Dr David J. Andre, a retired US Army colonel, is a consultant and a former operational and strategic analyst in the Office of the Secretary of Defense and chairman of the Department of Military Strategy at the National War College. He writes, lectures, designs war games, and conducts analyses on the changing global security environment, the possible nature of future war, the �revolution in military affairs,� and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and other strategic capabilities. He was involved with competitive strategies in the Office of the Secretary of Defense as a military assistant to the director of the Office of Net Assessment from 1980 to 1984 and as special assistant for analysis to the deputy undersecretary of defense for planning and resources from 1987 to 1990.
Steven Berner is president of Berner, Lanphier and Associates, a consulting firm in Rockville, Maryland, specializing in aerospace and defense issues. Mr Berner has over 25 years of experience in evaluating the policy, technology, and operational implications of US and foreign space activities. He has assessed the military, civil, and commercial capabilities and competitiveness of worldwide space programs for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the assistant secretary of the Air Force for space, the intelligence community, the White House�s National Space Council and Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Commerce, and the Office of the US Trade Representative. Mr Berner�s other work includes developing concepts for advanced space systems and assessing the commercial markets for new space and telecommunications products and services.
Dr David Blair is professor of defense economics and of deterrent strategy at the Air War College, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Formerly a Research Fellow at Harvard University and the Naval War College, Dr Blair has done research on a variety of topics in economics and defense, including lean production in the aerospace industry, US vulnerability to surprise attack, the viability of ballistic missile defenses, the Soviet economy, and the Salvadoran land-reform program. Dr Blair, who earned a BA in mathematics from the University of Tennessee and a PhD in economics from UCLA, is currently writing a book on the development and production of the F-22 aircraft.
Dr Brian D. Dailey is currently vice president for business development for Lockheed Martin�s Space and Strategic Missiles Sector. He is responsible for the sector�s domestic and international marketing and business development and for managing its strategic planning and customer relations. Previously he was vice president of Washington Operations for Lockheed Missiles and Space Systems Group, and before that he held the positions of vice president of Lockheed Commercial Space Company and director of commercial programs for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Sunnyvale, California. Dailey came to Lockheed from the White House, where he was executive secretary of the National Space Council. In that capacity, he was responsible for formulating and coordinating US civil, commercial, and national security space policy. Prior to his appointment to this position by President George Bush, he served as senior professional staff member for the Senate Armed Services Committee. He was responsible for all military space and intelligence programs for the Strategic Forces and Nuclear Deterrence Subcommittee. He has served in various capacities in the Department of Defense and research institutes, including a professorship at the US Naval Postgraduate School, where he taught courses on intelligence programs, space policy, arms control, and nuclear targeting, and edited a book on Soviet strategic deception. Dailey is a graduate of the University of Southern California, where he earned a PhD in international relations.
Dr Victor Gilinsky is a Washington, D.C.�based consultant on energy. He has been active on proliferation issues for many years, going back to his early work at RAND in Santa Monica, California. He joined RAND soon after receiving a PhD in physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1961. In 1971 he moved to the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington, D.C., where he was assistant director for policy and program review. From 1973 to 1975, he was head of the RAND Physical Sciences Department. From 1975 to 1984, he served on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having been appointed by President Gerald Ford and reappointed by President Jimmy Carter. During his NRC tenure, Dr Gilinsky was heavily involved in nuclear-export issues. In 1982 he received Caltech�s Distinguished Alumnus Award.
Dennis M. Gormley is vice president for policy research at the Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation in Arlington, Virginia. Before joining Pacific-Sierra in 1979, he served as head of foreign intelligence at the US Army�s Harry Diamond Laboratories in Washington, D.C. During 1984 he was a research associate at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. He has frequently served on Department of Defense advisory committees, has furnished expert testimony to Congress on national security issues, and has served as a consultant to Sandia National Laboratories and RAND. Besides authoring or coauthoring over two dozen technical reports for government customers, he is author of the book Double Zero and Soviet Military Strategy (1988). Mr Gormley has also contributed chapters to several edited books, and his work has appeared in such periodicals as Arms Control Today, Military Review, Orbis, RUSI Journal, Survival, and Washington Quarterly.
Geoffrey Kemp is director of the Middle East Arms Control Project at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He received his BA and MA degrees from Oxford University and his PhD in political science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served in the White House during the first Reagan administration and was special assistant to the president for national security affairs and senior director for Near East and South Asian affairs on the National Security Council staff. In the 1970s, he worked in the Defense Department�s Policy Planning Office and Program Analysis and Evaluation Office, making major contributions to studies of US security policy and options for Southwest Asia. While working for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in 1976, he prepared a widely publicized report on US military sales to Iran. From 1970 to 1980, he was on the faculty of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Dr Kemp is the author of The Control of the Middle East Arms Race (1991), coeditor of Arms Control and Weapons Proliferation in the Middle East and South Asia (1992), coauthor of India and America after the Cold War (1993), author of Forever Enemies? American Policy and the Islamic Republic of Iran (1994), and coeditor of Powder Keg in the Middle East: The Struggle for Gulf Security (1995).
Edward McGaffigan, Jr., is currently senior policy advisor to Sen Jeff Bingaman (D-N.Mex.). From April 1989 to May 1991, he served as legislative director for the senator, and from February 1983 until March 1989, he worked as national security, science and technology legislative assistant for the senator. Throughout his 12 years with Senator Bingaman, he has supported the senator�s work on technology policy, personnel and acquisition reform, nonproliferation and export-control policy, as well as sustaining New Mexico�s defense laboratories and military bases and diversifying their missions. Mr McGaffigan was a member of the Foreign Service for almost seven years prior to joining Senator Bingaman�s staff. From February 1981 to February 1983, he served as a senior policy analyst and then assistant director in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where he oversaw international scientific cooperation and export-control matters. During much of this period, he held a dual appointment on the National Security Council staff. Previously, Mr McGaffigan carried out various assignments within the State Department dealing with US-Soviet relations and politico-military issues. In his only overseas assignment, he was stationed as a science attach� in the US Embassy in Moscow from July 1978 to April 1980. Prior to joining the Foreign Service in May 1976, Mr McGaffigan worked at RAND on evaluating Japanese science and technology and at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency on strategic arms control issues. Mr McGaffigan grew up in Boston. He majored in physics at Harvard, where he received his bachelor�s degree in 1970 (summa cum laude). He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa his junior year. He holds master�s degrees in physics from California Institute of Technology (1974) and in public policy from Harvard�s Kennedy School of Government (1976). He won a Harvard National Scholarship, a Sheldon Travelling Fellowship, a National Science Foundation Fellowship, a Woodrow Wilson Foundation Fellowship, a Millikan Fellowship, and a Harvard National Graduate Fellowship during his academic career.
K. Scott McMahon is a national security analyst with the Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation in Arlington, Virginia, where he conducts studies in US foreign policy and defense policy. Since 1987 he has focused on evaluating threats arising from the spread of advanced weaponry in the third world and examining US diplomatic and military options for meeting this challenge. He holds a BA degree in political science from Tulane University and an MA degree in international affairs from American University. Before joining Pacific-Sierra in 1991, he served as director of communications for High Frontier, the organization that pioneered the concept behind the Strategic Defense Initiative. Mr McMahon�s recent publications include Controlling the Spread of Land-Attack Cruise Missiles (coauthor with Dennis M. Gormley, 1995) and Unconventional Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapon Delivery Methods: Whither the �Smuggled Bomb� (1995).
Gary Sick served on the National Security Council staff under Presidents Ford, Carter, and Reagan. He was the principal White House aide for Iran during the Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis and is the author of two books on US policy toward Iran. Mr Sick retired from the Navy with the rank of captain, having served in the Persian Gulf, North Africa, and the Mediterranean. From 1982 to 1987, he was the deputy director for international affairs at the Ford Foundation, where he was responsible for programs relating to US foreign policy. Mr Sick has a PhD in political science from Columbia University, where he is Senior Research Scholar and adjunct professor of international affairs. He is a member of the board of Human Rights Watch in New York and chairman of the advisory committee of Human Rights Watch/Middle East. He is cochairman of the Columbia University Seminar on the Middle East and is a member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies (London) and the Council on Foreign Relations (New York). Mr Sick is the executive director of Gulf/2000, an international research project on political, economic, and security developments in the Persian Gulf, sponsored by Columbia University, with major funding from the W. Alton Jones Foundation and additional support from the Rockefeller and MacArthur Foundations.
Walter B. Slocombe was nominated by President Clinton on 13 July 1994 to be undersecretary of defense for policy and was confirmed by the Senate on 14 September 1994. Prior to this appointment, he served as principal deputy undersecretary of defense for policy since 1 June 1993. Pending his confirmation, he had been a consultant to the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Policy from 21 January 1993. From 1986 to 1993, Mr Slocombe served as a consultant to RAND and the Strategic Air Command Technical Advisory Committee, as a member of the advisory panel for the Office of Technology Assessment studies of strategic command and control, and as chairman of its study of the defense industrial base. He was a member of the advisory councils of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, the National Security Archive, the Center for Naval Analyses Strategy and Forces Division, MIT�s Lincoln National Laboratory, and the Center for National Security Studies at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Mr Slocombe was also on the board of directors of the United States Committee for the International Institute for Strategic Studies. From January 1981 until he joined the Clinton administration, he was a member of the Washington, D.C., law firm of Caplin and Drysdale. He had previously served as deputy undersecretary of defense for policy planning from November 1979 to January 1981 and as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for international security affairs from January 1977 to November 1979. In both positions, he served concurrently as director of the Department of Defense�s SALT Task Force. From 1970 to 1971, he was a research associate at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. In 1969 and 1970, Mr Slocombe was a member of the Program Analysis Office of the National Security Council staff, working on strategic arms control, long-term security policy planning, and intelligence issues.
Henry D. Sokolski is the executive director of the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center and teaches graduate courses on proliferation at Boston University�s Institute of World Politics in Washington, D.C. He is currently completing Armageddon�s Shadow�a book on proliferation. From 1989 to early 1993, Mr Sokolski was a political appointee of the Bush administration and served as deputy for nonproliferation policy in the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Prior to his appointment, Mr Sokolski worked in the secretary�s Office of Net Assessment as a full-time consultant on advanced proliferation issues, served as senior military legislative aide to Sen Dan Quayle (R-Ind.), and was special assistant on nuclear energy matters to Sen Gordon Humphrey (R-N.H.). Mr Sokolski also served briefly as a consultant on proliferation issues to the director of central intelligence�s National Intelligence Council. Prior to public service, Mr Sokolski was a Visiting Scholar at the Heritage Foundation in 1982; a Public Affairs Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford, California, in 1981; and a lecturer at the University of Chicago, Rosary College, and Loyola University. He has written on a variety of proliferation and security issues and has been published in a number of periodicals, including the Wall Street Journal, the Christian Science Monitor, the Washington Post, Orbis, Washington Quarterly, International Defense Review, and the Annals of the Academy of Political and Social Science.
Dr Richard H. Speier is an independent consultant in the Washington, D.C., area. He has worked in the Office of Management and Budget on nuclear and space issues and in the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency on the consequences of nuclear proliferation and the economics of dangerous nuclear technologies. In 1982 he joined the Office of the Secretary of Defense, starting what is now a 30-person office to deal with proliferation. For 10 years, Dr Speier negotiated and then implemented the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). For this, he received a medal for Meritorious Civilian Service from the secretary of defense. After helping to initiate military activities to protect against proliferation, Dr Speier retired from government service in 1994. He has published on nuclear and missile proliferation and is now writing a history of the MTCR.
Kenneth R. Timmerman is president and director of the Middle East Data Project, Inc., a strategic consulting group that publishes The Iran Brief, a monthly newsletter devoted to strategy, policy, and trade. A former staff member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee (1993), he has written on strategic issues and export controls for the editorial page of the Wall Street Journal for the past 10 years and also appears in the New Republic, the American Spectator, Time Magazine, and other publications. His books include Fanning the Flames: Guns, Greed, and Geopolitics in the Gulf War (1987), The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq (1991), and Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Cases of Iran, Syria, and Libya (1992). He has reported extensively from the Middle East for USA Today (1982�83), the Atlanta Constitution (1983�85), Defense and Armament (1985�87), and Newsweek (1986�87); he published Middle East Defense News (Mednews), a confidential newsletter based in Paris, from 1987 to 1993.
Dr Leonard Weiss received a BEE degree from the City College of New York in 1956, an MSEE degree from Columbia University in 1959, and a PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1962, all in electrical engineering. He has been a consultant to industry and government and has held tenured or visiting academic appointments at various universities, including Brown University; University of Maryland; University of California, Berkeley; and UCLA. Dr Weiss is the author of numerous technical papers on various aspects of applied mathematics, especially automatic control. He was a Sloan Foundation Research Fellow from 1966 to 1968 and an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Congressional Fellow in 1976. He was staff director of the Senate Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Services from 1977 to 1981 and minority staff director of the same subcommittee from 1981 to 1987. He is presently staff director of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs. Dr Weiss also serves as chief policy advisor to Sen John Glenn (D-Ohio) in the areas of science and technology, energy, environment, space, nuclear nonproliferation, and government management. He was the chief architect of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978, the General Accounting Office Act of 1980, and the Inspector General Act Amendments of 1988. He led the first comprehensive congressional investigations of the Department of Energy nuclear weapons complex, beginning in 1985. Other legislative contributions have included amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 and provisions of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988.
Christopher Williams is a professional staff member of the House Armed Services Committee. Prior to joining the committee�s staff in 1991, he served as policy analyst and acting director for strategic defense and space arms control policy with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Policy). In this capacity, he also served as executive secretary, US Negotiating Group on Space Arms, US-Soviet Nuclear and Space Talks, Geneva, Switzerland; as executive secretary, Special Independent Review of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Program, requested by President George Bush; and as executive secretary, Joint Defense Science Board�Defense Policy Board Review Summer Study of Tactical/Theater Missile Defenses. Williams also served as legislative assistant for foreign affairs to Rep Robert Lagomarsino (R-Calif.) and as legislative assistant for national security affairs to Sen Orrin Hatch (R-Utah).
Amb Paul Wolfowitz became dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, on 1 January 1994. From 1989 to 1993, Dr Wolfowitz was the undersecretary of defense for policy�the principal civilian official responsible for strategy, plans, and policy under Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney. From 1986 to 1989, he was the US ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia. Before assuming that post, he was assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs (1982�86). Dr Wolfowitz served previously in the federal government in various capacities. His positions included director of policy planning for the Department of State (1981�82), deputy assistant secretary of defense (regional programs) (1977�80), and a variety of positions in the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency during the period 1973�77, including special assistant to the director for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Immediately prior to joining the State Department in 1981, Dr Wolfowitz was visiting associate professor and director of security studies at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. Earlier, he held the position of assistant professor of political science at Yale University (1970�73). In 1993 he was the George F. Kennan Professor of National Security Strategy at the National War College. Dr Wolfowitz received his AB in mathematics and chemistry from Cornell University and his MA and PhD from the University of Chicago in political science and economics.