Weapon Systems Intelligence Integration (WSII) Handbook; June 1999
This chapter presents a brief overview of the key roles and functions of some of the organizations that a WSIIO may work with throughout the ISP development process. This is not a complete list but should provide a solid foundation from which to work.
5.1. The Air Staff. Under supervision of the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (CSAF), the Air Staff serves as the military staff of the Secretary of the Air Force (SAF) and is responsible for the efficiency and operational readiness of the Air Force. The Air Staff organization, shown in Figure 5.1, is primarily concerned with, and plays a vital role in providing resources to the Air Force Major Commands (MAJCOM); ensuring that operational forces are properly trained, equipped, and maintained; and providing overall guidance and support to the operating commands. The Air Staff is the focal point for the documentation, coordination, and oversight of requirements within the Air Force. All weapon system requirements for Air Force MAJCOMs are coordinated, evaluated, and approved by the Air Staff.
Figure 5.1 -- The Air Staff.
5.1.1. Deputy Chief of Staff for Air and Space Operations (AF/XO). As the Air and Space Operations Deputy for the Chief of Staff, AF/XO is primarily responsible for formulating Air Staff positions on matters under consideration by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and National Security Council (NSC), and is the single point of contact (POC) in Headquarters United States Air Force (HQ USAF) for JCS and NSC related matters.
Primary areas of responsibility include the following:
Develop Air Force positions on strategy, policy, and objectives
Plan, implement, and support aerospace operations.
Justify operations and operational plans before the proper elements of the Department of Defense (DoD) and other government agencies.
Serve as the office of primary responsibility (OPR) for unilateral and joint war planning, operational training and readiness, command, control and communications, and politico-military affairs for active and reserve Air Forces.
Assist the Chief of Staff in providing operationally ready forces in response to the needs of the unified and specified commands.
Prepare operational concepts and doctrine for employing air and space weapon systems, and directs the Air Force Operations Group (AFOG).
Ensure development and management of worldwide command, control and communications systems support for National Command Authority (NCA) and Air Force requirements.
Establish policy for the Air Force operational requirements process. Support major command (MAJCOM) requirements development and evaluation, mission need and modification prioritization, and initial planning through acquisition milestone I.
Develop and implement weather concepts, doctrines, policies, plans and programs and integration and interoperability standards to ensure effective weather support for the US Air Force, Army, JCS, selected Unified and Specified Commands, National Programs, and other agencies as directed by the Chief of Staff of the Air Force.
Ensure information dominance in peace, crisis and war. Responsible for providing intelligence to the Secretary of the Air Force, the Chief of Staff, the Air Staff, and as required, Air Force commands regarding military threats to the security of the United States and its allies.
Establish Air Force policy and strategy on nuclear weapon systems and other weapons of mass destruction.
Ensure Air Force compliance with existing and planned treaties and agreements.
Develop Air Force nuclear operations, planning, evaluation and training guidance.
Support MAJCOM treaty implementation/compliance and nuclear force operations.
Ensure the safety and surety of the Air Force nuclear stockpile.
Serve as Air Staff focal point on joint matters.
AF/XO is composed of the following directorates:
Command & Control (XOC)
Security Forces (XOF)
Intel, Surveillance & Recon (XOI)
Joint Matters (XOJ)
Operations & Training (XOO)
Expeditionary Aerospace Force Implementation (XOP)
Operational Requirements (XOR)
Executive Support (XOS)
220.127.116.11. Directorate of Command and Control (AF/XOC). XOC supports the warfighter in all USAF and joint modeling, simulation and analysis activities; oversee development of command and control process, integration and employment; develop USAF operational strategy, concepts, and doctrine; and battle management, electronic combat, and tactical command and control. It includes the following divisions:
Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis Programs Division (AF/XOCA)
Strategy, Concepts, and Doctrine Division (AF/XOCS)
Command and Control Employment Division (AF/XOCE)
Command and Control Process & Integration Division (AF/XOCI)
Modeling, Simulation and Analysis Policy & Standards Division (AF/XOCP)
Wargaming Support Division (AF/XOCW)
18.104.22.168. Directorate of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AF/XOI). XOI provides information dominance in peace, crisis and war supporting operating forces, the weapon system acquisition community, and policymakers. AF/XOI sets policy, issues guidance and provides oversight to the Air Force Intelligence Community. The directorate is comprised of three divisions and one field operating agency.
Figure 5.2 - AF Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Structure.
22.214.171.124.1. Associate Director for Intelligence (AF/XOII).
Communicates the strategic vision of Air Force Intelligence, and oversees the development, issuance and implementation of long-range plans for the mission, organization, systems and functions of Air Force Intelligence.
Evaluates the Air Force Intelligence mission, organization, functions, plans, infrastructure, systems and architectures for responsiveness to and satisfaction of Air Force and Joint requirements.
Conducts planning for Air Force Intelligence mission, organization, systems and functions.
126.96.36.199.2. Deputy for Surveillance and Reconnaissance Systems (AF/XOIR).
Serves as the Air Force functional manager for all intelligence, reconnaissance, surveillance, collection, processing, analysis, exploitation, dissemination and applications systems.
Serves as the Air Force policy focal point for space-related intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance matters and activities.
188.8.131.52.3. Deputy Director for Information Operations (XOIW).
Serves as the functional manager for intelligence support to Information Warfare.
Develops and oversees policy regarding all matters concerning Air Force Intelligence support for Information Warfare.
Develops and provides policy recommendations on programming and budget estimates for Information Assurance.
Assists in the development of the strategic vision and doctrine for Information Warfare within the Air Force.
Articulates, advocates, and coordinates Air Force positions on Information Warfare.
Serves as the Air Force representative to the Air Staff, DOD, other services, the Intelligence Community, policy working groups, committees, and boards which impact on USAF intelligence support to Information Warfare.
Interfaces with OSD, the Joint Staff, NSA, DIA, CIA, NRO, DISA, DARO, and NIMA on appropriate Information Warfare matters.
Performs quick reaction responses and prepares senior Air Force leadership on issues relating to Information Warfare.
Develops and provides policy recommendations on programming and budget estimates for Information Warfare.
Monitors intelligence planning and programming initiatives for impact on Information Warfare mission areas.
Evaluates ongoing and planned Information Warfare systems to ensure they are optimized for interoperability and integration with other intelligence systems and with the overall command, control, and communications network.
Serves as the Air Force representative to the Air Staff, DOD, other services, the Intelligence Community, policy working groups, committees, and boards which affect USAF intelligence support to Information Warfare.
184.108.40.206.4. Air Intelligence Agency (AIA). AIA is the Air Force Intelligence field operating agency (FOA). Major functions include:
Provide direct intelligence, security, electronic combat, foreign technology, and treaty-monitoring support to national decision-makers and field air component commanders.
Develop principles and doctrines of information dominance for application in future warfare.
Provide combat commanders with data enabling them to decide when to exploit, jam, deceive or destroy hostile military communications.
Provide Scientific & Technical Intelligence (S&TI) support.
Provide tailored intelligence assessments in support of Air Staff planning and policy formulation.
Conduct USAF Sensitive Compartmented Information (SCI) security functions.
Assist Air Force components in the development of concepts, exercises and employment of agency assets to support low-intensity conflict, counterdrug and special operations.
Provide nuclear intelligence production and support.
Provide Air Force-unique intelligence production and support.
220.127.116.11.4.1. 497th Intelligence Group (497 IG). The 497 IG provides support to Air Staff, MAJCOMs, operational commanders, and other specified customers. This support includes security clearance adjudication and policy implementation; intelligence system integration management; weapon system acquisition, integration and sustainment support; functional management for targeting and geospatial applications and other activities as specified by the AIA Commander.
18.104.22.168.4.2. National Air Intelligence Center (NAIC). NAIC is the Air Forces General Military Intelligence (GMI) and Scientific and Technical Intelligence (S&TI) production center. Of particular interest to a WSIIO is the special relationship NAIC has with the acquisition community. NAIC provides direct intelligence support to System Program Offices (SPO) at the Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC) at Wright-Patterson AFB. In addition, NAIC is responsible for developing all Air Force System Threat Assessment Reports (STAR), System Threat Assessments (STA) and Threat Environment Descriptions (TED).
22.214.171.124. Directorate of Joint Matters (AF/XOJ). XOJ is responsible for the development and articulation of Air Force positions on issues before the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC), and National Security Council (NSC). It includes the following divisions:
Joint and NSC Matters Division (AF/XOJP)
JROC/Issues & Actions Division (AF/XOJR)
126.96.36.199. Directorate of Nuclear and Counterproliferation (AF/XON). XON is responsible for establishing Air Force policy and strategy on nuclear weapon systems, other weapons of mass destruction, and counterproliferation; for managing all aspects of the Air Force arms control process; developing Air Force nuclear operations, planning, evaluation and training guidance; supporting MAJCOM treaty implementation/compliance and nuclear force operations; and ensuring the safety and surety of the Air Force nuclear stockpile. It includes the following divisions:
Operations Division (AF/XONO)
Policy Division (AF/XONP)
188.8.131.52. Directorate of Operations and Training (AF/XOO). XOO is responsible for developing and overseeing implementation of operational policy governing the training, readiness and employment of USAF aerospace forces in support of national policy. It includes the following divisions:
AF Associate Directorate of Operations for Civil Aviation (AF/XOO-A)
CHECKMATE Division (AF/XOOC)
Special Management Division (AF/XOOM)
Air Force Operations Group (AF/XOOO)
Technical Plans Division (AF/XOOP)
Range & Airspace Division (AF/XOOR)
Special Operations Division (AF/XOOS)
Training Division (AF/XOOT)
Regional Plans and Issues Division (AF/XOOX)
184.108.40.206. Directorate of Requirements (AF/XOR). XOR is responsible for establishing policy for the Air Force operational requirements process; ensures the strategy-to-task bridge between USAF long range vision, the Extended Planning Annex and program acquisition; serves as primary interface with corporate structure at Panel, Group, and Board levels; supports MAJCOM modernization planning; directs Air Force requirements development and acquisition program planning through Milestone I; chairs and directs the Air Force Requirements Oversight Council (AFROC); and approves all USAF Mission Need Statements (MNS) and Operational Requirements Documents (ORDs). It includes the following divisions:
Requirements Management (AF/XORD)
Battlelab Integration (AF/XORB)
Programs, Budget & Congressional Activities (AF/XORP)
Combat Forces Requirements (XORC)
Space and Reconnaissance Requirements (XORR)
Weapons Requirements (XORW)
Mobilty Requirements (XORM)
Command and Control Requirements (XORI)
Missile Defense Requirements (XORT)
Joint Tactical Air-to-Air Missile Office (XOR-JTAAMO)
USAF International Standardization Office (XOR-ISO)
220.127.116.11. Directorate of Weather (AF/XOW). XOW is responsible for the development and implementation of weather concepts, doctrine, policies, plans and programs, integration and interoperability standards to ensure effective weather support for the Air Force, Army, JCS, selected Unified and Specified Commands, national programs, and others as directed by CSAF. It includes the following divisions:
Policy Division (AF/XOWP)
Resources Division (AF/XOWR)
Plans Division (AF/XOWX)
5.1.2. Director of Communications and Information (AF/SC). The mission of AF/SC is to produce a C4 environment optimized for the control and exploitation of air and space. Major functions include:
Establish and implement Air Force C4 policy
Advise and consult on C4 requirements
Manage the structure, training and career progression of the Air Force C4 workforce
Establish parameters for C4I architectures and system solutions
Oversee allocations of resources for C4 systems
5.2. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition) (SAF/AQ). SAF/AQ is responsible for the overall supervision of the Air Force acquisition system. The SAF/AQ serves as the Air Force Acquisition Executive (AFAE) and Procurement Executive (AFPE). SAF/AQ carries out the management responsibilities for the Air Force acquisition system. General responsibilities include direction, guidance and supervision over all matters pertaining to the formulation, review, approval, and execution of plans, policies and programs relative to acquisition.
5.2.1. Program Element Monitors (PEM). The Air Force manages programs by Program Element (PE). A PE may be made up of one single defense system (e.g., the C-17) or it may be a composite of several related efforts (e.g., advanced avionics or flight vehicle systems). An action officer from the responsible organization within SAF/AQ is assigned as a PEM for a given PE. The PEM is the Air Force focal point on funding (required and actual), technical content, and schedule for those elements/programs in the PE. The PEM prepares and coordinates all PE inputs to the Air Force requirements, budget and acquisition processes and monitors the review, evaluation and maintenance of all pertinent data on a PE.
5.2.2. Program Executive Officers (PEO). To streamline the acquisition reporting chain, the Air Force established the PEO in the command line between the AFAE and System Program Director (SPD) for Major and Selected acquisition programs. Each PEO is responsible for a number of mission-related programs that collectively comprise the PEOs portfolio. The PEO is directly responsible and accountable to the AFAE for the execution of his portfolio of programs. The PEO organization is a field agency reporting directly to the AFAE and is not part of the SAF/AQ staff.
5.3. National Intelligence Organizations. WSIIOs will frequently need to interact with a variety of national intelligence organizations to effectively manage ISP development and implementation.
5.3.1. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). DIA is responsible for integrating national-level intelligence into Defense applications and organizations. DIAs mission is to ensure the satisfaction of the full range of foreign military and military-related intelligence requirements for the Department of Defense. As a statutory combat support agency, DIA provides support to the Secretary of Defense, Chairman of The Joint Chiefs of Staff, Office of The Secretary of Defense, Joint Staff, Military Departments, Unified Commands and other Defense and Non-Defense consumers, as appropriate.
5.3.2. National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). Established in 1996, NIMA was created to centralize responsibilities for imagery and geospatial information and better exploit advances in collection systems and digital technology. NIMAs mission is to provide timely, relevant, and accurate imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information in support of national security objectives. As such, NIMA manages the United States Imagery and Geospatial System (USIGS) and is responsible for providing imagery and geospatial information and analysis to the U.S. national security and civil communities, and Americas global allies. NIMAs mission also includes production and worldwide distribution of maps, charts, precise positioning data, safety of flight and navigation information supporting the full range of military operations. NIMA provides nautical charts and marine navigational data for private yachtsmen and the worldwide merchant marine industry. Chartered as a DoD combat support agency and a national intelligence agency, NIMA is under the budgetary and management authority of both the Secretary of Defense and Director of Central Intelligence.
5.3.3. National Security Agency (NSA). The NSA/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) mission is to protect the security of U.S. signals and information systems and provide signals intelligence (SIGINT) derived from those of our adversaries. Among other functions, NSA manages the United States SIGINT System (USSS). Chartered as a DoD combat support agency and a national intelligence agency, NIMA is under the budgetary and management authority of both the Secretary of Defense and Director of Central Intelligence. Note: any SIGINT requirements generated by an ISP must be coordinated with NSA.
5.3.4. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). The NRO was established to meet the U.S. Governments intelligence needs through spaceborne reconnaissance. The NRO is an agency of the Department of Defense (DoD) and receives its budget through that portion of the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) known as the National Reconnaissance Program (NRP), which is approved both by the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). The existence of the NRO was declassified by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, as recommended by the DCI, on September 18, 1992. The mission of the NRO in the 21st century is to enable U.S. Government and military information superiority, during peace through war. The NRO is responsible for development of specialized technology, large-scale systems engineering, acquisition, and operation of space reconnaissance systems and related intelligence activities required to support global information superiority.