fitted bearing surfaces which support and guide the sliding (recoiling) barrel and housing parts of the gun that move in elevation.
f. Housing - Main support of recoiling gun parts and moves within the slide during firing. The housing contains the breech assembly, barrel (which is locked to the housing by a bayonet joint) and a locking key.
g. Barrel - A rifled tube closed at one end to contain the pressure of the rapidly burning powder and expanding gases. The thick rear end of the barrel is attached to the breech housing. Forward of the breech end is an enlarged chamber that holds the propelling charge. The forward end of the chamber is tapered down to guide the projectile into the rifling where it is seated prior to firing. The bore of the barrel is rifled with a right-hand twist of a uniform diameter to the end. The slide cylinder area is a bearing surface on the slide during recoil and counter recoil. The chase area is the tapered part of the barrel. Some guns have an enlarged area at the muzzle called the bell, which prevents any tendency of the barrel to split. The breech assembly is the plug or block which closes off the chamber end of the barrel. To figure the size of a gun, take the length of the barrel divided by the width of the shell.
h. Firing Mechanism - The part of the firing system housed in the breech block, designed to ignite the primer electrically or by percussion. The firing mechanism is the electrical primer (28 VDC).
i. Recoil/Counter-Recoil System - A sort of cushion put between the gun and carriage, allowing the gun tube to be driven rearward through a limited and controlled distance, while the carriage remains stationary. After absorbing the energy of recoil over a convenient distance, a counter-recoil or recuperator system returns the gun tube to the battery position.
j. Ammunition Transfer System - Within the superstructure, they are used to supply ammunition from the upper and lower magazines to the gun.
k. Salvo Latch - A mechanical interlock designed to prevent accidental opening of a gun breech in the event of a misfire or hang-fire.
l. Safety Links - Metal links designed to hold the gun in the battery when counter-recoil system fails or is deactivated.
m. Gas Ejection System - A pneumatic device using ship's high pressure air, within the mount, used to expel residual gases from the gun bore after firing.
n. Breech Mechanism - The plug or block which closes off the chamber end of the barrel. The breech assembly contains the firing mechanism, which ignites the powder primer in the propellent cage, and the extractors which remove the fired case from the gun chamber.
o. Gun Loading System - loader drum - Two cylindrical power driven loading drums that store complete rounds of ammunition and feed them to the two lower hoists as needed. Lifts powder and projectile up to the gun carriage, when the two are aligned up they go to the merry go round. Dredger hoist, powder hoist, projectile hoist - the powder cases and projectiles are loaded into a dredger hoist which hauls them to the upper
handling room. Around the central column in the room are mounted the 2 sets of projectile hoists and powder hoists. Loader hoist (upper or lower) - automatically lifts the complete semi-fixed rounds by stages to the ammunition carrier lever (corresponding to the upper handling room). Carrier - actually a power driven frame that rotates on the hoist central column, it shuttles back and forth between the two lower hoists and two upper hoists, carrying complete rounds automatically to cradles which alternately swing in a vertical plane to lift the rounds to the slide.
p. Fuze Setter - In the projectile hoist, it automatically adjusts time fuzes while hoisting.
0305.2 Describe the various modes of operation for current operational ship's gun systems, including the following:
a. Automatic Control (director or computer) - Placing the control selector lever in the automatic position removes the handwheels from the control sequence. The incoming electrical gun order signals received by the control synchros produce relatively weak rotary motions. Control of a gun mount entirely and directly through remote signals from a fire control system.
b. Local Control - When the control selector lever is moved to local, the handwheel drive is connected to the fine pilot valve. Rotation of the handwheels therefore control the regulator and the power drives through the fine pilot valve. Control of a gun mount through signals originating at the mount.
c. Manual Control - In the manual position, the selector valve is moved further right and all pressures controlled by the valve are connected to the pressure. This action renders not only regulator control out of the entire hydraulic power drive inoperative, but concurrently the movement of the control selector lever engages the manual drive clutch, which permits operation of the guns through mechanical means (rotation of handwheels) only. A ship could be dead in the water and still fire to defend the platform.
0305.3 State the following performance characteristics of the gun systems aboard your ship:
There are five basic systems currently in wide use today. The following chart compares and contrasts the performance characteristics of each.
RATE MAX READY SERVICE
OF MAX VERTICAL ROUNDS
GUNMOUNT FIRE RANGE CEILING AVAILABLE
5"54 MK 42 40 RPM 25909 YD 16233 YD 40
5"54 MK 45 20 RPM 25909 YD 16233 YD 20
5"38 MK 38 15-22 RPM 18200 YD 12633 YD 0
3"50 45-50 RPM 14200 YD 10133 YD 5
CIWS 3000 RPM 2000 YD 7333 YD 886
Due to HERO safety precautions, CIWS has a maximum of 886 rounds in the magazine drum which can hold 980 rounds.
0305.4 Describe the safety precautions applicable to the following evolutions:
a. Gun Exercise Pre-fire Requirements - Whenever any motion of a mount is to be made, the officer or petty officer who authorizes it to be moved by power shall, except at general quarters, ensure that a safety watch is maintained in areas where injury to personnel or damage to material is possible, both outside and inside the unit, and have telephone communications established between the stations controlling the unit. A train warning bell shall be sounded except during GQ at any time the mount is moved.
b. Hot Gun Procedures for Naval Guns - In a hot gun, the possibility of an in-bore projectile or propellant cook-off is always present. Do not cool a hot gun internally if the propelling charge remains in the gun. In cases where the propelling charge cannot be extracted, use external cooling only. Care should be exercised to avoid contact of the primer and to avoid spillage of propellant if the projectile has de-bulleted and the wad has loosened. Ensure gun house and gun area is clear of personnel. Before notifying control that the mount can be fired, stand clear of oscillating mass during firing. Care should be exercised to avoid contact of the primer while handling and loading of short clearing charge. Keep all personnel clear of the gun mount and adjacent spaces until cook off occurs or a minimum of 120 minutes has elapsed. If the gun cannot be cleared within 10 minutes, remove propelling charge from the gun chamber and commence internal water cooling. If the Phalynx fired 300 rounds in 5 minutes, it is considered a HOT GUN. Cook off times should be known.
0305.5 Discuss the safety precautions applicable to the following:
a. Train Circle - A danger circle is established around all power driven installations, such as guns, mounts, turrets, directors and other similar ordnance equipment. A 4 inch wide painted red circle on the deck extending 18 inches from the greatest protrusion of the mount, usually the barrel. The circle shall be stenciled with 2 inch white letters "DANGER AREA" at intervals of not more than 5 feet.
b. Train Warning Bell - Installed outside of mount or director, and except at GQ shall be sounded at anytime a power drive is used to move a mount to warn personnel in the vicinity of impending movement.
c. Checksight - Enables the safety observer to see the target area, which enables him to act and stop fire in the event that the gun's fire presents a hazard to friendly forces or the ship itself.
d. Firing Cutout Cams - A device that protects own ship's structure from being fired on by its own weapon.
e. Salvo Alarm - A buzzer operated by the computer time of flight mechanism to warn the gun crew of impending salvo fire or splashes.
f. Cease Fire Alarm - Notifies all personnel involved to cease fire. A supplement to the battle telephone circuit.
g. Radiating Fire Control Radar - The hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel (HERP) and ordnance (HERO) has become an acute problem. Some specific safety precautions which the technician must observe with respect to these weapons and ordnance devices include the following:
(1) Turn off all RF transmitters during weapon handling operation in the area.
(2) Observe all local and general safety and HERO restrictions.
(3) Maintain radar silence during assembly, disassembly, loading, unloading and/or testing operations.
(4) Avoid exposure of personnel and ordnance devices to high power RF transmitters.
0305.6 Discuss the purpose of the following projectiles:
Within limits, a gun can fire projectiles of different weights. The weight of U.S. Navy projectiles is determined by the formula in which: W = weight of projectile in pounds, and d = caliber (inner diameter of barrel) of gun in inches.
W = -----
a. High Explosive - Point Detonating (HE-PD) - Designed for function on impact and are chiefly used against lightly armored targets in gunfire support. These fuzes are inserted into the projectile's nose in an unarmed condition; they are armed by centrifugal force after the projectile has been fired.
b. High Explosive (Mechanical Time - Point Detonating) (HE MT-PD) - Are clockwork mechanisms which begin to function upon firing, and initiate the explosion train at a selected time following firing. When used in high explosive projectiles, these fuzes work in conjunction with auxiliary detonating fuzes. Centrifugal force acting on weights with or without the aid of coiled springs, supplies the energy to run the clock mechanism.
c. High Explosive - Variable Time (HE-VT) - VT fuzes are proximity fuzes, used in all types of projectiles that can use mechanical time fuzes, except illuminating and window. The VT fuze is a self-contained radio transmitter-receiver which receives echoes of its transmission as reflected by a target. When the returning signal is of a sufficient strength, as the projectile nears the target, the firing circuit closes.
d. Variable Time - Non-fragmentation (VT-NON FRAG) - Used for antiaircraft gun practice and grading. They contain a smoke-producing substance, available in various colors, to make observable bursts without destroying the target by fragmentation.
e. Blind Loaded (and plugged) Projectile (BL&P) - Projectiles contain sand or other inert substance to give the same weight and balance characteristics as explosive fillers.
f. White Phosphorous (WP) - Smoke projectiles contain tubes of white phosphorous (WP) which are scattered and burst by a small black-powder charge. White phosphorous produces a screening smoke, and has an incendiary effect.
g. High Explosive - Controlled Variable Time (HE-CVT) - Similar to VT except the fuze can be detonated by a remote control at the guns location.
h. Illuminating (ILLUM) - Colloquially called a "star shell", is a bright-burning flare that is conveyed to the desired location by firing it in a projectile body from a gun. A timing device causes the flare to be ejected from the projectile and ignited. It falls slowly, supported by a parachute. The light of its flare is intended to illuminate the target and make it easier to aim other guns.
i. High Explosive - Infrared (HE-IR) - Used against unarmored surface or land targets, or used against aircraft or missiles with a proximity heat seeking fuze.
SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR USS KITTY HAWK
Of the aforementioned mounts, Kitty Hawk has only the CIWS. To aid in protecting against small craft attack and/or sneak swimmers, Kitty Hawk Weapons Department mans 11 .50-Caliber Machinegun Mounts when directed by the CO. The basic characteristics of the Browning M2 are as follows:
Wt. of receiver Grp - 56 lbs.
Wt. of barrel - 26 lbs.
Total weight of gun w/M3 tripod - 126 lbs.
Max. range (M2 ball) - 7400 yds.
Max. effective range - 2000 yds.
Rate of fire - 450 - 500 RPM
Muzzle velocity (M2 ball) - 2930 fps
Length of gun - 65 in.
Length of barrel - 45 in.
The .50-cal Browning machinegun is a belt-fed, coil-operated, air-cooled machinegun. The gun is capable of automatic and semi-automatic fire.
0306 GUNFIRE CONTROL
0306.1 Explain the function of the gunfire control system.
Simply put, the gunfire control system (GFCS) is used to direct and control the gunfire of a ship's mount or mounts, by solving the gunfire control problem using a combination of elements which comprise a GFCS.
0306.2 Describe the function and location of the following major components:
This will vary from ship to ship/system to system. A general description of the function and likely location of each is provided.
a. Director - Acts as the eyes of the control system, establishing the line of sight (LOS) to a target by optical equipment or by radar equipment. With the director mounted as high as practical aboard ship, the line of sight is raised high above the gun position. The target can then be seen clearly despite gun blast and sea spray, and can be observed at greater distances than is possible from the gun.
b. Computer - Electronic or electro-mechanical devices into which are fed the mathematical variables in the fire control problem. Generally located in the fire control room below the main deck. It solves the anti-aircraft and surface-shore fire control problems, as well as calculating gun and fuze setting orders. They yield solutions in the form of position signals, which are required for the gun's projectile to hit the target.
c. Stable Element - Located in the fire control room. Its primary function is to measure the angles of level and cross-level by using a gyroscope device which maintains a reference horizontal plane to establish true vertical and true horizontal.
d. Radar Console - Normally in the fire control room. Contains all required operating controls and radar scope displays. Uses a CRT as a radar video display device. The following are types of display scopes used:
"A" Scope - An indicator with a horizontal or vertical sweep indicating range only. Signals appear as vertical or horizontal deflection on the time scale.
"B" Scope - Type of presentation on which the signal appears as a bright spot with azimuth angle as the horizontal coordinate and range as the vertical coordinate.
"E" Scope - A modification of the "B" Scope. Signal appears as a bright spot with range as the horizontal coordinate and elevation as the vertical coordinate.
"PPI" Scope - Planned Position Indicator - Screen displays target position, director position, and designation symbols. The data appears as a result of a rotating sweep moving at a rate fast enough to prevent fading of this information. It indicates azimuth by direction of the radial line, and range by the distance of the echo signal from the center of the screen.
e. Radar/Optical Rangefinder - One optical sight mounted on a stabilized platform, one remote optical sight (ROS) mounted on and boresighted with the air radar antenna. The air track sight mounted on the antenna thus follows the radar antenna in bearing and elevation. Both optical sights are positioned automatically in response to computer signals or by control signals from the gun control consoles.
f. Target Designation System - Basically, this provides selection of the targets which are to be taken under fire, and transmission of the requisite information for acquisition to the selected fire control station or stations.
g. Gun Control Console (GCOC) (Weapons Control Console) - The primary operator interface between the computer and fire control equipment. It interfaces with the computer through digital input/output channels for data control and display, and through power distribution panels for power. Within the director, it provides for activation of the gun system.
h. Gun Control Officer's Console (GOOC) - Within the director, enables activation of director power/drives and selection of the director operating mode.
i. Television Optical System - Located topside. It eliminates the need for topside operating personnel by presenting a magnified image of the target to the observer's eye. By accurately superimposing the reticle image on the target image, the observer can establish an accurate line of sight to the target.
j. Electro-optical Sensing System (EOSS) - Of, pertaining to, or being electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths greater than those of visible light and shorter than those of microwaves. A valuable instrument when tracking targets in limited or nonexistent lighting conditions.
0306.3 Describe the modes of operation of the gunfire control system aboard your ship.
This will differ with each system. A brief explanation of the operating modes of the major systems is provided.
a. Mark 56 - Capable of optical or automatic radar tracking in bearing elevation and range, and of remote control from the control room.
b. Mark 68 - Two primary modes, normal and manual. Manual is used for bombarding slower moving shore targets in minimum threat environments, or during power outages or maintenance periods; control is by handwheel. Normal mode is used in every other situation. Four sub-modes are available - optical search, console search, target designation and radar automatic tracking.
c. Mark 86 - Has five operating modes and three sub-modes to carry out its fire mission. The surface radar mode is used primarily in a surface fire mission against enemy ships. The surface/shore visual mode is used against surface targets and in direct shore bombardment fire. When this mode is used, information for the fire mission is obtained by optically tracking targets, using the remote optical sight TV. The shore indirect mode is used against land targets that cannot be picked up with the radar or optical sight system. The shore beacon mode is identical to the shore indirect mode except that own ship position is determined and maintained by automatic tracking of a radar beacon at known coordinates. The air action mode, the computer automatically controls the searching for and tracking of air targets. Target data and a view along the boresight axis of the AN/SPG-60 radar are displayed at the gun control consoles. The air action mode includes three sub-modes; the air action radar, air action visual and air action radar/visual.
d. Mark 87/92 - All weapons functions are combined in one system, controlled by a digital computer, which for all practical purposes, is fully auto mode.
0307 NAVAL MISSILES
0307.1 Explain the purpose of the naval missile systems installed on your ship.
Sea Sparrow (BPDMS) - Used for local, short range self defense of a ship. Designed to destroy cruise missiles, aircraft and other surface targets. Generally uses a semi-active homing guidance system with a maximum range of 6 nautical miles.
OTHER MISSILE SYSTEMS NOT INSTALLED ON KITTY HAWK
Terrier - An intermediate range SAM, 27 ft. long and 3000 lbs, with an effective range of approximately 20 miles, dependent upon the version of the missile and guidance system used. It is equipped with a nuclear or non-nuclear warhead, uses beam-riding and semi-active homing guidance systems and is propelled by a solid-fuel rocket engine.
Tartar - Shortest range SAM, 15 ft. long and 1500 lbs., with an effective range of approximately 15 miles. It is equipped with a non-nuclear warhead, solid-fuel rocket engine and uses a semi-active homing guidance system.
Standard - A dual purpose missile with surface-to-surface and surface-to-air capabilities. It was the first to be solid-state and is all electric with no pneumatic or hydraulic powered controls. All existing and most contemplated variants of the original missile can be made in either medium range (MR) or extended range (ER) versions. Uses semi-active homing guidance systems.
Harpoon - A high-subsonic, anti-ship, tactical, surface-to-surface cruise missile. Uses a pre-programmed (shoot and forget) attitude reference plus radar altimeter in cruise phase; active- homing guidance with a range of approximately 50 nm. Missile length: with booster - 4.58 meters, without booster - 3.84 meters.
Tomahawk (SLCM - Ship Launched Cruise Missile) - Long range cruise missile designed to carry out both land attack and anti-ship missions using either nuclear or conventional high explosive warheads. There are alternative guidance systems for each mission programmed into the missile system prior to launch. Length - 6.4 meters, diameter - 53 cm, wingspan - 2.61 meters, range - 2500 km (land attack) 450 km (anti-ship), warhead - HE or nuclear. Other versions not used by the Navy are ALCM - Air-launched and GLCM - Ground-launched.
Talos - The oldest and longest range SAM. Length - 30 ft, weight - 7000 lbs., effective range over 70 miles. Uses a beam-riding guidance system following its initial rocket launch on longer range missions, or a semi-active homing system for shorter range missions. May be equipped with a conventional or nuclear warhead, and propelled with a combination solid-propellent rocket/ramjet engine.
0307.2 Describe the function of the following components in terms of what each does for the naval missile system:
a. Warhead Section - Designed to inflict any of several possible types of damage upon the enemy. The other components of the system are developed to ensure accurate delivery of the warhead.
b. Propulsion Section - Provides the energy required to move the missile from launcher to target.
c. Control Section - Two basic functions: (1) Keeps the missile in stable flight, (2) Translates the commands of the guidance system into motion of the control surfaces.
d. Guidance Section - Determines whether the missile is on the ordered velocity. Transmits corrections to the control section if errors are detected.
0307.3 Describe the types of guidance systems on the missiles used with the system on your ship.
The Sea Sparrow missile utilizes a semi-active guidance system with initial guidance being provided by the ship's fire control radar and final guidance being provided by an active homer in the missile.
0307.4 Describe how the missile/gun system is interfaced with the Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) and assigned through Weapons Direction Systems (WDS).
Basically, it provides the capability for multiple target designation by the controlling officer in CIC to an individual gun or missile system through the use of the Target Designation System. Also, inner-ship designation can be made from one gun or missile fire control system to another.
0307.5 Describe the uses of the ship's radar systems and antennas.
a. Air Search - AN/SPS-49(V)1
b. Surface Search - AN/SPS-67(V)1
c. Navigational - AN/SPN-43
d. Fire Control - MK 15
0307.6 State/discuss the following as applied to the missiles installed on your ship:
a. Maximum Range - RIM-7H (Sea Sparrow) - 6 nm
b. Minimum Range - 1600 yds.
c. Director Lock-on Range - 50 nm
d. Surface Capability - Limited capability against surface targets.
e. Lower-flyer/Anti-ship Missile Defense (ASMD) Capability - CIWS MK 15 and Sea Sparrow systems.
f. Type of associated fire control systems - MK 91
g. Type of Warhead - Proximity fuzed, continuous expanding rod, with a 27 ft. kill radius.
h. Launch Platform (Launcher) - MK 29 Mod 1.
0307.7 Describe the safety precautions applicable to the following evolutions:
a. Exercise Missile Firing - Same as exercising the gun mount (SW0305.4a).
b. Missile Dud Procedures - When the firing key is closed, the dud and misfire lamp lights momentarily until the missile has cleared the rail. However, if the missile is a dud, the dud lamp continues to be lit, and the contractor fails to retract. In the event that a dud occurs during a normal firing, three options are available for the disposal of the missile. The launcher can be cleared by:
(1) Return the dud to assembly IAW Ship's Doctrine
(2) Dud firing
(3) Dud jettisoning
c. Self-destruction Procedures - In the event this becomes necessary, a self-destruct signal may be transmitted from the master control panel.
d. Hangfire/Misfire Procedures - Accidental delayed ignition of primer, igniter, or propelling charge. In case of rocket misfire, personnel shall approach the rocket for at least 10 minutes, nor until firing circuits are known to be open. This, at the discretion of the Commanding Officer, is not obligatory in time of action.
0307.8 Describe the safety precautions applicable to the following:
a. Launcher Training Circle - Same as Train Circle for Gunmount (SW0305.5a).
b. Launcher Training Bell - Same as Train Warning Bell for Gunmount (SW0305.5b).
c. Radiating Fire Control Radar - The electromagnetic energy radiated by these radars will cause direct biological injury to anyone subjected to lengthy exposure to the beam. The beam may also induce voltages and heat in small metal objects, such as tools, that are in the beam. This may set off electrically initiated ordnance, or when discharged, draw an arc sufficient to combustible materials.
d. Salvo Alarm - A buzzer operated by the computer time-of-flight mechanism to warn of impending salvo bursts or
e. Exhaust Gases/Heat - All personnel shall keep clear of the possible exhaust path of rockets at all times.
0307.9 Describe the location and type(s) of fire control computers and their function in missile control system (MFCS) aboard your ship.
The NATO Sea Sparrow system uses the MK 157 fire control computer which is located in the launcher control room. Designed to compute target intercept data and provide control information to the missile.
0308 SURFACE SHIP'S
ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE (ESWS) WEAPONS SYSTEM
0308.1 Describe the function of your ship's ASW weapon system.
This will vary from ship to ship. The following information is provided as an overview of the major sonar systems.
(1) A long range, azimuth-scanning type of search and attack sonar.
(2) Search, search-analyze, attack-RDT, attack-SDT and hand-key.
(3) Ship center display (SCD) for search operations and target center display (TCD) for attack. Installed in DDG-2 and DDG-16 class ships.
(1) Long range sonar designed to use direct, bottom reflected and convergence zone acoustic propagation paths where they occur in the oceans to achieve maximum effectiveness.
(2) Active - Bottom bounce, bottom bounce track, bottom bounce triple frequency, convergence zone, omni-directional.
(3) Passive - Audio via headphone, video via plan position indicator (PPI), B-scope, A-scan recorder, graphic indicator, sector scan indicator, azimuth recorder, and numerous dial indicators. Installed on FF-1052 and FFG-1 class ships.
(1) Search, track and attack.
(2) Audio presentation on control indicator.
(3) Installed in many old DDs.
(1) An independent, variable depth sonar system (IVDS). Towed at whatever depth is needed to be searched.
(2) Search, attack, listen (passive).
(3) Uses 3 target displays, two PPIs and a classification recorder.
e. AN/SQS-53 - The most advanced surface ship ASW sonar in the U. S. Navy inventory. It is a high-power, long-range system evolved from the AN/SQS-26CX. Functions of the system are the detection, tracking, and classification of underwater targets. It can also be used for underwater communications, countermeasures against acoustic underwater weapons, and certain oceanographic recording uses. It can detect, identify and track multiple targets and is the first USN surface ship sonar designed specifically to interface directly with a vessel's digital computers. It has three active modes of operation; Surface duet, Bottom bounce and Convergence zone.
f. AN/SQS-56 - A modern hull-mounted sonar which features digital implementation, system control by a built-in mini computer, and an advanced display system. Computer controlled functions provide a system that is extremely flexible and easy to operate. The computer is also used to provide automated fault detection and localization with a built-in training capability. The sonar is an active/passive, preformed beam, digital sonar providing panoramic echo ranging and panoramic (DIMUS) passive surveillance. A single operator can search, track, classify and designate multiple targets from the active system while simultaneously maintaining anti-torpedo surveillance on the passive display.
(1) Basically the AN/SQS-23 system retrofitted for computer coordinated capability.
(2) Single alert, dual alert, dual non-alert.
(3) Search: B-scan, TDC, correlogram track display, doppler display. Passive: time-bearing recording (TBR). It is like two stacks of AN/SQS-23 for double detection using different frequencies.
0308.2 Describe the following as applied to the internal operation of this system:
a. The operation of surface ship's underwater battery fire control system (UBFCS) from initial sonar detection to weapons launch: The sonar target is classified as a possible submarine, computer analysis is commenced for target, bearing, range and speed. The target is continually tracked, UBFCS assumes control of the ASROC launcher, and a CIC coordinated attack is commenced upon command.
b. The relationship between the Antisubmarine Rocket (ASROC) and Terrier missile systems in the ASROC-Terrier integrated weapons system (TERROC) - Capable of launching surface to air missiles and surface to underwater weapons.
0308.3 Discuss the following capabilities and limitations of torpedoes used by your ship:
MK 44 MK 46 MK 48
a. Type of propulsion used electric hot gas hot gas
b. Maximum weapon speed 30 kts 45 kts 55 kts
c. Min/Max search/attack 50/1000 20/1500 20/1500
depth settings (yards)
d. Type of torpedo active/ active/ active/
homing passive passive
acoustic homing homing
e. Weapon acquisition 1000 1600 1600
f. Run characteristics 6 min. 6-8 min. 6-8 min.
all circular, clockwise, downward
g. Min/Max ASROC launching 1200 to 1500 to 1500 to
ranges (yards) 6000 12000 12000
0308.4 Discuss the theory of onboard torpedo countermeasure systems (T-MK 6 or AN/SLQ-25) and the prairie/masker systems.
These are similar systems with similar theory, that is, to provide an alternate target diversion for an enemy acoustic homing torpedo by stringing on cable a "noise maker", aft of the ship, which has the capability of producing a greater noise than the ship; thereby diverting the incoming torpedo from the ship to the "fish". They may be used in pairs or singularly. The AN/SLQ-25 is an anti-submarine warfare device sometimes called NIXIE and is used by Kitty Hawk. This towed device receives the torpedoes ping frequency, amplifies it 2 to 3 times and sends it back to lure the torpedo away from the ship. The prairie/masker system is designed to hide the ship from passive sonar of enemy submarines through the use of air compressors pumping air through holes in the hull and screws in order to mask the noise of the ship. The air pressure is produced by a 1250 PSI compressor located in the auxiliary machinery spaces.
0308.5 Discuss the safety precautions applicable to the following:
a. Setting HERO (Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance) condition when handling ASROC - Specific communications frequencies must be silenced, fire control radar cannot be beamed in the direction of ASROC, and other conditions set as per ships instructions.
b. ASROC Firing - Standard weapons firing safety precautions must be met as well as specific ships requirements as per ships instructions.
c. Torpedo Tube Firing - All personnel must stand clear of the tubes and launch area, and any other condition established as per ships instructions.
d. Lamps MK-1 and MK-2 Torpedo Loading and Firing - Since it is not always possible to readily ascertain whether mines or depth charges have been inadvertently armed in storage or handling, these types, when fuzed or assembled with firing mechanisms, shall at all times be handled and treated as if armed, in strict conformity with the instructions for safeguarding against inadvertent arming, firing or launching of such ammunition. Because the filling material used in torpedo torch pots ignites spontaneously or forms poisonous gas when combined with water, or subjected to moisture, extreme care must be taken to follow existing NAVORD instructions concerning the handling of torch pots.
0308.6 Discuss the safety precautions applicable to the following:
a. Train Warning Circle for the ASROC Launcher - same as naval guns.
b. Train Warning Bell for the ASROC Launcher - same as in naval guns.
c. Salvo Alarm - same as in naval guns.
0309 SURFACE SHIP'S SONAR SYSTEM
0309.1 Explain the function of the surface ship's sonar system.
It is to search, classify and destroy submarines. Also used for navigation and mine detection. There are two types: active and passive.
0309.2 Describe the functions and locations of the sonar systems aboard your ship.
See 0308.1 in ASW section.
0309.3 Describe the following as applied to your ship's sonar system:
a. Operating Modes Available - See 0308.1 in ASW section.
b. Methods of presenting target and operating displays associated with the system - See 0308.1 in ASW section.
0309.4 Describe the relationship between sonar and the following:
a. Underwater Battery Fire Control System (UBFCS) - The Fire control System (FCS) solves the attack problem, generates launching orders, prepares a weapon for firing, develops designation data for tracking a projectile by radar, and provides a means for command to control missile fire. In addition to receiving target data from sonar, it may be able to act on target bearing and range from missile or gun FC radars. Depending on what the inputs to the computer are and the weapon(s) to be controlled, the console solves the attack problem and transmits to the weapon firing signal and the stabilized weapon train angle.
b. Weapons Launching Systems - The Navy's primary operational ASW weapons today are:
(1) Antisubmarine Rocket (ASROC)
(2) Submarine Rockets (SUBROC)
(3) Antisubmarine Torpedoes (ASTOR)
(4) Conventional Torpedoes
c. Combat Information Center (CIC) - When a contact is made, it is plotted and evaluated by CIC, which informs the captain on the bridge of the range, depth, bearing and speed of the contact. The captain decides whether to attack and which weapon(s) to use. The sonar operator keeps the sonar on the contact at all times. The attack director operator sets up the director and sets the various inputs for the particular weapon(s) designated. CIC maintains a track of the contact and supplies the director operator with the initial target course and speed.
d. Light Airborne Multi-purpose System (LAMPS) - Designed to extend and enhance the capabilities of surface ships and increase effective operational range for the weapon systems fitted in surface vessels of the U.S. fleet. This system extends the electronic and acoustic sensors and provides a reactive weapon delivery capability for surface ships by operating manned helicopters from them. Sensors, processors, and display capabilities aboard the helicopter enable the three-man crew to extend the ship's tactical, decision-making and weapons delivery capabilities.
0309.5 Explain the function of the expendable bathy-thermograph (XBT).
The XBT system has a sensor probe, a cannister, a launch mechanism and a temperature-depth recorder. The expendable portion of the system consists of the cannister and the probe. From BT measurements, conclusions can be made concerning the maximum range at which a submarine may be detected, as well as the most favorable depth for a submarine to avoid detection. It also measures the salinity of water. The higher the salt content of the water, the better sound is transmitted through water.
0309.6 Explain the function of the underwater communications (WQC/UQC) system.
Used primarily during EMCON conditions for communications between various units, code named "Gertrude".
0309.7 Explain the function of the independent variable-depth sonar (IVDS).
It can be made to operate independently of other sonar systems. The system overcomes the disadvantages of thermolayers when lowered beneath the layer depth, thus improving detection capabilities previously limited by the fixed, hull-mounted sonar.
0309.8 Discuss the following as it relates to sound traveling through water:
a. Temperature (TDSU) - Temperature down, speed up. Sound travels at 4800 to 5100 fps.
b. Pressure (PUSU) - Pressure up, speed up.
c. Salinity (SUSU) - Salinity up, speed up.
d. Own ship's noise - The higher the speed, the higher the noise level.
e. Ambient noise sources - Back ground noise developed by marine life and sea state.
0310 COMBAT INFORMATION CENTER
0310.1 Discuss the primary and secondary missions of CIC.
a. Primary - Provide the organized collection, processing, display, competent evaluation, and rapid dissemination of pertinent tactical information and intelligence to command and control stations. Responsible for keeping the conn advised of the current tactical situation.
b. Secondary - To control and/or assist in specific operations as delegated by proper authority, such as NGFS, ASW, etc.
0310.2 Discuss the duties and responsibilities of the following officer watchstations in CIC:
a. TAO (Tactical Action Officer)/Evaluator - Disseminates information to the ship control stations, to other ships, and to the force, group or unit commander. Recommends courses of action based on analysis of combat information available.
b. Weapons Liaison Officer - Keeps weapons control informed of possible missile targets and assists the weapons stations in acquiring designated targets, and advises the Evaluator/TAO of the operational and material status of all weapons systems.
c. Gunnery Liaison Officer - Acts as liaison between weapons control and CIC during surface engagements and shore bombardment operations. Keeps weapons control informed of possible targets and assists in acquiring targets.
d. Electronic Warfare Officer - Supervises the collection and display of all EW information and makes preliminary evaluations to ensure that only those electronic emissions not positively identified as friendly are displayed. Disseminates information to the Evaluator/TAO of any threat emitters detected and initiates countermeasures as directed by higher authority.
e. Surface Watch Officer - Coordinates all surface and tactical information, makes recommendations to the Evaluator/TAO and to conn, and supervises the collection and display of all available information on surface contacts.
f. CIC Watch Officer - Acts as assistant Evaluator/TAO and is responsible for the coordination of all CIC functions. Monitors communications (internal and external) and assumes the duties of Evaluator/TAO when directed by higher authority.
0310.3 Discuss the duties and responsibilities of the following enlisted watchstations in CIC:
a. Surface Supervisor - Exercises general supervision over the enlisted personnel assigned to the surface area and assists officer personnel in maintaining an efficient watch and in the interpretation of tactical signals.
b. Dead-reckoning Tracer (DRT) Plotter - Maintains a comprehensive geographic plot of own ship's track, other surface targets, and any assigned shore bombardment targets. (Responsible for making man overboard astern at 20 times the speed converted to yards, shift to 200 to 1 and report man in water bearings and range every 15 sec.)
c. Surface Summary Plotter - Maintains the surface summary plot as directed by the Evaluator/TAO, and records each contact's course, speed and CPA (closest point of approach) on the plot.
d. Detection and Tracking Supervisor (D&T) - Supervised the complete air picture, including air search operators, trackers, and 3-D (bearing, range, height) operator; coordinates the transfer of detected targets to tracking operators; and supervises the use of ECCM features as directed by the EW officer or Evaluator/TAO.
e. Air Intercept Controller (AIC) - Responsible for the positive control of aircraft assigned for the completion of any mission. When in control of Combat Air Patrol (CAP), and when the CAP is not otherwise engaged, the air controller will direct intercepts of targets-of-opportunity.
f. Intercept Search Operator - Assists the AIC by providing altitude information and relaying CAP information from the air controllers to the necessary plots and status boards.
g. NC-2 Plotters (North & South)
(1) South - Maintains a comprehensive plot of own ship's track and sonar contacts during ASW operations.
(2) North - Assists the NC-2 South plotter by plotting any assist ships and/or ASW aircraft involved in ASW operations.
h. Antisubmarine Air Controller (ASAC) - Responsible for the control of all ASW aircraft assigned for the completion of the mission. Assists the Evaluator by making recommendations for tactics.
i. Electronic Warfare (EW) Supervisor - Supervises EW operators and assists the EW Officer in evaluating intercepted electronic emissions.
j. CIC Watch Supervisor - Maintains CIC Watch Log and supervises overall CIC enlisted actions. Ensures a smooth operation of enlisted tasks in CIC.
0310.4 Describe the following CIC plots and status boards, and discuss the function of each:
a. Strategic Plot - A large area true display showing position, movement and strength of own and enemy sea, land, and air forces within a prescribed area of operations. Maintained on hydrographic charts.
b. Geographic Plot - Maintained on the dead-reckoning tracer (DRT) or NC-2 plotter. It is a true display of the positions and tracks of friendly, enemy, and unidentified surface, sub-surface, and certain air contacts. Normally used for surface and sub-surface targets and their tracks, though certain aircraft movements may be shown, such as helicopters engaged in ASW operations.
c. Air Summary Plot - The main display during anti-air warfare operations in a conventional ship, as in the NTDS console on an NTDS-equipped ship. All information available should be plotted, including altitude, CAPS, size of contact, IFF, possible splits, jamming and other data obtained from radar.
d. Surface Summary Plot - A comprehensive relative display of positions and tracks of friendly, enemy, and unidentified surface and sub-surface targets. It also shows geographic points and any other data required for a better understanding of the complete surface picture. Also records the course and speed of all contacts solved by the DRT operator, as well as bearing, range and time of CPA as figured by the surface plotter.
e. Communications Status Board - Displays the radio assignments, frequencies, equipment allocation, radio remote station channelization and use. Also shows the local CIC communications console channels, speaker patches, bridge communications, channelization of all dialable transceivers (quick shift UHF equipment) and capabilities of all equipment.
f. Surface Status Board - Supplements the surface summary plot. Display formation guide, screen stations, and wind direction and speed. Included also are the position, course, speed, closest point of approach (CPA), time of CPA, time of report, and any appropriate amplifying remarks on every surface contact.
g. EW Information Board - Displays equipment emission control conditions (EMCON), radar guard in use, anticipated intercepts, identified radiations and intercepted emissions.
h. Air Summary Status Board - Lists all aircraft involved in daily events from the carriers and scheduled flights from air bases in the area of your ship's operations.
i. Weapons Status Board - Lists all the weapons systems for the ship by name. One column is for equipment that is operating; the other column is for equipment that is out of service. A check mark in the appropriate column indicates equipment status. A "remarks" column should give the reason for equipment being down, and include any other information important to restoring equipment to full operation.
j. Formation Diagram Plot - A display, kept in polar coordinates, on all stations in a formation of ships. On the formation diagram, all ships in the main body are displayed relative to the formation axis and center. Screen sectors are assigned by true bearings and ranges. The formation diagram is a valuable aid in determining positions of new stations in formation and screen maneuvers.
0310.5 Discuss the requirements and the reasons for maintaining a navigational plot in CIC.
CIC will always maintain a navigational plot when in the vicinity of land. Many of the major functions of the ship, such as shore bombardment and amphibious operations, depend on an accurate knowledge of ships position. Some of the reasons for maintaining the navigational plot are:
- to warn the bridge the moment the ship begins to stand into danger
- to supply radar information on short notice to the navi- gator and conning officer
- to facilitate identification of enemy targets
- to provide gun ranges and bearings for indirect fire shore bombardment
- to assist in directing boat waves during landing opera tions
- to navigate the ship from radar formation
- to assist in making landfalls and identify land masses
- to assist landing ships and craft on beach approach
- to aid in search and rescue
0310.6 State the function of Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) in a task force environment.
NTDS provides a more complete and accurate display of the tactical situation in real time. It also makes possible increased effectiveness in weapons employment and greatly increases the number of contacts that can be tracked before saturation occurs. It allows more timely and accurate evaluations of the tactical situation and enhances the prospect of destroying threats at greater ranges from the vital area of the force. NTDS is built around an electronic digital computer. Display consoles, input and monitoring devices, data link apparatus and other equipment constitute the remainder of the system. Non-NTDS ships are linked to NTDS ships via Link 14, which is a teletype broadcast of NTDS and non-NTDS tracks which can be received by any unit with teletype receiving capabilities.
0310.7 State the function and location of the following major electronic components, and any associated antennas.
a. LORAN Receiver ( LOng RAnge Navigation) - System used by ships at sea to obtain a position fix by means of radio signals broadcast by stations of known position. Generally located near the bridge. Maximum range is 1400 nautical miles at night, and 700 to 800 nautical miles in the daytime. This range difference is due to the atmospheric conditions for radio waves to travel.
b. OMEGA Receiver - An outgrowth of the LORAN and is used on a worldwide basis. Generally located near the bridge. Maximum range is worldwide.
c. Satellite Navigation Equipment - A global system used to obtain navigational fixes in all weather conditions. Generally located near the bridge. Kitty Hawk has the WRN-5.
d. Ship's Inertial Navigation System (SINS) Equipment - Continuously computes the ship's latitude and longitude. It is self contained, requires no outside information after programming, and is not affected by adverse weather. Kitty Hawk uses a MK 1 MOD 2 gyro and SRN-9.
e. DRT Equipment - A Dead Reckoning Tracer (DRT) plotter is indispensable when a man overboard situation occurs. When man overboard is reported, a plotter must quickly mark the spot indicating the ships present position, and change the DRT scale to 200 yard to the inch. the ships position must be determined where the person actually went over the side. A plotter then determines the bearing and range to the person every 15 to 30 seconds.
f. NC-2/PT-512 - The NC-2 plotting table utilizes five optical projectors for displaying own ships and target symbols on the plotting surface. Own ships position is located at the center of the polar diagram. During normal operations in the geographic plot mode, own ships position and, therefore, the polar diagram move geographically across the plotting surface according to the DRT information supplied by the DRAI (Dead Reckoning Analyzer-Indicator).
g. IFF ( Identify Friend or Foe) - Composed basically of an interrogator subsystem and a transponder subsystem. The interrogator transmits challenges on a frequency of 1030 MHz, receives replies, and processes them for presentation. The transponder transmits a reply on a frequency of 1090 MHz immediately upon receipt of a challenge from an interrogator. The IFF system in use is the AIMS MK XII. This system has two primary functions. First, it provides a means of improving air traffic control (ATC) of both civil and military aircraft, identification, and code monitoring for friendly aircraft and surface vessels. Second, it provides a crypto-secure method of identifying military craft.
0310.8 Describe how the following factors affect radar operations:
a. Atmospheric Conditions - It is assumed that both light and radar waves follow perfectly straight paths, the properties of the atmosphere are such that the waves are made to follow curved paths. Atmospheric conditions can also cause abnormally long or short radar waves.
b. Sea Return - Some of the energy sent out by a radar strikes the surface of the sea near the ship. Most of this energy is deflected off the waves at various angles, however, some of the energy is reflected back to the radar where it is detected as target echoes. It is very difficult to see actual targets located within sea return, because their pips are lost in the clutter of echoes caused by the sea return.
c. Weather - Since water is a very good reflecting material, microwave radars are very effective in detecting storm clouds and rain squalls, and large storms may completely clutter a radar scope. Pips caused by weather are normally very large and fuzzy or musty in appearance, while pips caused by ships, aircraft and land are bright and well-defined.
d. Height of Antenna and Target - The higher the radar antenna, the greater the detection range, because of the extension of the radar's field of vision. The higher the target is above the water, the sooner it will enter the radar's field of vision.
0310.9 Discuss the following radar display equipment:
a. PPI - The PPI scope is by far the most used radar repeater. It is a polar coordinate display of the surrounding area with own ship represented by the origin of the sweep, which is normally located in the center of the scope. The PPI uses a radial sweep pivoting about the center of the presentation in synchronization with the antenna, resulting in a map-like picture of the area covered by the radar beam.
b. NTDS Console - A repeater used with the Naval Tactical Data Systems computer-oriented equipment, and contains a PPI scope that displays symbology to completely and rapidly define the current tactical situation, and is a means of communicating data and orders to, and receiving processed information from, the computer program. Consoles are also equipped with data readout, which displays amplified information on tracks in the system.
LORAN / OMEGA
(OMEGA) 8 - TRANSMITTING STATIONS GLOBALLY
OMEGA RECEIVES 10.3 KHZ = 8 MILE WAVE LENGTH
13.4 KHZ = 6 MILE WAVE LENGTH
16.2 KHZ = 4 MILE WAVE LENGTH
________________ = TRANSMITTED SIGNALS
---------------- = OMEGA GENERATED PCO SIGNAL
PCO = PHASE CONTROL OSCILLATOR
THE 8 STATIONS TRANSMIT AT AN ATOMIC INTERVAL RESULTING IN A TEN SECOND ROUTINE OF ALL 8 STATIONS.
THE LOCATIONS OF THE STATIONS ARE:
NORWAY LA REUNION ISLAND
NORTH DAKOTA JAPAN
AN/SRN-9 and AN/SRN-19 -- UNITS ABOARD THE KITTY HAWK
RECEIVERS USE DOPPLER SHIFT TO CALCULATE SHIP'S POSITION
BASED ON THE SATELLITE POSITION
2 FREQUENCIES ARE USED IN THE SRN-9
PRIMARY FREQUENCY IS USED TO RECEIVE DOPPLER TRANSMISSION
SECONDARY FREQUENCY IS USED TO RECEIVE REFRACTION COUNT
SRN-19 - IS A SELF LOCKING RECEIVER WITH A LED READOUT OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.
SRN-9 - IS MANUALLY TUNED WITH NO LATITUDE OR LONGITUDE READOUT. THE SRN-9 IS INTERFACED WITH SINS (SHIP'S INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM) BY HARDWARE TO COMPUTER.
THERE ARE 4 SATELLITES IN THE NAVY'S SAT NAV SYSTEM IN A POLAR ORBIT
0311 ELECTRONIC WARFARE
0311.1 Discuss the capabilities of Electronic Support Measures (ESM) systems and the Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system installed on your ship.
Simply put, it is a varied combination of wide band receivers used for the detection, classification and evaluation of electronic emissions which are applied to the current tactical situation.
ESM - WLR 1G - 50 Meg to 20 GHZ - narrow band
- WLR 11 - an IFM receiver that operates over the frequency
range of 7 to 18 GHZ with 100% probability of interception
and scans at a rate of 300 RPM.
These devices are used to detect the frequency, PRF, PW and scan of the emitter at a range of over 1-1/2 times the emitters range of detection.
ECM - SLQ 17 - A deception jammer. The system is designed to protect carriers and other major ships against cruise missiles and other intruders by developing an electronic "image" of the target ship as it is sensed by the enemy's guidance radar. It then offsets the image so that the weapon guides itself to a false "ghost" target some distance from the real one. It is designed to operate in dense electromagnetic interference environments.
0311.2 Explain the purpose of Emission Control (EMCON), and how it is implemented aboard your ship.
EMCON is one of the major aspects of EW with which you will deal. It is the effective management of all electromagnetic and electro-acoustic emissions of a force or unit to obtain the maximum tactical advantage. CIC is the EMCON control center on most ships. Three basic reasons for EMCON are:
a. Tactical evasion - concealing the existence, location, and composition of a naval force.
b. Preventing disclosure of intelligence or presenting false intelligence.
c. Avoiding interference - by frequently necessary to restrict radiations.
0311.3 Explain the function of the Electronic Counter Counter Measures (ECCM) installed in shipboard electronic equipment.
ECCM optimize the electromagnetic capabilities of own forces by negating the effectiveness of enemy EW actions. This is accomplished by employment of:
a. Emission Control (EMCON)
c. Anti-jamming techniques
d. Frequency diversity and agility
e. Operator training
f. Tactical action
0311.4 Explain the following types of ECM which may be employed by enemy against your ship:
a. Jamming (electronic and mechanical)
(1) Electronic jamming may be classified as self-screening or stand-off jamming.
(a) Self-screening is employed to screening itself from enemy electronic detection.
(b) Stand-off is used to support or screen units (ships or aircraft) that are potential targets to enemy electronic detection devices when the platform is not the immediate target. It is sometimes referred to as off-target jamming.
(2) Mechanical jamming may be classified as chaff, rope and any other non-electronic jamming methods that could be used to obtain a tactical advantage and may be employed by ships or aircraft (chaff pods).
Chaff is metallic strips which are packed in units of various lengths and quantities, with each unit applicable to a given frequency. Chaff is produced in many different forms.
b. Deception - The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in manner intended to mislead an enemy in the interpretation or use of information received by his electronic systems. There are two categories of deception:
(1) Manipulative deception is the alteration or simulation of friendly electromagnetic radiations to accomplish deception.
(2) Imitative deception is the introduction of radiations into enemy channels which imitates his own emissions.
0312.1 Describe the following methods of visual communications:
a. Flag Hoists - Provide a rapid and accurate system of handling tactical and informational signals of reasonable length, during daylight, between ships in proximity. In general, a flag hoist signal ensures a more uniform execution of a maneuver than does any other visual signaling system.
b. Flashing Light (Directional, Omnidirectional)
(1) Directional transmissions are sent out by a signal searchlight that is pointed and trained directly at the receiver so as to be visible through a limited arc. It is the longest range visual signaling method.
(2) Omnidirectional signals are sent out from yardarm blinkers or a special nondirectional signaling lantern (DSL), which are operated from a transmission key located in the pilot house or on the signal bridge. Yardarm blinkers are restricted to night time use among ships in company.
c. Nancy - A system that uses invisible infrared light. Messages sent by this system can be seen only by those who have a special Nancy receiver (SAR-7), which gathers the infrared rays and converts them to visible light. Nancy has a range of from 10,000 to 15,000 yards, can be used only at night and is a very secure method of communication.
d. Semaphore - Much faster than flashing light for short distance transmissions in clear daylight. Semaphore may be used to send messages to several ships at once if they are in suitable position. It requires little in the way of equipment since all that is needed is two hand held flags attached to staffs.
e. Flares/Pyrotechnic Signalling - These are colored smoke and flare signals, usually used for distress and emergency purposes. Orange smoke is used for sending signals. Yellow smoke indicates a submarine is coming to periscope depth, in preparation for surfacing. Ships should clear the area. Red smoke flare fired into the air from a submarine is a signal that the submarine is in serious trouble and will surface immediately if possible.
f. Infrared Signaling - Same as Nancy.
0312.2 Discuss naval messages, including precedence, classification and speed of handling.
- Flash - hand carried; less than 10 minutes
- Immediate - 30 minute high priority
- Priority - 3 hours
- Routine - 6 hours
0312.3 Discuss Communication Security (COMSEC), and the role of the Cryptological Material Systems (CMS) custodian.
a. COMSEC is a system designed to protect classified information and equipment from causing any type of damage to the security of U.S. and its allies no matter how slight. It is broken down into three categories:
(1) Top Secret classifications apply to defense information or material requiring the highest degree of protection. The unauthorized disclosure of top secret information could result in "Exceptionally grave damage" to the U.S. and its allies.
(2) Secret classification is given to information or material which is less vital to our security than top secret. The unauthorized disclosure of secret information could cause "Serious damage" to the U.S. and its allies.
(3) Confidential classification is given to information or material that if disclosed to unauthorized persons could cause "Identifiable damage" to the nation's security.
b. The CMS Custodian is responsible for receiving and issuing any COMSEC material, equipment and publications. He is directly responsible to the CO and is appointed by the CO.
0312.4 Discuss methods of ship/shore communications, including the electronic equipment aboard your ship.
There are satellite receivers and transmitters and HF secure and nonsecure R/T networks. Satellite communications use SHF (Super High Frequency FSC-79 SATCOMMTER) and UHF (Ultra High Frequency WSC-5 Transceiver) bands. At the satellite, SHF signals are converted to a UHF signal for retransmission as the down-link signal. Radiotelephone, commonly known as voice radio, is used extensively for ship-to-ship tactical communication, for countless tasks requiring rapid, short-range communications. Voice radio is considered the least secure means of communications. A message sent by radio is open to interception by anyone who has the necessary receiving equipment and is within reception range.
0312.5 Discuss the uses of the radios, and describe the types of antenna aboard your ship.
Radios convert electronic signals into intelligence through whip or wire antennas.
0312.6 Identify and state the purpose of the following flags/ pennants:
a. Refueling - BRAVO FLAG, I am taking in, or discharging, or carrying dangerous materials.
b. SOPA - Senior Officer Present Afloat, starboard pennant.
c. Helo Operations - HOTEL FLAG
d. Breakdown - Flag #5 or 2 black balls, the vessel is having engine or steering difficulty.
e. Personnel/Boat Recall - PAPA FLAG, Personnel return/ QUEBEC FLAG, coxswain return to ship.
f. Divers - ALFA FLAG, I have a diver down, keep well clear at slow speeds.
g. Men Working Aloft - KILO FLAG
h. Hero Restrictions - LIMA FLAG
i. Ready to receive a ship alongside - ROMEO, at sea; INDIA, in port.
j. Ship not maintaining a visual signaling watch - NOVEMBER FLAG.
k. Guide Ship (controlling ship during underway maneuvers) - GOLF FLAG
Belaying pins are used to secure flag hoist line quickly.
0313 AVIATION OPERATIONS ON SURFACE SHIPS
0313.1 Discuss the following:
a. Helo in-flight refueling (HIFR) - Refueling of a helo while it is hovering overhead using a quick disconnect fitting which provides a manually operated emergency breakaway capability.
b. Red deck - Indicates that the ship is not ready to receive the aircraft.
c. Green deck - Indicates that the ship is ready to receive the aircraft.
d. Foreign object damage (FOD) - Results from any loose object on deck that may be pulled upward toward the aircraft by suction of the rotors or jet intake and may cause damage to the engine rotor blades.
e. Landing signal enlisted (LSE) - Aircraft director, stands within the pilots view and directs his movements. His uniform is a GREEN shirt and RED cranial.
f. Landing signal officer (LSO) - Monitors all approaches and acts as safety officer.
g. On deck refueling (hot/cold) - HOT refueling is when the aircraft engine is operating, and cold refueling is when the aircraft is shut down.
0313.2 Discuss the purpose, capabilities and limitations of vertical replenishment.
Vertical replenishment employs cargo helicopters (CH 46) and is a method of transferring materials to combatants from the underway replenishment group of supporting forces. It is a faster and more flexible replenishment system than the conventional alongside method (CONREP). Moreover, it permists combatant ships to refuel concurrently. Limited to the speed in which cargo can be struck down to ensure safe operations.
0313.3 Discuss the importance of flight deck safety, including the following:
a. Removing all unnecessary personnel - The vicinity of operations must be cleared of all exposed idle personnel. High velocity blade fragments and severe burns could result from a crash on deck, injuring any personnel who are not in a protected station.
b. Minimizing hover time for helos - The helo should spend as little time over the deck as possible. When not actually performing hoist maneuvers, the helo will normally move abeam to windward.
c. Wind direction and speed - The wind direction and speed should be known so that high speed winds will not catch personnel off guard causing unexpected knock down. Wind direction should be known when working in the vicinity of stacks so that harmful gases are not inhaled.
d. Policing a flight deck and surrounding area to elimi
nate FOD - Decks must be cleared, free of loose gear and free of any projection on which a hook, basket, litter or line may foul. High velocity rotors will blow any loose gear about the decks, which may be eliminated by prior policing of the area.
e. Lowering of obstructions (i.e. antenna) - Any rig, boom, stays, whip antenna, halyards or other obstruction must be removed or lowered out of the way of the helo while it is in the hover position.
f. Personnel transfer/shock hazards (static) - Able personnel may be transferred wearing life jackets and when properly briefed in procedure. If a stretcher patient is to be moved, a light free running line will be attached to one end of the litter to orient the litter as it is hoisted/lowered. Static electricity may be induced into ungrounded wires and other rigging.
g. Fueling/fuel spills - All existing fire precautions must be adhered to during the fueling/defueling process. Smoking is not permitted in the aircraft or within 50 feet of the aircraft during fueling/defueling procedures. Crews consist of a minimum of four people. One person stands by with the firefighting equipment, another stays with the truck, the third handles the fuel hose on the ground, and the fourth handles the fueling hose at the aircraft and fills the tanks. In case of an accidental spillage of aircraft fuels or other combustible liquids they must be removed immediately by washing with water, covering with a foam blanket, or neutralized by other means to prevent igniting.
h. Loading weapons - The greatest hazard with ammunition is not so much from instability or deterioration of the explosives, but the enormous destruction of a detonation of one round followed by instantaneous detonation of all nearby rounds. Weapons must be handled with extreme care and never subjected to rough treatment in any handling operation. Matches or other flame or spark-producing articles should not be carried near places where ammunition is stored or handled.
i. Radio communications - Flight deck radio circuit (mickey mouse ears) are built in two configurations, receive only and tranceivers. The circuit is controlled by flight deck control (Air Boss) and is used to pass immediate deck operation commands. Key deck personnel (LSO Observer, Cat Officer and Arresting Gear Officer) are equipped with transceivers to enable them to notify the Air Boss of major flight deck hazards.
0313.4 List aircraft capabilities aboard your ship.
F-14A (TOMCAT) - A twin engined, two-place fighter designed for aircraft carrier operations. It provides the carrier task force with its first-line offense and defense against any enemy air threat. The crew consists of a pilot and a weapons control/radar intercept (RIO) officer. It can engage enemy targets with either AIM-54A Phoenix, Sparrow, Sidewinder missiles and one M61A1 20MM Vulcan gun. The Tomcat's variable-swept wings give it a combat maneuvering capability that could not have been achieved with a "standard" fixed wing. Weight 70,000 lbs, length 61 ft 10 in, span 64 ft, speed Mach 2, range 1,500 miles.
F/A-18 (HORNET) - A supersonic, single-seat, twin-engine jet designed as a multi-mission fighter/attack aircraft to replace both the A-7 and F-4. It will be the key Navy/Marine Corps fighter/attack plane of the 1980s and 1990s.
A-6E (INTRUDER) - An all weather, day and night bomber with double jet engines and can carry nearly eight tons of bombs and missiles. It is a two-place jet aircraft manned by a pilot and a navigator/bombardier. Weight 60,600 lbs, length 54 ft 7 in, span 53 ft, speed 720 mph, range over 3,000 miles.
A-7 (CORSAIR II) - Single-seater and subsonic light attack plane. Can carry 10 tons of ordnance. Weight 38,000 lbs, length 46 ft, span 38 ft 8in, speed 595 mph, range 3,800 miles.
S-3A (VIKING) - A high-wing, jet-powered, twin-engine carrier ASW aircraft. It carries surface and subsurface search equipment with integrated target acquisition and sensor coordinating systems which collect, interpret, and store ASW sensor data. It has direct attack capability with a variety of armament. Its other digitally computerized sensors include a high resolution radar and magnetic anomally detection (MAD) gear in its tail section. MAD equipment detects metal objects by monitoring disturbances of the earth's magnetic field. Length 49 ft 5 in, span 68 ft 8 in, speed 440 knots.
SH-3 - A twin-turbine, all-weather helicopter designed for ASW use. It carries dipping sonar, torpedoes, and depth bombs. It uses a special radar altimeter that automatically maintains altitude while dipping.
RECONNAISSANCE/AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING
EA-6B (PROWLER) - A modified A-6E, configured and used for electronic countermeasures where its outstanding endurance is a favorable factor. The most advanced airborne electronic warfare aircraft in existence.
E-2C (HAWKEYE) - Equipped with long-range antennas that are enclosed in a saucer-shaped, rotating disc atop the fuselage. It is equipped with the Airborne Tactical Data System (ATDS) used in conjunction with the shipboard Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) via Link 4A. Provides a long-range, early warning and command-data link to the F-14. Has two turbo-prop engines and a five-man crew.
KA-6E - An A-6E configured as an inflight refueling tanker.
0314 ENGINEERING WATCHES
0314.1 Briefly describe the general duties and responsibilities of each of the following watchstanders:
a. Engineering Officer of the Watch (EOOW) - Responsible for the safe and proper performance of all engineering watches except damage control. In charge of the main propulsion plant and associated auxiliaries.
b. Duty Engineer - Retains overall supervision of the plant and reports to the CDO.
c. Damage Control (DC) Watch Officer - Responsible for maintaining the required condition of readiness and for checking, repairing and keeping operational the various hull systems.
d. Cold Iron Watch - Inspects main machinery spaces that are secured and do not have a regular watch posted, and reports hourly to the quarterdeck.
e. Sounding and Security Watch - Maintains a continuous patrol of unmanned spaces, taking periodic soundings of designated tanks and spaces, and is alert for any evidence of sabotage, theft, fire or fire hazards.
f. Inport Equipment Monitor - Monitors all support services (hotel load) being supplied from an external source. These include steam, electrical power, freshwater, firemain, and sewage services.
0315 ENGINEERING LOGS AND DOCUMENTATION
0315.1 Describe the purpose of each of the following:
a. Engineering Log - A complete daily record, by watch, of important events and data pertaining to the engineering department and operation of the ships propulsion plant. Contains shaft(s) average hourly RPM, speed in knots, engine miles steamed for the day, major speed changes, draft and displacement, fuel, water, lubricating oil, disposition of engines, boilers and principal auxiliaries, casualties to equipment or personnel and other pertinent information.
b. Engineering Bell Book - A record of all bells, signals, and other orders received by the throttleman regarding movement of the propeller(s) being turned over by the main engine.
c. Engineering Night Orders - Entered in log or night order book by the EO, EOOW, or Duty Engineer for jobs to be done or upcoming evolutions.
d. Draft Report - Shows current displacement.
e. Daily Fuel and Water Report - Shows amounts consumed, required or made.
f. Engineering Operational Procedures (EOP) - Prepared specifically for each level of operation; plant supervision (stage 1), space supervision (stage 2), component/system operator (stage 3). The materials for each level or stage of operation contain only the information necessary at that level.
g. Engineering Operational Casualty Control (EOCC) - Provides plant and space supervisors with information necessary to enable them to recognize the symptoms of a possible casualty, to control the casualty, to prevent possible damage to machinery, and to restore plant operation to normal.
h. Naval Ships Technical Manual (NSTM) - Basic engineering doctrine of the Naval Sea Systems Command.
i. Ship's Information Book (SIB) - Contains information on each piece of equipment onboard a ship.
j. Restricted Maneuvering Doctrine - (ENGDEPTINST 9000.1, ENGDEPT STANDING ORDER NUMBER 3 $ 4) - Basically describes procedures to follow in the event of a maneuvering casualty. Maintain extra vigilant watch during restricted maneuvering.
k. Engineering Operational Sequencing System (EOSS) - Consists of two parts, the Engineering Operational Procedures (EOP) and Engineering Operational Casualty Control (EOCC) manuals that are kept in each main machinery room (MMR) control booth and in Damage Control Central (DCC).
l. Engineering Department Organization and Regulation Manual (EDORM) - Delineates responsibilities and duties of all Engineering Department officers and CPO/Senior POs for inport/ underway watch routine.
0316 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
0316.1 Describe where safety precautions are posted for machinery.
Where possible, safety precautions should be combined with the appropriate operating instructions. Some situations will require individual danger, caution, directional or informational safety signs. Look on the equipment or nearby bulkhead.
0316.2 Discuss the requirements of the hearing conservation program.
The purpose of hearing conservation is to establish and implement an effective occupational noise control and hearing conservation program which shall have as its goal the elimination and prevention of hearing loss. It has been identified as a major health problem in the Navy. The program consists of 5 parts:
a. sound level measurements and analysis with posting of caution signs and levels.
b. engineering control methods to reduce noise levels by acoustical engineering and selection of new equipment with lowest noise emission levels.
c. personal hearing protection devices.
d. audiometric examination and interpretation.
e. hearing loss education and awareness.
It is mandatory to wear hearing protection when the level of noise is 80 to 85 db and double hearing protection should be worn when the level reaches 110 db or more.
0316.3 Discuss the requirements of the heat stress program.
The purpose of the heat stress program is to provide guidance concerning the determination of personnel exposure limits under conditions of extreme heat and humidity aboard ship, and to delineate specific reporting and corrective action to be taken when and where such hazardous conditions exist.
0316.4 State the locations of all main space emergency exits.
This will differ from ship to ship, see ship's main space doctrine. KITTY HAWK MAIN SPACE EMERGENCY EXITS ARE:
AUXILIARY MACHINERY ROOM #1 - 2-105-2 & 2-97-1
MAIN MACHINERY ROOM #1 - 2-118-2 & 2-106-1
AUXILIARY MACHINERY ROOM #2 - 2-140-2 & 2-132-1
MAIN MACHINERY ROOM #2 - 2-141-2, 2-153-2 & 2-141-1
MAIN MACHINERY ROOM #3 - 2-154-2, 2-154-1 & 2-166-1
MAIN MACHINERY ROOM #4 - 2-119-2 & 2-131-1
0316.5 State the locations and uses of battle lanterns and emergency lighting.
Battle lanterns will be installed throughout the ship where illumination is required during a power loss, such as table tops, chart tables, information displays, etc. The lanterns should be used for emergency use only to ensure full battery strength when actually needed and normally last approximately 24 hours.
0316.6 Explain the uses and protective functions of the following:
a. Lagging - Used as a protective and thermal confining cover over steam and hot and chilled water pipes to prevent burns and condensation.
b. Reach Rod - A length of pipe or stock used as an extension on valve stems.
c. Quick-closing Valves - Used when a straight line flow of fluid with minimum amount of restriction is required, such as firemains, steam lines, or fuel oil systems.
d. Automatic Cutout - A safety device used for machinery system safety.
e. Machinery Guards - When properly adjusted, these will protect the user from flying objects, entanglement or contact with machinery.
f. Automatic Bus Tie/Manual Bus Tie (ABT/MBT) - ABT devices will shift the load from the vital power supply to an alternate power supply anytime the normal supply is interrupted. MBT devices will select either of two available sources of electrical power and it must be accomplished manually.
g. Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Strainer Shields - Prevent oil from spraying about, which decreases the possibility of fire.
h. Fuel Oil/Lube Oil Piping Flange Shields - Same purpose as strainer shields.
i. Over-speed Trip - Shuts off the steam or fuel supply to the equipment after a predetermined speed has been reached, thus stopping the unit. Over-speed trips are normally set to trip out at approximately 110% of normal operating speed.
j. Relief/Safety Valve - Opens slightly at a specified pressure and discharges a small amount of fluid and closes at a pressure which is slightly lower. Safety valves are set to lift at approximately the pressure which the steam drum safely operates.
0316.7 Describe the importance of bolted deckplates, grating, hand rails and safety chains.
To avoid shifting about the space, and to assist personnel in stability while moving about a space. Must be bolted at all times unless being accessed for maintenance.
0316.8 State the reasons for good housekeeping practices in engineering spaces.
This goes hand in hand with safety and efficiency. A combination of cleanliness and orderliness will reduce machinery and personnel hazards, aiding in prevention of accidents, fires, etc. Dust is an often overlooked fire hazard. Loose gear could affect de-watering of a space by clogging pump hoses and drains.
0316.9 Describe the hazards of fuel oil or lube oil in bilges.
An oil fire can be caused by the ignition of oil or oil vapor in any place where oil is allowed to spray when under pressure or is allowed to collect by leakage or spillage from the system. Bilge water that contains oil must be pumped to a truck on the pier or stored in tanks until 50 nautical miles out to sea before it can be pumped over the side.
0316.10 Describe the hazards of "skylarking" in machinery spaces.
Many serious accidents are caused by horseplay of one kind or another. Such actions must be recognized as a basic type of unsafe act. Roughhousing, throwing objects, splashing water and similar hazardous antics should not be tolerated by any personnel.
0316.11 Explain the special hazards involved and procedures to be followed when working on a system, specifically while down for maintenance.
The CO's permission must be obtained before any system can be worked on with single valve protection. The valve must be tagged and wired shut, and all pressure bled off the system before any maintenance begins. If at all possible, the system should be secured completely and a man posted at the valve to ensure no-one tampers with it while work is in progress.
0316.12 Explain the procedures for tagging valves/circuit breakers on a secured system, specifically while down for maintenance.
The purpose of this procedure is to prevent operation when a component, equipment system or portion of a system is isolated or in an abnormal condition.
Obtain tag-out sheet and serial number and then trace out system, opening all circuit breakers or closing all valves to provide two valve protection. Obtain permission from the duty engineer before any work is done. Close all valves or open all circuit breakers, and enter tag-out sheet in proper place in tag-out log.
Caution Tag is yellow, used primarily as a precautionary measure to provide temporary special instructions or to indicate that unusual caution must provide
Danger Tag is red, prohibiting operations of equipment that could jeopardize safety of personnel or endanger equipment, systems, or components. Under no circumstances will equipment be operated or removed when tagged with Danger Tags.
0316.13 Describe the safety precautions to be followed when handling and storing acids and alkalies.
Signs shall be posted near established operations warning personnel of the principal hazards of the operation and of the chemicals being used. All containers shall be appropriately labeled.
Where injurious gas-vapor-dust-mist are repeatedly generated by a fixed installation, effective exhaust ventilation shall be provided on the process. Personnel should wear respirators approved for the type and concentration of containment encountered where ventilation is not adequate to prevent over exposure of personnel.
Acids and alkalies shall be used cautiously and in accordance with safety procedures. Acids and alkalies may react with certain metals forming explosive hydrogen gas. The diluting of strong acids and alkalies with water can generate considerable heat. Acids must be stored in a lead lined container and must be stored below the water line. Alkalies are used with water purification and all containers must be labeled.
0316.14 Explain the hazards to personnel when entering or working in an unvented space where carbon dioxide (CO2) has been discharged.
Where it has been released, CO2 will absorb the air which results in insufficient oxygen for breathing. Prior to entering such a space, it must be fully ventilated and determined to be gas-free by a qualified engineer. The minimum percentage of oxygen must be 16%.
0316.15 Discuss the precautions to be followed before entering a sealed void or compartment.
To ensure safe entry, it must be thoroughly ventilated and tested to ensure safe limits of explosives and or toxic gases and a sufficiency of oxygen.
0316.16 Describe the hazards to personnel associated with steam being released into a working space through steam hoses or steam smothering systems.
Steam displaces the air, substantially heating up the space. It may result in steam burns or heat exhaustion. If a person breathes steam, he may damage his lungs. If you are caught in a steam filled space, get down on the deck and stay low until you have evacuated the compartment.
0316.17 Discuss the possible results of an unattended, open sounding tube on freshwater and feedwater tanks or fuel oil/lube oil tanks.
This situation may easily result in accumulation of debris and other types of contamination in the tanks, which would require pumping, cleaning, etc.
0316.18 Discuss the requirements of approved portable electric lighting (type, construction and usage).
Sealed beam lights are used to give high intensity illumination in damage control or other emergency repair work and are normally stored in the damage control repair lockers.
Battle lanterns are placed in spaces where continual illumination is necessary and they should not be removed from their mounting brackets except in an emergency or for maintenance.
Portable extension lights are widely used aboard ship, especially in the engineering spaces. Only approved extension lights should be use; they should have a guard, be free of cuts or damaged areas, cleaned of moisture, oil and grease. They must also be explosion proof.
0316.19 Discuss the requirements for capping sound-powered telephone outlets and service/receptacle (S/R) outlets when not in use.
Covers should always be in place when outlets are not in use, placed finger tight, to prevent dust, dirt and corrosion from short circuiting the system. Example: If flooding occurred and water entered the phone jack, vital communications would be lost and the ships fighting ability would be hampered.
0316.20 Explain how variations in environmental conditions affect body resistance to electrical shock.
Dry skin offers about 20 times more resistance than moist skin to the passage of electric current. When the skin is dry, local heating effects are greater, though the total damage to the body is less than when skin is wet.
0316.21 Explain the procedures to be followed prior to working on electrical machinery equipment.
Work should be performed only by qualified and assigned personnel using the "two man rule". When any electrical equipment is to be overhauled or repaired, the main supply switches, cutout switches, or breakers in each circuit from which power could possibly be fed should be secured in the open position and tagged. The covers of fuse boxes and junction boxes should be kept securely closed except when work is being done.
0316.22 Describe the safety precautions applicable to asbestos, fiberglass, insulation materials, refrigerants, mercury, lead-based materials and fluorescent lamps.
Observe standard safety precautions, keep dust to a minimum, wear approved respirators when exposed to dust, and maintain good housekeeping at all times. These materials are potentially hazardous and can be absorbed through the skin. Seal off the area and allow only qualified personnel to work in the area.
0316.23 Explain the requirements for using the following:
a. Long-sleeved Shirts - Should be worn when operating power driven equipment (fixed and portable) and when grinding or there is danger of flying pieces. Mainly worn to protect your skin.
b. Hats - Same as above.
c. Goggles/Face Mask - Shall be worn when operating power driven equipment (fixed and portable) and when grinding or there is danger of flying pieces.
d. Gloves - Should not be worn around rotating machinery unless sharp or rough materials are being handled.
e. Steel-toed Shoes - Should be worn at all times aboard ship, particularly around equipment, to prevent crushing injuries to the feet.
f. Respirators - Should be worn by personnel entering or working in enclosed spaces where dust particles are present or toxic material is used or stored.
g. Ear Plugs/Protectors - Should be worn when working with tools and machinery designated as producing hazardous noise levels. Ear protection is required when the noise level reaches 80 to 85 db and double protection is required when it reaches 110 db and above.
0316.24 Discuss procedures prior to going aloft.
Securing radiation of electronic equipment deprives the ship of its electronic sensors. It is therefore mandatory that work aloft be completed quickly and safely. The officer requiring work aloft must ensure all materials for the job, including safety harnesses, OBA, tools, rigging and replacement parts are readily available prior to sending their men aloft. All tools, buckets, paint pots, etc., used while working aloft must be secured to lanyards which are fastened to safety belts or the mast structure. No one will be allowed to go aloft without a parachute type safety harness and climber safety device. Safety harnesses shall be secured to a rigid structure whenever personnel are not on platforms with safety rails. Personnel shall not lean or rest against safety rails. when work dictates that a person rest his weight against a safety rail, he shall secure his safety harness to a rigid structure other than the safety rail or its structures. Antenna safety switches on the mast must be placed in the OFF position before proceeding onto any radar antenna platform. No person shall work on the mast without a safety observer. Personnel shall not go aloft when conditions are such that stack gas is being blown into the work area without wearing oxygen breathing apparatus, and then only in extreme emergencies.
0317 ENGINEERING PLANT OPERATIONS
0317.1 Describe the following:
a. Cold Iron (receiving shore services) - An idle plant with all services being received form an external source. These include all electricity, freshwater, steam, LP air and CHT pumping services.
b. Auxiliary Operation - Systems or components functioning in a secondary capacity to the main propulsion turbines. These include evaporators, SSTG's, Air Conditioning units, etc. When Kitty Hawk is in this configuration, one plant is operating to generate our own electricity.
c. Underway Operation (main plant operations) - Systems or components functioning in a primary capacity to the main boilers and propulsion turbines. Kitty Hawk has 8 Babcock Wilcox boilers to power 4 engines.
d. Jacking Over Main Reduction Gears, Shafting and Propellers - Mechanically rotating at very low speed by the shaft turning gear. Kitty Hawk uses an electrically powered motor that rotates the shaft at 4 revolutions.
e. Cross-connected Operation (steam) - Method of operating two or more plants as one unit from a common steam supply. This is used extensively when the need to do PMS or repairs on one of the MMR's arises. It enables the ship to continue using the shaft while work is being done on other components.
f. Split Plant Operation (steam) - Method of operating propulsion plants so that they are divided into two or more separate and complete units. All plants operate independent of each other, therefore producing its own steam.
g. Electrical Load Split - The setup for split plant operations is to open the bus ties between the ship service switchboards so that each switchboard with its generators and load forms a system that is independent of the others. On Kitty Hawk, this means one generator for each switchboard.
h. Electrical Load Paralleled - The setup for cross-plant operation is to close all the bus ties between the ship service switchboard with the generators running in parallel so that any switchboard or several switchboards can supply electric power to any other switchboard.
i. Trailing a Shaft - No steam is being admitted to the turbines, but the shaft is free to turn. Has advantages of masking the ship's noise signature but lube oil pressure must be maintained to the bearings and cooling flow to the main engine.
j. Stopping and Locking a Shaft - Initiated to minimize damage if it is necessary to secure the plant while underway. This creates a lot of vibration, limits speed and affects the way the ship handles.
k. Boiler Secured (steam) - Fires are extinguished and all steam stops are shut.
l. Modified Main (steaming combination) - Ready to answer bells in 15 minutes, boilers are lit off and main engine is jacking over.
m. Prairie-Masker System - Designed to cover up the acoustic signature of surface man-of-war while conducting submarine search and hunt operations. The system consists of a 1250 psi air bubble producing air compressor. The screws of the ship are also specially designed with holes in them.
0318 THROTTLES AND MAIN OPERATING STATION
0318.1 Explain the function of the throttles and main operating station.
As turbines must usually operate at different speeds other than just fast and stop, there must be some method of steam control to allow fairly small changes of turbine speed. A system of nozzle control valves were devised to perform this function, and are controlled from the main operating station.
0318.2 Discuss the following:
a. Propeller Revolution Indicator - Indicates instantly and continuously the revolutions per minute, direction of rotation and total revolutions of the individual propeller shafts.
b. Propeller Order Indicator - Transmits the desired RPM orders from the pilot house or central control station to the engine room. Provides a method of transmitting small changes in speed to the throttle stations.
c. Rudder Order Indicator - Transmits the desired rudder orders from the pilot house and conning stations to the after steering station when the ship is being conned at one station and the rudders controlled from the after steering station.
d. Rudder Angle Indicator - Transmits indications of the actual position of the rudder to the after steering station, conning stations, throttle stations and other remote positions throughout the ship such as the bridge, secondary control, DCC and CIC.
e. Engine Order Telegraph - Transmits the desire engine orders from the pilot house, open bridge or secondary conn to the enginerooms, firerooms and superheat operator stations. If this system fails, sound powered phones can be used to pass the orders.
f. High Pressure (HP) Turbine Throttle Valve - Controls the steam emitted to the HP-IP (High Pressure-Intermediate Pressure) turbines by means of cross-over, high pressure and cruising valves.
g. Astern Turbine Throttle Valve - Controls admission of steam to both elements of the astern turbine. Used to control reverse propulsion orders.
h. Salinity Indicator Panel - Equipped with a meter calibrated to read directly either in equivalents per million (epm) or in grains per gallon (gpg). Electrical salinity cells are located at various points throughout the water system to monitor the purity of the water.
i. Propeller Pitch Indicator - Used to show the operator what degree of pitch and what direction the screws will propel the ship, forward or reverse.
0319 BASIC STEAM CYCLE
0319.1 Explain the function of the basic steam cycle.
To generate steam, it is necessary to heat water and then add more heat to convert boiling water to steam. This is done in the boiler. The expansion portion of the basic steam cycle takes place in the main turbines where the steam is expanded in the turbines to utilize thermal energy stored in the steam and transform it into mechanical energy of rotation. As the steam exhausts from the low pressure turbine, it is condensed in the main condenser where it becomes condensate. The condensate pump discharges through the main air ejector condenser to the de-aerating feed tank (DFT). This is the dividing line between condensate and feedwater. The main feed pump discharges to the main feed system into the economizer and the boiler.
0319.2 Draw a simple schematic of this system from memory using appropriate symbols and showing major components.
Refer to the schematic provided in the Principles of Naval Engineering.
0319.3 Describe the functions and locations of the following major components.
a. Boiler - Located in the fireroom, it is the vessel in which water is heated to form steam. Kitty Hawk has 8 Foster Wheeler Type "D" boilers.
b. Superheater - A unit in the boiler that raises the saturated steam temperature to a super dry hot steam temperature of 950 degrees approximately.
c. High-Pressure/Intermediate Pressure (HP/IP) Turbine - The HP-IP elements are combined in a single casing. For powers up to the most economical point of operation, only the HP element receives inlet steam, with the IP element being supplied in series with exhaust from the HP. At powers above this point of operation both elements receive inlet steam and exhaust to the LP turbine. Located on the upper level of engineroom.
d. Low-Pressure (LP) Turbine (with astern turbine elements) - Delivers power to a shaft and coupled to the reduction gear. Astern elements are stages installed at each end of the low pressure turbine and are used for astern operation.
e. Main Condenser - A heat exchanger which converts exhaust steam from the turbines to condensate. Located below the LP turbine.
f. Condensate Pump - Takes a suction from the main condenser and delivers the condensate through the main air ejector condenser to the de-aerating feed tank.
g. Air Ejector - Steam driven jet pump that removes air and non-condensable gases from the main condenser.
h. De-aerating Feed Tank (DFT) - Sometimes considered the dividing line between the condensate and feed water. This tank has three basic functions:
(1) To remove trapped air and oxygen from the condensate (oxygen causes rust, Morfoline is injected to help combat rust.
(2) To preheat the water prior to entering the economizer (2nd preheater).
(3) To act as a reservoir to take care of increased feed needs and to absorb sudden surges in the condensate system. Located in the fireroom on the upper level. Kitty Hawk's are located on the lower level and are maintained at approximately 3600 gallons of water.
i. Feed Booster Pump - Takes a suction from the de-aerating feed tank (DFT) and maintains a constant discharge to the main feed pump. Located on the lower level of the fireroom.
j. Main Feed Pump - Picks up the water (from the feed booster pump) and discharges to the main feed piping system. Located on the upper level of the fireroom.
k. Economizer - Positioned above the boiler to preheat the feed water by approximately 100 degrees prior to entering the boiler (3rd preheat).
l. Force Draft Blowers - Turbine-driven fans which supply air to the boiler furnace.
m. Electric (light-off) Force Draft Blower - Used to light off the cold boilers in main machinery rooms.
0320 PROPULSION TURBINES AND REDUCTION GEARS
0320.1 Explain the function of the propulsion turbines and reduction gears.
On most steam driven ships, the mechanical energy required to turn the propeller is provided by the turbines. Reduction gears are used on practically all steam driven ships to connect the turbine to the shaft in a manner that allows the turbines to operate at high rotational speeds, thus allowing most efficient operation of both turbines and propellers.
0320.2 Describe the function and location of the following major components in terms of what each does for the propulsion turbine and reduction gears:
a. High/Intermediate-Pressure Turbine - Both turbines deliver power to a single shaft through a gear train that is coupled to the reduction gear for forward movement and is located in the forward and after enginerooms.
b. Low-Pressure Turbine - Used for ahead and astern movement, and is coupled to the reduction gear. Located in forward and after enginerooms.
c. Astern Turbine Elements - Velocity compounded stages installed at each end of the low pressure turbine. Each astern element has its own steam inlet but the admission of steam to both elements is controlled by one astern throttle. Located in forward and after enginerooms.
d. Reduction Gear - Used to allow both the prime mover and the propeller to operate at the most efficient speed. Serves as a transmission. Located in forward and after engineroom. Kitty Hawk has Westinghouse double-helical cut reduction gears to minimize torque/thrust losses in the reduction gears. Reduction gears are equipped with a security lock to prevent sabotage.
e. Shaft Turning (jacking) Gear - Used for warming up and cooling down main engines. Located in forward and after enginerooms.
f. Main Condenser - The heat exchanger in which exhaust steam from the propulsion turbines is condensed as it comes in contact with tubes through which sea water is flowing, a collection point for all steam used in main engines, exhaust systems, etc. Located in forward and after enginerooms.
g. Guarding Valves (ahead and astern) - Used to prevent steam from going to the throttle valves. Located in forward and after enginerooms.
h. Ahead Throttle Valve - Admits steam to the HP/IP turbine. Located in the forward and after enginerooms.
i. Astern Throttle Valve - Admits steam to the astern turbine. Located in the forward and after enginerooms.
0321 MAIN SHAFTING, BEARINGS AND PROPELLER
0321.1 Explain the function of the main shafting, bearings and propeller.
The primary purpose of main shafting is to transfer the torque generated by the main engine to the propeller and to transmit the thrust developed by the propeller to the thrust bearing in the ship. Bearings are used to guide and support reciprocating and rotating elements. The propeller is where the mechanical energy produced by the main engine is finally utilized to develop thrust to move the ship.
0321.2 Describe the function and location of the following major components in terms of what each does for the main shafting, bearings and propeller:
a. Line Shaft - The segment of the main shaft joined together with integral flange type couplings to ultimately turn the propeller with power generated from the main engines and is located in the shaft alley and main spaces.
b. Line Shaft Bearings - Support propulsion line shafting and are located inside the hull of the ship on the line shaft.
c. Bulkhead Stuffing Boxes - Devices to prevent fluid leakage between the line shaft and a bulkhead. Located between the line shaft and any space through which it passes, i.e. enginerooms, firerooms, compartments, shaft alley, etc.
d. Stern Tube Stuffing Box - Flanged and bolted to the stern tube. The casting is divided into two parts. It contains the stuffing box and a flushing connection to provide a positive water flow through the stern for cooling, flushing and lubricating the shafts.
e. Shaft Seal (synthron seal) - A rubber strip seal installed on the shaft to prevent seawater from leaking into the ship along the shaft.
f. Stern Tube Bearing - The propeller shaft is supported at the stern by two bearings, one at each end of the stern tube.
g. Strut Bearing - Supports the end of the shaft just forward of the propeller and has a composition bushing which is split longitudinally into two halves. The outer surface of the bushing is machined with steps to bear on matched landings in the bore of the strut. One end is bolted to the strut.
h. Propeller - Located at the end of the shaft, it is where the mechanical energy produced by the main engines is utilized for movement of the ship.
i. Inflatable Shaft Seal - Makes possible the removal and reinstallation of parts without dismantling the shaft or shaft coupling. Located in the stern tube. It can only be inflated after the shaft has been locked, and it is filled with CO2 or LP air.
j. Main Thrust Bearing - Usually located in the reduction gear casing. It the axial thrust transmitted through the shaft from the propeller.
0322 DIESEL ENGINE
0322.1 Explain the operation of the diesel engine.
It converts the kinetic energy of chemical fuel (petro-carbon fuel) to thermal energy (heat) via compression/ignition. It converts thermal energy to mechanical energy via gas expansion in cylinders. It converts mechanical energy to rotational energy via piston crankshaft connections. This rotational energy is used to perform propulsion/non-propulsion work for the ship.
0322.2 Describe the function and location of the following major components of the diesel engine:
On the Kitty Hawk, diesel engine systems are used to power emergency generators, provide propulsion for small boats, and to provide the drive force for various other vital auxiliary systems. Some ships use diesel engines for all propulsion and electrical generation requirements.
a. Cylinder Block - Part of the engine frame, supports the engines cylinder liners and head or heads. Provides a place for combustion.
b. Crankcase/Bed Plate - The engine frame part which serves as a housing for the crankshaft. Bed plates are supports for main bearings.
c. Cylinder Head - Houses the intake and exhaust valves, valve guides and valve seats. Injectors and valves, allows fuel and air mixture to combust.
d. Cylinder Liner - The barrel or bore in which an engine piston moves back and forth. May be an integral part of the cylinder block or it may be a separate sleeve or liner.
e. Piston - Aids in the sealing of the cylinder to prevent the escape of gas and transmits some of the heat through the piston rings to the cylinder wall.
f. Connecting Rods - The connecting link between the piston and crankshaft or the crankshaft and the crosshead of an engine.
g. Camshaft - A shaft with eccentric projections, called cams, designed to control the operation of valves, usually through intermediate parts.
h. Ports/Valves - The admission of air to the cylinders from the air box or manifold is controlled by the opening and closing of the cylinder valves or ports. Whether air is admitted to the cylinders through ports or valves depends upon the type of engine.
i. Crankshaft - Changes the movement of the piston and the connecting rod into the rotating motion required to drive such items as reduction gears, propeller shafts, generators, etc. The location of the crankshaft depends on the arrangement of the valve mechanism.
j. Flywheel - Stores energy during the power cycle and releases it during the exhaust/combustion cycle.
k. Turbocharger - High speed exhaust driven turbine that drives an air compressor turbine to pressurize the induction manifold of the diesel.
l. Starting Mechanism - Electrical, mechanical or air driven means to turn diesel engine until self-combustion (dieseling) starts.
m. Blower Shutdown - A means of securing the diesel by shutting off the source of air to the blower, thus preventing combustion.
n. Remote Fuel Shutdown - A remote means of securing the fuel source to the diesel to ensure engine shutdown.
o. Pyrometer - Temperature sensing device installed on the cylinder heads to monitor engine running conditions.
p. Overspeed Trip - RPM sensing device that automatically secures fuel/air to the diesel in the event of an overspeed condition.
q. Jackgear - Mechanical/manual means of turning over the engine to ensure adequate lubrication to engine prior to starting or after long periods of inactivity.
r. Supercharger - A direct (gear or belt) driven air compressor used to force a larger volume of air into the induction manifold of the diesel to increase output power.
0323 DIESEL PROPULSION
0323.1 Explain the function of diesel propulsion.
The operation of an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type involves the admission of a fuel and air mixture into a combustion chamber and the compression and ignition of the fuel/air charge. The resulting combustion releases gasses and increases the temperature within the combustion chamber. As the temperature increases, pressure increases and forces a piston to move in the cylinder. This movement is transmitted through a series of parts to a crankshaft thus producing rotary motion energy.
0323.2 Describe the functions and locations of the following major components:
a. Engine - Used extensively, serving as propulsion units in a variety of installations such as ships, boats, and prime movers for auxiliary machinery. The location aboard ship is dependent upon the uses.
b. Electric Motor - Some ships utilize diesel/electric propulsion, where the diesel powers generators that provide electric power to electric motors that are coupled to the propulsion shaft.
c. Generator - Diesel powered generators provide the electrical current required to propel diesel/electric powered ships. Diesel powered generators are used on ships to provide normal/emergency electric power. Kitty Hawk's emergency diesels power General Electric 450 volt, 1000 KW, 1700 amp, 3 Phase, 60 cycle, AC generators. DC exciters are used for voltage regulators.
d. Reduction Gear - An arrangement of shafts and gears such that the number of revolutions of the engine shaft is more than that of the driven shaft. Generally located between the prime mover and the load.
e. Controllable/Variable-pitch Propeller - Propeller designed to allow improved maneuvering ability and to allow the propellers to develop maximum thrust at any given engine RPM. The shafts always turn in the same direction for both ahead and astern propulsion.
0324 GAS TURBINE MODULE
0324.1 Describe the function and location of the following major components of the gas turbine module:
a. Base/Enclosure Assembly - Installed to provide access for maintenance, reduces vibrations, and isolates engine generated noises from the ships hull structures.
b. Ice Detector System - Designed to activate the anti-icing heaters, usually located in the louvers. Takes hot air (bleed air) from the exhaust. This unwanted ice is a FOD
(foreign object damage) hazard.
c. Fire Detection and Extinguishing System - Heat from a fire activates the detector, which completes an electrical circuit allowing the control to actuate the extinguishing system, suppressing the fire. Arrangement of fire detectors and extinguishing agents is governed by the installation.
d. Water Wash System - Used to prevent contaminants from depositing on the compressor blades resulting in performance loss. The water and detergent cleaning is done when the engine is turning at a slow RPM to prevent damaging the blades.
e. Compressor Inlet Plenum - Designed to provide at the compressor inlet the most uniform velocity and total pressure distribution possible, and provide an area for debris to collect prior to entering the engine.
f. Compressor - Takes in atmospheric air and compresses it to a pressure of several atmospheres. Located at the forward end of the gas turbine engine.
g. Combustion Section - The component in which the fuel air mixture is burned. Located aft of the compressor.
h. High-pressure Turbine - Extracts energy from the expanding gases flowing from the combustion chamber and converts this energy into torque to drive the compressor and various engine accessories. Located aft of the compressor section.
i. Power Turbine - Component of the gas turbine engine that produces useful work from the lower temperature and pressure gases. Mounted on the output shaft aft of the HP turbine.
j. Ignition Exciters - Converts a low voltage power to a high voltage potential for delivery to the ignitor plug. Located in the ignition system.
k. High-speed Flexible Coupling - Used to couple the power turbine shaft with the driven unit and permits axial movement and expansion of rotors; allows for some misalignment.
l. Accessory Drive Assembly - Primary purpose is to provide space for the mounting of the accessories required for the operation and control of engine. Secondary purpose includes acting as an oil and/or pump and providing for and reduction gears. Normally mounted adjacent to the compressor section of the engine.
m. Gas Turbine Bearings - Serve the critical function of supporting the compressor, turbine and the engine shaft. Sleeve bearing, split-sleeve bearings, floating sleeve bearings and slipper bearings are commonly used in the gas turbine engines designed for maritime propulsion.
n. Compressor Variable Stator Vanes - Direct the flow of gases to the rotor blades at the required angle while the turbine wheel is rotating to provide stall-free operation.
o. Speed Pickups - Part of the internal controls which are used to regulate the fuel flow and gas generator and power turbine speeds to comply with throttle control lever (TCL) command signal. Prevents turbine over-speed and trip out at 4300 RPM.
p. Vibration Sensors - De-energize the fuel shutoff valve if vibration is detected above a preset level, sounding an alarm. Located at various points throughout the engine.
q. Thermocouple Harness - Allows for connection/disconnection to facilitate accessibility in repair or replacement.
0325 GAS TURBINE ENGINE CONTROL
0325.1 Describe the function and location of the following major components of the gas turbine engine:
a. Ship's Control Console (SCC) - Provides for remote control of the gas turbine engine. Located on the bridge.
b. Propulsion and Auxiliary Control Console (PACC) or Propulsion Control Console (PCC) - Contains the throttle controls and transfer switches, engine order telegraph, shaft revolution indicator-transmitter, and the necessary gages for monitoring the operating conditions of the main turbines, reduction gears and propeller shafts. The auxiliary section provides for remote operation of such equipment as fire pumps and ventilation systems, monitors non-vital systems such as potable water, air conditioning and refrigeration. Part of the engine room console.
c. Propulsion Local Control Console (PLCC) or Local Operating Panel (LOP) - Allows the operator to control the equipment on station. Usually located within the immediate vicinity of the equipment.
d. Electric Plant Control Console (EPCC) - Provides control and monitoring of the ship's generators. Part of the engine room console.
e. Bell/Data Loggers - Consists of plant performance data logging, alarm scanning, and bell logging equipment. The equipment can be set up to print at regular time intervals or on demand, with continuous scanning of all sensor points. The bell logger records each engine order telegraph signal along with time and data, location of the throttle control, throttle control wheel position and shaft RPM. It is part of the engine room console.
0325.2 Using a diagram of the system (on next page) show the path of the gas turbine engine control signal from:
a. The Bridge to the Gas Turbine Engine - Ships Control Console (SCC) on the bridge to Propulsion and Auxiliary Control Console (PACC) or Propulsion Control Console (PCC) to Propulsion Local Control Console (PLCC) in the engine room.
b. The Central Control Station to the Gas Turbine Engine - Central Control Station (CCS) to Local Control Console (LCC) to the on line engine(s).
c. The Engine Room to the Gas Turbine Engine - The engine is in local control from the Local Control Station.
The mechanism by which command signals are transmitted from the ship to the engine is the throttle control console (TCC) usually located on the bridge and on the propulsion control console in the central control station. For normal cruising operations, the TCL is set and left in the desired position. Engine controls are regulated to comply with the TCL command signal. The sensing devices used with the automated control are in the most cases detectors widely in use. Whether the signal to the turbine is sent from any of the above stations the sensors convert signals for further transmission.
0326 MAIN PROPULSION CLUTCH/BRAKE
0326.1 Explain the function of the main propulsion clutch/ brake.
To provide a means for starting, stopping and reducing the shaft speed of the driven unit, reversing the direction of shaft rotation in the driven shaft, and permit quick-disconnect of the driving unit from the driven unit.
0326.2 Describe the function and location of the following major components of the main propulsion clutch/brake:
a. Friction Clutch - Engage the driving unit to the drive by applying force-producing friction which can be obtained either by mechanically jamming the friction surfaces together by some toggle-action linkage, or through stiff springs (coil, flat disk or leaf). Usually located in the part of the housing nearest the engine.
b. Dental Clutch - Engage the driving unit to the driven and drive units by a flexible coupling assembly consisting of a set of internal/external gear teeth, that compensate for any misalignment between the two. A wet clutch is used to bring in the other engine when high speeds are desired.
c. Friction Brake - Used to slow or stop the gear shaft by applying pressure at the brake drum by the brake band or shoe (friction). Usually contained on the clutch and reverse gear assembly.
d. Airflex Clutch and Gear Assembly - Consists of two clutches, one for forward rotation and one for reverse rotation. The clutches are bolted to the engine flywheel by a steel spacer so that they both rotate with the engine at all times at any engine speed. Each clutch has a flexible tire (gland) on the inner side of a steel shell. When the tire is inflated the friction blocks on the inner tire surface come in contact with the clutch drum, locking the drive shaft with the engine.
0327 CONTROLLABLE-REVERSIBLE PITCH PROPELLER (CRP)
0327.1 Explain the function of the CRP propeller.
Designed to allow improved maneuvering ability and to allow the propellers to develop maximum thrust at any given engine RPM.
Describe the function and location of the following major components of the CRP propeller:
a. Hydraulic Oil Power Module (HOPM) - Assembly in the pitch unit utilized to control hydraulic oil, under pressure, to apply a blade actuating force required to change the pitch of a controllable pitch propeller.
b. Gear-driven Hydraulic Oil Pump - A positive-displacement pump which supplies hydraulic oil under pressure from the pitch control unit to the servomotor assembly.
c. Emergency Pitch Positioner Assembly - Normally a worm screw and crosshead nut combination used to transmit the actuating force to the connecting rods. Located between the propulsion control transfer switch and the pitch control units.
d. Propeller Shafting - Contains the control rod, actuating rod, hydraulic tubing, servomotor assembly, and is used to transmit the motion of the engine from the reduction gear to the propeller.
e. Propeller Hub - Houses the spider gear, arm, connecting rod, blade crank ring, and has the propeller blades mounted on it. Located at the end of the propeller.
f. Propeller Blades - The devices attached to the hub which when the pitch is changed, produces more or less thrust to propel the ship according to present needs.
g. Oil Distribution Box - Cools bearings and other mechanical moving parts.
0328 COMPRESSED AIR
0328.1 Explain the function of your ship's compressed air system.
Compressed air is supplied to the various systems by high, medium or low pressure air compressors, depending on the needs of the ship. The uses include, but are not limited to, the operation of pneumatic tools, prairie-masker system, diesel engine starting and/or speed control, air ballasting, torpedo charging and ejecting, aircraft starting and cooling, and the operation of pneumatic boiler and propulsion controls.
0328.2 Describe the functions and locations of the following major components:
a. High-pressure (HP) Air - Classified as above 1000 psi. Can be used for charging the torpedo tubes, gun air flasks, ram tensioners, or reduced as an emergency air supply for lower pressure systems, etc. High pressure air compressors can be found in auxiliary spaces, engine rooms, fire rooms. Kitty Hawk's HP is rated at 3000 psi.
b. Low-pressure (LP) Air - Classified as 150 psi or less. Can be found throughout the ship. Low pressure compressors can be found in the same location as the HP compressors.
c. Control Air - Supplied by a low pressure air compressor and routed through a priority valve. This valve will shut automatically to secure air to non-vital components when air pressure drops to a specified point and reopen when the system pressure increases above the set point.
d. Air Dehydrators - Used to dry water and oil from the compressed air. There are two basic types, refrigerated and desiccant. The dehydrators are generally found in the vicinity of the air compressors.
e. Compressors (HP/LP) - Intake atmospheric air, compresses it to the desired pressure and delivers the compressed air into supply lines or storage flasks (receivers) for use.
f. Priority Valves - Air for non-vital systems is supplied through priority valves, which will shut automatically to secure air to non-vital components when the pressure in the air systems drops to a specified set point and will re-open to restore non-vital air when pressure in the system returns to normal. This gives the vital air first priority on all air in low pressure system. This component is generally located in the piping system near an air receiver. Below 85 psi, the valve shuts in order to keep the plant up.
g. Air Receivers (Control Air, HP, and LP Tanks) - Pressure tanks used to store sufficient volumes of compressed HP/LP and Control Air to accommodate multiple users and minimize compressor on time.
0328.3 Describe typical end uses of HP, LP and Control Air.
High Pressure (HP) Air is used by weapons division to blow barrels after shooting the ships guns and in the weapons elevators while lifting ammunition.
Low Pressure (LP) Air is used by deck division to power pneumatic tools.
Control Air is used in the automatic control mechanisms of the boilers and the only other divisional use is by dental to power drills and other precision tools.
0328.4 State the set points or normal operating range of compressed air pressure (HP/LP).
High Pressure Air is set between 2750 and 3150 psi.
Low Pressure Air is set at 150 psi.
Control Air is set at various pressures depending on the end users needs.
0329 FRESHWATER SERVICE AND TRANSFER
0329.1 Explain the function of the freshwater service and transfer.
Potable water systems are designed to provide a constant supply of water for all ship's service requirements, provide makeup water for various freshwater cooling systems, and may also be used to trim the ship. Kitty Hawk mainly uses seawater to trim.
0329.2 Describe the function and location of the following major components:
a. Freshwater Storage Tanks - Provide a readily available supply of water to the ships systems. Kitty Hawk has 32 stowage tanks, 8 forward and 24 aft, for a total stowage capacity of 351,896 gallons of freshwater. These tanks vary in size and are located in various areas throughout the ship. Kitty Hawk uses five evaporators to make freshwater which produce 70,000 gallons per day in units 1, 2, 3 and 4, and produces 100,000 gallons per day in unit number 5 for a total of 380,000 gpd.
b. Manifold - Used to align tanks, systems and risers for distilling, filling and transfer. Located in the vicinity of the pumps.
c. Freshwater Pumps - Used to distribute or transfer water throughout the ship. Located in a main or auxiliary machinery space. Kitty Hawk has 2 pumps forward and 2 aft.
d. Freshwater Priming Pumps - There are normally two pumps for each freshwater pump. They automatically draw a vacuum on the freshwater pumps, thereby keeping them primed. Located in the vicinity of the freshwater pump itself.
e. Hypochlorinators/Brominators - Hypochlorinators are mechanical units that introduce chlorine solutions into a water supply. Brominators are used in the same way except with bromine. Located near the distilling plant or pumps. Prevents organisms or bacteria from living in tanks. The calcium hypochlorite is a powder mixed 1 ounce to every 5000 gallons of water and the bromide is in a canister form.
f. Port and Starboard Freshwater Risers - Used to introduce potable water into the ships system from an outside source. Located outside the skin of the ship, usually near the main deck. Kitty Hawk's are located on the sponsons.
0329.3 State your ship's freshwater production capacity.
Obviously, this will vary with each class of ship, as well as ship to ship. For example, an FF or DDG class ship, has the capacity to produce 24,000 gallons of freshwater per day. Kitty Hawk has the capacity to make 380,000 gpd but is limited to storage of only 351,896 gallons of freshwater in 8 tanks forward and 24 tanks aft.
0329.4 State your ship's standard for water consumption/distribution.
The standard water consumption is gallons per day per man.
0329.5 Explain the special handling and storage requirements for calcium hypochlorite.
Used to super chlorinate tanks only. Classified as very dangerous due to its corrosive and chemically active nature. This material requires special stowage precautions, as contact between calcium hypochlorite and oxidizable materials may result in spontaneous combustion. It should be obtained in 6 oz. containers and stored in a cool, dry, well ventilated area where there is no danger of contact with oxidizable materials. It should be handled only by qualified personnel with gloves, apron and a faceshield.
0330 SHIP'S SERVICE 60-HZ ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION
0330.1 Explain the function of the ship's service 60-HZ electrical distribution.
This system normally supplies electric power to the ship's equipment and machinery. Switchboards and associated generators are located in separate engineering spaces to minimize the possibility that a single hit will damage more than one component. Kitty Hawk has 8 Westinghouse ship's service turbo generators (SSTG's), #1 and #2 are located in Auxiliary Machinery Room (AMR) #1, #3 is in Main Machinery Room (MMR) #1, #4 is in #4 MMR, #5 and #6 are in #2 AMR, #7 is in #2 MMR, and #8 is in #3 MMR.
0330.2 Explain the function and importance of the ship's 400-HZ electrical distribution.
Used to provide special frequency power to critical ship's electronic equipment. 400 hertz power is used to allow the use of smaller and more efficient electronic systems.
0330.3 Describe the functions and locations of the following major components:
a. Turbine-driven Generator - Steam driven generator supplies the ship's lighting and power requirements and the power for the propulsion exciter motor generator sets through the vital propulsion auxiliary panel.
b. Generator Switchboards - Equipped with meters to indicate the generator voltage, current, watts, frequency and power factor. they provide a means of linking the power of the generator with the distribution load centers.
c. Bus Ties - Installed at load centers, distribution panels, or leads that are fed by both normal and/or alternate sources of the ship's power, or to obtain power from the emergency distribution system if an emergency feeder is provided.
d. Distribution Load Centers - The connecting link between the generators that supply electrical power and the equipment that utilizes this power to furnish various services necessary to operate the ship. The distribution center includes the ships service distribution system, emergency distribution system and the casualty power distribution system. Located in various areas throughout the ship.
e. Shore Power Circuit Breakers - Allow power to be obtained from an outside source. Also act as a protective device. Perform the function of normal switching and are used to isolate the circuit. Located on the switchboards and sometimes in the area outside the ship where the source is connected. Sponson #1 has 3 and the officer's brow has 8 breakers, afterbrow has 8 and sponson #5 has 5 for a total of 24. Pig tail connections are used and the total amperage supplied is 1600 amperes.
f. Diesel Generator (emergency/ship's service) - To provide 1000 KW power to vital circuits in the event of normal or alternate power loss. Can be set up in automatic or manual modes. Located in separate spaces from the ship's service generators and are generally located near the centerline of the ship.
g. Diesel Generator Switchboards (emergency/ship's service) - Connected by feeders to at least one and usually two different ship service switchboards. One of the switchboards is the preferred source of ships service power for the emergency switchboard and the other is the alternate source. Located the same as the generators. SSTGs cannot be run off the emergency diesels.
FUNCTION AND LOCATION OF KITTY HAWK'S POWER GENERATING EQUIPMENT
Ships Service Turbine Driven Generators - Rated at 450 Volts, 60 Hertz, 1750 Kilowatts of power (1,750,000 Watts).
1 and 2 SSTGs located in 1 AMR
3 SSTG located in 1 MMR
4 SSTG located in 4 MMR
5 and 6 SSTGs located in 2 AMR
7 SSTG located in 2 MMR
8 SSTG located in 3 MMR
Ships Service Generator Switchboards - Located on the fourth deck above the ships service generators. Primary purpose is for control of the generators and distribution of power to load centers, vital equipment and major semi-vital equipment.
Bus Ties - Located on the fourth deck, run between switchboards. Use for parallel operation of generators, providing power to switchboard when generator is not running. Isolatable from switchboard.
Distribution Load Centers - There are eleven load centers on Kitty Hawk, located to divide the ship into eleven zones for power distribution as follows:
ZONE LC FRAMES LC LOCATION POWER FROM
1 11 80W-29 2-18-P 2 SWBD
2 21 29-49 2-39-S 1 SWBD
3 31 49-69 2-59-S 1 SWBD
4 41 69-97 2-94-P 3 SWBD
5 51 97-119 2-116-S 4 SWBD
6 61 119-141 2-129-P 6 SWBD
7 71 141-167 2-149-S 2 SWBD
8 81 167-186 2-183-CL 8 SWBD
9 91 186-205 2-198-P 6 SWBD
10 101 205-225 2-215-P 7 SWBD
11 111 225-STERN 2-235-S 5 SWBD
Shore Power Circuit Breakers - Sponsons 3 and 7 have individual shore power circuit breakers located on the sponson and a master circuit breaker on the switchboards (1, 2, 7 and 8). Sponsons 1 and 5 have no individual shore power circuit breakers located on the sponson, individual circuit breakers are located in the switchboards (4 and 6).
0331 AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION
0331.1 Explain the function of the ship's air-conditioning and refrigeration plant.
Air conditioning is a system of rotating air so as to simultaneously control its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned spaces.
Refrigeration is to cool spaces, objects or materials and to maintain tham at temperatures below the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.
0331.2 Describe the function and location of the following major components of the air-conditioning and refrigeration plants:
a. Compressor - Provides the required energy in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The purpose is to raise the pressure of the refrigerant after it has absorbed heat from the space or object to be cooled. The refrigerant gas goes into the compressor and comes out as a liquid.
b. Evaporator (space to be cooled) - Consists of copper tubing installed in the space to be refrigerated. As the refrigerant (liquid) is passed through the evaporator, it is allowed to boil (vaporize) and expand to a gas, thus absorbing the heat from the space. The hot gas is then cycled back to the compressor.
c. Chiller - Used to cool water for use in cooling spaces. The water flows over the cooling tubes to reduce the temperature of the water.
d. Chilled-water Pump - Used for pumping chilled water through the chilled water system. Located near the chiller.
e. Chill Box - Used for storage of vegetables and other perishables. Maintains temperature of about 40 degrees. Located on the reefer decks.
f. Freeze Box - Used for storage of meats and is kept below freezing temperatures. Located on the reefer decks.
0332 UNDERWATER LOG
0332.1 Explain the function of the underwater log.
It measures and indicates the speed of the ship and the distance traveled through the water. It also transmits those indications to the various weapons and navigation systems as required.
0332.2 Describe the functions and locations of the following components:
a. Rodmeter - Protrudes through the hull of the ship below the keel and contains the device that furnishes the speed signal to a mechanism within the ship which converts the signal into speed and distance traveled. Kitty Hawk's is located below the FWD Bomb Handling Area in Pump Room #3.
b. Indicator Transmitter - A housing for the electrical and electro-mechanical components of the log equipment except what is contained in the rodmeter.
c. Dummy Log - Produces voltage signals which simulates speed outputs from the rodmeter. Such signals can be used to check the performance of the distance servo, accurate to within + or - 4 degrees. Kitty Hawk's is located in MMR #3.
d. Sea Valve - As the rodmeter can be damaged by striking submerged objects, it may be necessary to retract the unit in shallow water to prevent striking the bottom. The sea valve forms a support for the rodmeter and provides a means for closing the hull opening when the rodmeter is retracted or housed.
0333.1 Explain the function of the steering system.
The steering system is the mechanism which transmits power from the steering engine to the rudder stock, which also includes the driving engine and the transmitting mechanism. its function is to guide the ship through the water on a desired course.
0333.2 Describe the function and location of the following components and component parts of the steering system:
a. Steering Motors - The electro-hydraulic type of steering gear is used on all modern naval ships. The hydraulic power is furnished by a variable strike hydraulic pump driven by a continuously running constant speed motor. There are many variations of the number and arrangement of the hydraulic rams, pumps and driving motors and the method of transmitting the motion of the rams to the rudder cross-head. Located in aft steering gear motor room.
b. Pumps - Provide power to steering by automatic or manual means.
(1) Positive-displacement, variable-stroke, radial-piston - hydraulic pump.
(2) Hand/Emergency - Pump that can be hand cranked if all power is lost.
c. Steering Gear
(1) Trick Wheel - Provided for local hydraulic control of the steering system in case of failure of the remote steering system. Located in aft steering.
(2) Differential - Serves to correlate the signal from the ram follow-up assembly and from the steering control system into a single order to the hydraulic pump.
(3) Hand-control Lever - Connected to the transfer valves in such a way that both valves are operated together. This allows for rapid shifting from the on-service pumping unit to the standby unit and is located between the trick wheels.
(4) Ram - Mounted fore and aft athwart-ships and consists of a single ram that is operated by opposed cylinders. The ram is connected by links to the tillers of the twin rudders. When oil pressure is applied to one end of the operating cylinder, the ram will move causing each rudder to move along with it. Oil from the opposite end of the cylinder is returned to the suction side of the main hydraulic pump in the power unit.
(5) Ram Cylinder - see above.
(6) Crosshead - Attached to the ram to prevent it from rotating. It also provides mechanical limits to the ram degree of rudder.
(7) Rack-and-pinion Follow-up - Generally employs a ring and roller type contact in the steering stand. The rollers are geared to the helm so that rotation of the wheel brings a roller in contact with a contact ring.
(8) 6-way Transfer Valve - Is interposed into a high pressure piping system. The valve positions determine which pump is connected to the cylinders in the ram unit.
0334.1 Explain the function of the gyrocompass.
The gyrocompass will transmit to remotely located indicators electrical data representing the ship's heading, and ship's roll and pitch information. This data is utilized in navigating the ship and is supplied as a necessary input to sonar, radar, fire-control, and other vital ship's equipment. The gyrocompass is normally kept in continuous operation at sea. When a vessel is under way, the movement over the earth resulting from course and speed, as well as the latitude in which the vessel is operating, is detected by the gyroscope as a change in horizontal and vertical earth rate.
0334.2 Describe the functions and locations of the following major components:
a. Master Gyrocompass - Is the heart of the compass system and contains the gyroscope north-seeking, and in the more complex newer compasses, the vertical-seeking sensitive elements, necessary gimbaling, and related electrical components and wiring.
b. Auxiliary Gyrocompass - Same as master and kept in standby ready for use upon failure of master gyrocompass.
c. Control Cabinet - The "nerve center" of the system. It contains the DC power supply, analog computers, amplifiers and other assemblies required for operating and indicating the condition of the gyrocompass system. The cabinet is composed of the control panel, computer indicator panel, computer control assembly system, control assembly, follow-up amplifiers, the DC power supply and a voltage regulator located in the gyro room.
d. Synchro Amplifier (sync amp) - Sends electrical signals to the slave units to coincide with the master unit. Located on the master gyro.
e. Repeater - A compass card electrically connected to the gyrocompass and placed on the bridge and in other selected areas of the ship. Provides the same readings as the master gyro.
f. Standby Power Supply Equipment - A motor generator set which provides emergency power for the compass system.
g. Alarms and Annunciators - Actuated by the alarm control to indicate system failure. Located near the gyro with slave units located at the users panel.
0335 DEGAUSSING SYSTEM
0335.1 Explain the function of degaussing aboard your ship.
Magnetic mines and torpedoes have a firing mechanism so constructed that they are actuated by a ship's magnetic field. Degaussing reduces the strength of this magnetic field. Consequently, some measure of protection against these weapons is afforded by degaussing. This is accomplished by using specific values of current through large cable loops to create a field equal and opposite to the pre-existing field to make the ship look magnetically invisible. There are two types of magnetism that affect the ship.
(1) Permanent - results from the ship being constructed of magnetic material.
(2) Induced - caused by the influence of the earths magnetic field upon the ship.
0335.2 Describe the functions and location of the following components:
a. Degaussing Switchboard Panel - Although the engineering department aboard ship actually controls the current setting of each degaussing coil, this setting of the coils is done under the direction of the navigator, who must understand the particular installation aboard his ship. The control switchboard aboard Kitty Hawk is #5 switchboard (4-132-6-E).
b. Remote Control Panel - Has ampere meters and controls that determine the polarity and amount of current induced in the coils. Located in the navigation equipment room aft of the chart room.
c. M Coil - The principle degaussing coil, called the main coil. It encircles the ship, inside the skin of the hull, in a horizontal plane approximately at the waterline. The M-coil compensates for the ship's vertical permanent and induced magnetism. The M-coil current is changed with changes in latitude.
d. PQ-FQ Coil - Located at opposite ends of the ship in horizontal planes and are connected in series. The FQ loop encircles the forward part of the ship and is just beneath the forecastle or uppermost deck. The PQ loop encircles the after part of the ship and is located just beneath the main or uppermost deck. The PQ and FQ loops are connected in series with each other, and usually have polarities in opposite directions. This coil compensates for the ship's permanent magnetization. The PQ-FQ coil currents are changed when it is determined that a change occurred in the ship's permanent magnetism. This determination is made at a degaussing station.
e. FI-QI Coil - Located same as the PQ-FQ coil. The FI-QI coils develop strong fields below the bow and stern of the ship, to neutralize (approximately) the induced longitudinal magnetism at these points. The FI-QI coil currents change with changes in heading and latitude.