[Executive Orders]
   Executive Order 12148 directed FEMA to develop a plan to outline how
   their agency would cooperate and respond to a nuclear emergency. They
   established the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP).
   The DoD developed its own set of instructions to complement the
   federal plan on how to respond to nuclear weapons accidents. In
   addition, each military service developed its own set of complementary
   instructions.


EX. ORD. NO. 12148. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Ex. Ord. No. 12148, July 20, 1979, 44 F.R. 43239, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12155, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53071; Ex. Ord. No. 12156, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53073; Ex. Ord. No. 12381, Sept. 8, 1982, 47 F.R. 39795; Ex. Ord. No. 12673, Mar. 23, 1989, 54 F.R. 12571; Ex. Ord. No. 12919, Sec. 904(a)(8), June 3, 1994, 59 F.R. 29533, provided: By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2251 et seq.), the Disaster Relief Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. Chapter 58 note), the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 143; 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (42 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), Section 4 of Public Law 92-385 (86 Stat. 556), Section 43 of the Act of August 10, 1956, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2285), the National Security Act of 1947, as amended (see Short Title note set out under 50 U.S.C. 401), the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2061 et seq.), Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 (set out above), Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 (set out above), the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, as amended (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.), Section 202 of the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 581c) (31 U.S.C. 1531), and Section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and in order to transfer emergency functions to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, it is hereby ordered as follows: SECTION 1. TRANSFERS OR REASSIGNMENTS 1-1. Transfer or Reassignment of Existing Functions. 1-101. All functions vested in the President that have been delegated or assigned to the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, Department of Defense, are transferred or reassigned to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1-102. All functions vested in the President that have been delegated or assigned to the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, are transferred or reassigned to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including any of those functions redelegated or reassigned to the Department of Commerce with respect to assistance to communities in the development of readiness plans for severe weather-related emergencies. 1-103. All functions vested in the President that have been delegated or assigned to the Federal Preparedness Agency, General Services Administration, are transferred or reassigned to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1-104. All functions vested in the President by the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (42 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), including those functions performed by the Office of Science and Technology Policy, are delegated, transferred, or reassigned to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1-2. Transfer or Reassignment of Resources. 1-201. The records, property, personnel and positions, and unexpended balances of appropriations, available or to be made available, which relate to the functions transferred, reassigned, or redelegated by this Order are hereby transferred to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 1-202. The Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall make such determinations, issue such orders, and take all actions necessary or appropriate to effectuate the transfers or reassignments provided by this Order, including the transfer of funds, records, property, and personnel. SEC. 2. MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCY PLANNING AND ASSISTANCE 2-1. General. 2-101. The Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall establish Federal policies for, and coordinate, all civil defense and civil emergency planning, management, mitigation, and assistance functions of Executive agencies. 2-102. The Director shall periodically review and evaluate the civil defense and civil emergency functions of the Executive agencies. In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of those functions, the Director shall recommend to the President alternative methods of providing Federal planning, management, mitigation, and assistance. 2-103. The Director shall be responsible for the coordination of efforts to promote dam safety, for the coordination of natural and nuclear disaster warning systems, and for the coordination of preparedness and planning to reduce the consequences of major terrorist incidents. 2-104. The Director shall represent the President in working with State and local governments and private sector to stimulate vigorous participation in civil emergency preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery programs. 2-105. The Director shall provide an annual report to the President for subsequent transmittal to the Congress on the functions of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The report shall assess the current overall state of effectiveness of Federal civil defense and civil emergency functions, organizations, resources, and systems and recommend measures to be taken to improve planning, management, assistance, and relief by all levels of government, the private sector, and volunteer organizations. 2-2. Implementation. 2-201. In executing the functions under this Order, the Director shall develop policies which provide that all civil defense and civil emergency functions, resources, and systems of Executive agencies are: (a) founded on the use of existing organizations, resources, and systems to the maximum extent practicable; (b) integrated effectively with organizations, resources, and programs of State and local governments, the private sector and volunteer organizations; and (c) developed, tested and utilized to prepare for, mitigate, respond to and recover from the effects on the population of all forms of emergencies. 2-202. Assignments of civil emergency functions shall, whenever possible, be based on extensions (under emergency conditions) of the regular missions of the Executive agencies. 2-203. For purposes of this Order, ''civil emergency'' means any accidental, natural, man-caused, or wartime emergency or threat thereof, which causes or may cause substantial injury or harm to the population or substantial damage to or loss of property. 2-204. In order that civil defense planning continues to be fully compatible with the Nation's overall strategic policy, and in order to maintain an effective link between strategic nuclear planning and nuclear attack preparedness planning, the development of civil defense policies and programs by the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency shall be subject to oversight by the Secretary of Defense and the National Security Council. 2-205. To the extent authorized by law and within available resources, the Secretary of Defense shall provide the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency with support for civil defense programs in the areas of program development and administration, technical support, research, communications, transportation, intelligence, and emergency operations. 2-206. All Executive agencies shall cooperate with and assist the Director in the performance of his functions. 2-3. Transition Provisions. 2-301. The functions which have been transferred, reassigned, or redelegated by Section 1 of this Order are recodified and revised as set forth in this Order at Section 4, and as provided by the amendments made at Section 5 to the provisions of other Orders. 2-302. Notwithstanding the revocations, revisions, codifications, and amendments made by this Order, the Director may continue to perform the functions transferred to him by Section 1 of this Order, except where they may otherwise be inconsistent with the provisions of this Order. SEC. 3. FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT COUNCIL (Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12919, Sec. 904(a)(8), June 3, 1994, 59 F.R. 29533.) SEC. 4. DELEGATIONS 4-1. Delegation of Functions Transferred to the President. 4-101. (Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12155, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53071.) 4-102. The functions vested in the Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization by Sections 103 and 303 of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended by Sections 8 and 50 of the Act of September 3, 1954 (Public Law 779; 68 Stat. 1228 and 1244) (50 U.S.C. 404 and 405), were transferred to the President by Section 1(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) (now set out above), and they are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-103. (a) The functions vested in the Federal Civil Defense Administration or its Administrator by the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2251 et seq.), were transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, and they are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. (b) Excluded from the delegation in subsection (a) is the function under Section 205(a)(4) of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2286(a)(4)), relating to the establishment and maintenance of personnel standards on the merit basis that was delegated to the Director of the Office of Personnel Management by Section 1(b) of Executive Order No. 11589, as amended (Section 2-101(b) of Executive Order No. 12107) (5 U.S.C. 3376 note). 4-104. The Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency is authorized to redelegate, in accord with the provisions of Section 1(b) of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) (now set out above), any of the functions delegated by Sections 4-101, 4-102, and 4-103 of this Order. 4-105. The functions vested in the Administrator of the Federal Civil Defense Administration by Section 43 of the Act of August 10, 1956 (70A Stat. 636) (50 U.S.C. App. 2285), were transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) (now set out above), were subsequently revested in the Director of the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization by Section 512 of Public Law 86-500 (50 U.S.C. App. 2285) (the office was changed to Office of Emergency Planning by Public Law 87-296 (75 Stat. 630) and then to the Office of Emergency Preparedness by Section 402 of Public Law 90-608 (82 Stat. 1194)), were again transferred to the President by Section 1 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) (now set out above), and they are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-106. The functions vested in the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness by Section 16 of the Act of September 23, 1950, as amended (20 U.S.C. 646), and by Section 7 of the Act of September 30, 1950, as amended (20 U.S.C. 241-1), were transferred to the President by Section 1 of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) (now set out above), and they are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-107. That function vested in the Director of the Office of Emergency Preparedness by Section 762(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as added by Section 161(a) of the Education Amendments of 1972, and as further amended (20 U.S.C. 1132d-1(a)), to the extent transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 (50 U.S.C. App. 2271 note) (now set out above), is hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-2. Delegation of Functions Vested in the President. 4-201. The functions vested in the President by the Disaster Relief Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. Chapter 58 note), are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-202. The functions (related to grants for damages resulting from hurricane and tropical storm Agnes) vested in the President by Section 4 of Public Law 92-335 (86 Stat. 556) are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Section (sic) 4-203. The functions vested in the President by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.), except those functions vested in the President by Section 401 (relating to the declaration of major disasters and emergencies) (42 U.S.C. 5170), Section 501 (relating to the declaration of emergencies) (42 U.S.C. 5191), Section 405 (relating to the repair, reconstruction, restoration, or replacement of Federal facilities) (42 U.S.C. 5171), and Section 412 (relating to food coupons and distribution) (42 U.S.C. 5179), are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-204. The functions vested in the President by the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.) are delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-205. Effective July 30, 1979, the functions vested in the President by Section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 714b(h)), are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-206. Effective July 30, 1979, the functions vested in the President by Section 204(f) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (40 U.S.C. 485(f)), are hereby delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 4-207. The functions vested in the President by Section 502 of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2302), are delegated to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. SEC. 5. OTHER EXECUTIVE ORDERS 5-1. Revocations. 5-101. Executive Order No. 10242, as amended, entitled ''Prescribing Regulations Governing the Exercise by the Federal Civil Defense Administrator of Certain Administrative Authority Granted by the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950'', is revoked. 5-102. Sections 1 and 2 of Executive Order No. 10296, as amended, entitled ''Providing for the Performance of Certain Defense Housing and Community Facilities and Service Functions'', are revoked. 5-103. Executive Order No. 10494, as amended, relating to the disposition of remaining functions, is revoked. 5-104. Executive Order No. 10529, as amended, relating to federal employee participation in State and local civil defense programs, is revoked. 5-105. Section 3 of Executive Order No. 10601, as amended, which concerns the Commodity Set Aside, is revoked. 5-106. Executive Order No. 10634, as amended, relating to loans for facilities destroyed or damaged by a major disaster, is revoked. 5-107. Section 4(d)(2) of Executive Order No. 10900, as amended, which concerns foreign currencies made available to make purchases for the supplemental stockpile, is revoked. 5-108. Executive Order No. 10952, as amended, entitled ''Assigning Civil Defense Responsibilities to the Secretary of Defense and Others'', is revoked. 5-109. Executive Order No. 11051, as amended, relating to responsibilities of the Office of Emergency Preparedness, is revoked. 5-110. Executive Order No. 11415, as amended, relating to the Health Resources Advisory Committee, is revoked. 5-111. Executive Order No. 11795, as amended, entitled ''Delegating Disaster Relief Functions Pursuant to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974'', is revoked, except for Section 3 thereof. 5-112. Executive Order No. 11725, as amended, entitled ''Transfer of Certain Functions of the Office of Emergency Preparedness'', is revoked. 5-113. Executive Order No. 11749, as amended, entitled ''Consolidating Disaster Relief Functions Assigned to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development'' is revoked. 5-2. Amendments. 5-201. Executive Order No. 10421, as amended, relating to physical security of defense facilities (formerly set out as a note under 50 U.S.C. 404) is further amended by (a) substituting the ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency'' for ''Director of the Office of Emergency Planning'' in Sections 1(a), 1(c), and 6(b); and, (b) substituting ''Federal Emergency Management Agency'' for ''Office of Emergency Planning'' in Sections 6(b) and 7(b). 5-202. Executive Order No. 10480, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2153 note), is further amended by (a) substituting ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency'' for ''Director of the Office of Emergency Planning'' in Sections 101(a), 101(b), 201(a), 201(b), 301, 304, 307, 308, 310(b), 311(b), 312, 313, 401(b), 401(e), and 605; and, (b) substituting ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency'' for ''Administrator of General Services'' in Sections 305, 501, and 610. 5-203. Section 3(d) of Executive Order No. 10582, as amended, which relates to determinations under the Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10d note) is amended by deleting ''Director of the Office of Emergency Planning'' and substituting therefor ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency''. 5-204. Paragraph 21 of Executive Order No. 10789, as amended (50 U.S.C. 1431 note), is further amended by adding ''The Federal Emergency Management Agency'' after ''Government Printing Office''. 5-205. Executive Order No. 11179, as amended, concerning the National Defense Executive Reserve (50 U.S.C. App. 2153 note), is further amended by deleting ''Director of the Office of Emergency Planning'' in Section 2 and substituting therefor ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency''. 5-206. Section 7 of Executive Order No. 11912, as amended, concerning energy policy and conservation (42 U.S.C. 6201 note), is further amended by deleting ''Administrator of General Services'' and substituting therefor ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency''. 5-207. Section 2(d) of Executive Order No. 11988 entitled ''Floodplain Management'' (42 U.S.C. 4321 note) is amended by deleting ''Federal Insurance Administration'' and substituting therefor ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency''. 5-208. Section 5-3 of Executive Order No. 12046 of March 29, 1978 (47 U.S.C. 305 note), is amended by deleting ''General Services Administration'' and substituting therefor ''Federal Emergency Management Agency'' and by deleting ''Administrator of General Services'' and substituting therefor ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency''. 5-209. Section 1-201 of Executive Order No. 12065 (50 U.S.C. 435 note) is amended by adding ''The Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency'' after ''The Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration'' and by deleting ''Director, Federal Preparedness Agency and to the'' from the parentheses after ''The Administrator of General Services''. 5-210. Section 1-102 of Executive Order No. 12075 of August 16, 1978 (42 U.S.C. 1450 note), is amended by adding in alphabetical order ''(p) Federal Emergency Management Agency''. 5-211. Section 1-102 of Executive Order No. 12083 of September 27, 1978 (42 U.S.C. 7101 note) is amended by adding in alphabetical order ''(z) the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency''. 5-212. Section 9.11(b) of Civil Service Rule IX (5 CFR Part 9) (5 U.S.C. 3301 note) is amended by deleting ''the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency and''. 5-213. (Revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12381, Sept. 8, 1982, 47 F.R. 39795.) 5-214. Executive Order No. 11490, as amended (see note above) is further amended as follows: (a) Delete the last sentence of Section 102(a) and substitute therefor the following: ''The activities undertaken by the departments and agencies pursuant to this Order, except as provided in Section 3003, shall be in accordance with guidance provided by, and subject to, evaluation by the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.''. (b) Delete Section 103 entitled ''Presidential Assistance'' and substitute the following new Section 103: ''Sec. 103 General Coordination. The Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) shall determine national preparedness goals and policies for the performance of functions under this Order and coordinate the performance of such functions with the total national preparedness programs.''. (c) Delete the portion of the first sentence of Section 401 prior to the colon and insert the following: ''The Secretary of Defense shall perform the following emergency preparedness functions''. (d) Delete ''Director of the Federal Preparedness Agency (GSA)'' or ''the Federal Preparedness Agency (GSA)'' and substitute therefor ''Director, FEMA'', in Sections 401(3), 401(4), 401(5), 401(9), 401(10), 401(14), 401(15), 401(16), 401(19), 401(21), 401(22), 501(8), 601(2), 904(2), 1102(2), 1204(2), 1401(a), 1701, 1702, 2003, 2004, 2801(5), 3001, 3002(2), 3004, 3005, 3006, 3008, 3010, and 3013. (e) The number assigned to this Order shall be substituted for ''11051 of September 27, 1962'' in Section 3001, and for ''11051'' in Sections 1802, 2002(3), 3002 and 3008(1). (f) The number assigned to this Order shall be substituted for ''10952'' in Sections 1103, 1104, 1205, and 3002. (g) Delete ''Department of Defense'' in Sections 502, 601(1), 804, 905, 1103, 1104, 1106(4), 1205, 2002(8), the first sentence of Section 3002, and Sections 3008(1) and 3010 and substitute therefor ''Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.''. SEC. 6. This Order is effective July 15, 1979. (Section 1-106 of Ex. Ord. No. 12155, which enacted sections 4-205 and 4-206 of Ex. Ord. No. 12148, was revoked by Pub. L. 100-180, div. C, title II, Sec. 3203(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247.) ___________________________________________________________________