The Fifth Chief Directorate was created in 1969 to counter political dissidents and other manifestations of political unreliability. The Fifth Chief Directorate was formed from elements of the Second Chief Directorate, including the 9th Department responsible for Soviet students; the 10th Department responsible for the Soviet intelligentsia; and the Jewish Department. The Fifth Chief Directorate also incorporated the 5th 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th Directions of the Political Security Service.
The 5th Direction controlled religious activity through the Council for the Affairs of Religious Sects, which was largely staffed by retired or disabled KGB officers.
The 6th Direction was responsible for countering subversive expressions of nationalism.
The 7th Direction monitored Soviet citizens with relatives living outside the Soviet Union and foreigners visiting relatives in the Soviet Union.
The 8th Direction worked to counter the influence of Russian emigre groups.
The 9th Direction suppressed unauthorized samizdat ["self-publishing"] literature and writers. It was responsible for finding samizdat printing presses and typewriters, and investigating the unauthorized use of photocopy machines.
The Jewish Department, established in 1971, was responsible for addressing Jewish dissidence, including discouraging emigration.