Strategic, Departmental, and Operational IEW Operations
Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA)
The Land Information Warfare Activity (LIWA), a Headquarters Department of the Army
operations support activity assigned to the Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM),
provides multi- discipline Information Operations (IO) support to the U.S. Army's component and
major commands. LIWA has broad authority to coordinate IO topics and establish contact with
Army organizations, USN, USAF, and JCS IO Centers, and with DoD and National Agency IO
LIWA has broad authority to coordinate IO topics and establish contact with Army
organizations, USN, USAF, and JCS IO Centers, and with DoD and National Agency IO
Figure 3-graphically portrays the commands, agencies and organizations LIWA routinely
coordinates with to support IO planning, and operations. The oval in the center represents LIWA,
the circles on the perimeter of the oval depict the organizations LIWA coordinates with as it
provides IO support to the field. LIWA also interfaces with the other organizations shown on a
frequent and continuing basis to deal with issues related to policy, programs, concepts, doctrine,
IO planning, and operational support.
IO Strategic Role
The strategic goal of IO is to promote freedom of action for U.S. Forces while hindering
adversary efforts. U.S. Army IO integrate all aspects of information to support and enhance the
elements of combat power, with the goal of dominating the battle space at the right time, at the
right place, and with the right weapons or resources. Activities to support IO include acquiring,
using, protecting, managing, exploiting, and denying information and information systems. The
strategic purpose of IO is to secure peacetime national security objectives, deter conflict,
protect DoD information and information systems, and to shape the information environment. If
deterrence fails, IO seeks to achieve U. S. information dominance in order to attain specific
objectives against potential adversaries in time of crisis or conflict. Information Operations focus
on maximizing friendly information capabilities, while degrading the opponent's information
Army component commands may perform strategic missions such as employment of deep
strike weapons, special forces, and other special capabilities. Information operations broadens
the scope of strategic and EAC military operations. Emerging high technology military
capabilities may be employed independently as stand-alone actions supporting national security
objectives. When these capabilities are employed in a military operation they become part of
the IO planning strategy under the control of a Unified or Joint Task Force (JTF) commander.
Coordination with U.S. Army intelligence and operational threat analysis activities is essential
for IO planning and operations.
Operational commanders weigh the advantages to be gained by countering adversary C2
nodes against the potential loss of intelligence from enemy signatures, radiation, or emissions, and
the need to to protect intelligence sources and methods. In some cases, the decision authority to
destroy or degrade an adversary's higher command echelons will be held at the national strategic
level. Assistance in understanding an adversary's information system and his cycle of information
processing is available through the Defense Intelligence Agency's (DIA) Tailored Analytical
Intelligence Support to Individual Projects (TASIP).
The U.S. Army may be called upon to assist with Information Operations of another
services, joint commands, National agencies, or allied forces as authorized by CJCSI 3210.01,
DoD 3600.1, and AR 525-20. The U.S. Army could be assigned a specific IO mission by the
National Command Authority (NCA), through the National Military Command Authority
(NMCA), to an Army component of a unified command. The Joint term IW connotes the
application of C2-Attack means to degrade or destroy an adversary’s information system and to
protect friendly command and control. Information Operations, unlike Information Warfare,
are conducted continuously, e.g. defensive IO measures are applied routinely on a day-to-day
basis. As a subset of IO, C2W is the application of IO strategy during military operations by
engaging specific C2 targets. C2-Attack calls for the coordinated employment of destruction,
deception, operations security, psychological warfare and electronic warfare, synchronized
with the main operation.
The LIWA IO Role
LIWA teams support the Army Commander’s goal of achieving Information dominance
with the other JTF components or organizations. LIWA’s purpose is to provide Army
commands with technical expertise that is not resident on the command’s general or special
staff, and to exercise technical interfaces with other commands, service components, and
National, DoD, and joint information centers. When deployed, LIWA FSTs become an
integral part of the command’s IO staff. To facilitate planning and execution of IO, LIWA
provides IO/C2W operational support to land component and separate Army commands, and
reserve components commands as required.
The mission of the LIWA is to provide IW/ IO support to the land component and major/
separate Army commands, active and reserve component (AC/ RC), to facilitate planning
and execution of information operations (IO).
Act as the focal point for Land IO.
Coordination with U.S. Army intelligence and operational threat analysis activities is
essential for IO planning and operations.
Coordinate, arrange for, and synchronize intelligence and counterintelligence support.
Coordinate and deploy field support teams (FST) to assist and support the landcomponent commands in C2- Protect and C2- Attack.
Coordinate and deploy FSTs to provide battlefield deception support.
Coordinate and assist TRADOC in the development and integration of doctrine, training,leader development, organization, materiel, and soldier requirements for IO.
Act as the combat developer for C2- Attack and C2- Protect systems.
Develop IO models and simulations in support of IO systems development, planning,training, and exercises.
Assist in the development and integration of IO requirements in Army modernizationstrategy and policy scenarios, modeling, and simulations.
Initiate and coordinate requirements for IO area studies.
Assist in the development and evaluation of IO systems performance and operationalemployment tactics, techniques, and procedures in combat operations, operational tests, and training exercises.
Identify technology for possible application to Army IO.
Establish, develop, and promote IO interoperability with other services and allies.
Assess IO force readiness and IO operational capabilities.
Conduct IO vulnerability analyses of Army commands.
Develop and sustain a rapid response capability to combat attempted penetrations of ArmyC2 systems and processes.
Develop and coordinate requirements for operational IO from National and Defense reconnaissance.
Identify and report changes in worldwide signature information that may require thesoftware rapid reprogramming of Army Target Sensing Systems (ATSS), i. e.,
smart/ brilliant munitions, sensors, processors, and aviation electronic combat survivability
Organization and Tasks
LIWA's functional support structure is shown in Figure 3- 3, followed by a descriptive statement
of the tasks and functions assigned to each LIWA component.
Office of the Director
Directs, controls, and coordinates all Information Operations activities in support of National,
land component, and separate Army commands, active and reserve component, and interfaces
with other IO/ IW commands, activities, and agencies. Positions liaison personnel with selected
agencies and IO centers.
Field Support Teams
Field Support Teams (FST) normally augment the Army or Land Component Command
with IO expertise similar to the way JC2WC teams support the JTF or CINC.FST will also
support Army divisions and corps when needed to plan and implement information operations
below the Army component command level. Team members consist of a need- driven mix of
PSYOP, deception, OPSEC, EW, C2- Protect, C2- Attack, and intelligence specialties. When
deployed, the FST becomes an integral part of the supported command's IO cell. The FST is
structured to fill gaps in the command's IO cell, provide connectivity to CONUS resident
agencies and databases supporting IO, and coordinate with the IO cells at the JTF or CINC level,
as well as with the IW staff elements from other component commands in the operational area.
The Joint Command and Control Warfare Center (JC2WC), under the operational control of the JCS, provides the combatant
commands and JTFs teams of command and control warfare specialists. Each JC2WC team has a habitual relationship with a supported command. Teams provide technical and operational specialists to support IO planning, operations, and exercises. The JC2WC emerged
from the former Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC), transitioning from purely EW to encompass all elements of C2W.
FSTs will be deployed to support operations ranging from peace keeping to major regional
conflicts. FSTs also support operational planning, wargames, exercises, and training programs.
The FST is structured to fill gaps in the command's IO cell, provide connectivity to
CONUS resident agencies and databases supporting IO, and coordinate with the IO cells
at the JTF or CINC level, as well as with the IW staff elements from other component
commands in the operational area.
The LIWA Red Team provides an Information Operations Vulnerability Assessment capability
and an independent opposing force (OPFOR) type of capability to the Army component
commands, the Army acquisition community, and separate Army commands. The Red Team
provides a capability to assess the vulnerability of U. S. information, information systems, and
IOVAP: The Information Operations Vulnerability Assessments Program (IOVAP) providesthe supported command a perspective of the command's susceptibility to an opponent's C2W
operations. The IOVAP can be focused on garrison activities, field exercises, or both. In
addition to isolating a command's vulnerabilities, the team recommends ways to reduce those
vulnerabilities, allowing commanders to apply remedial action on the spot. In addition, the
team will provide limited training to system managers on protection tools and procedures.
OPFOR: The Red Team has the capability of assembling an independent C2W opposing force
(OPFOR) to support exercises, and experiments. The size and composition of the OPFOR will
vary by type of exercise, and by what must be learned about the command's vulnerability.
Army warfighting experiments (AWE) involving brigade or division size elements may require
high- technology intelligence systems and processors from the National level down to tactical
Army systems, as well as systems from other services and agencies to provide the high-
resolution information required. Other IO OPFOR operations may be successfully conducted
using local collection systems.
Army Computer Emergency Response Team (ACERT)
ACERT's mission is to conduct Command and Control Protect (C2- Protect) operations in
support of Army commanders worldwide. The objective is to ensure the availability, integrity and
confidentiality of the information and information systems used in planning, coordinating,
directing and controlling forces. ACERT supports systems administrators reporting suspicious
activity on their computer networks. ACERT also has the responsibility of keeping Army
leadership informed of incidents, and promulgating alerts and warnings based on information
collected from a variety of sources.
Army Reprogramming and Analysis Team- Threat Analysis (ARAT- TA)
The ARAT- TA, supports warfighters, the commodity commands' post- deployment software
support (PDSS) centers, and combat and materiel developers. ARAT- TA identifies and reports
changes in worldwide signature information requiring reprogramming of Army Target Sensing
Systems (ATSS) software. Army Target Sensing Systems include smart and brilliant munitions,
sensors, processors and aviation electronic combat survivability equipment. Identified threat
signature changes are "flashed" to tactical units' subscribers over the ARAT Project Office
electronic bulletin board.
Army Rapid Reprogramming Analysis Team Program Office (ARAT PO): Established in 1994 with a charter through 1999, the ARAT
PO acts as the technical intermediary between the CECOM Systems Engineering Center and ARAT- TA on matters related to rapid reprogramming of Army Target Sensing Systems (ATSS). ARAT PO developed the Memory Loader Verified (MLV) to reprogram the
memory of ATSS when the threat changes, or when the Army deploys to an operational area with a threat array unlike the one the deploying unit' TSS were programmed to handle.
Advanced Programs Division
The Advanced Programs Division leads LIWA in the innovation, development, and
employment of advanced IO/ C2W capabilities (C2- Protect and C2- Attack) using multi- disciplined
approaches. The Division monitors technology advancements, looking for opportunities to
advance the state of the art in C2- Attack and C2- Protect capabilities. Modeling and simulations
are used extensively to support the combat development process. The Advanced Programs
Division acts as the IO combat developer, in close coordination with TRADOC. The Division
explores lethal, non- lethal, destructive, and nondestructive means to meet information dominance
requirements in peacetime, conflict, war, and military operations other than war (MOOTW). The
Advanced Programs Division is the focal point for technology transfer opportunities.
The Support Division consolidates LIWA intelligence and support activities. The Division
manages the overall support functions including security, intelligence, information management,
and resource management. Members of the Support Division may augment other LIWA teams
during deployments, as required.
As noted in Figure 3- 2, LIWA interfaces with numerous agencies and organizations within the
intelligence community, the Army Staff, supported commands, TRADOC, AMC, other services,
and National agencies to coordinate IO. In some cases the LIWA provides resident liaison
personnel to assist with daily IO support missions. Conversely, some organizations have liaison
personnel assigned to the LIWA to coordinated other service and organization strategic and
operational level missions. These relationships, Figure 3- 4, enables LIWA to rapidly coordinated
the sensitive and critical components of strategic IO planning.
Tailored support is provided on a case- by- case basis depending on the needs of the supported
command. Type of support provided as shown in Figure 3- 5, and composition of the various
teams is determined through coordination between the supported command and LIWA; DA
DCSOPS- OD is the ARSTAF approving authority.
Figure 3- 6, The Information Operations Foundation, graphically illustrates LIWA's role
supporting both the operational and institutional components of the U. S. Army. As an INSCOM
activity, working closely with the ARSTAF, LIWA supports or exchanges information within the
Army and DoD. On a mission basis, LIWA interfaces with non- DoD agencies and bureaus.
Type Operations and Core Competencies
As depicted in Figure 3- 7, LIWA functions combine into three interrelated core competencies: IO Operations, IO Intelligence Support, and Future IO Requirements. Combined, these core
competencies significantly enhance the Total Army's ability to achieve and sustain Information
Dominance across the full spectrum of military operations.
IO Operational Expertise: LIWA's Operations Division contains a mix of military and DA civilian
personnel with a variety of skills including combat arms, special operations, aviation,
communications and computer specialists, and intelligence analysts. Personnel with tactical and
operational- level training and experience and are capable of operating in joint and combined
operational environments. Contractor personnel with additional specialties augment the
Operations Division as required. The IO operational expertise (C2- Attack, C2- Protect, and C2-
Exploit) represented by this array of skills and experience is task organized on a mission- by-
mission basis into teams, and deployed to support Army commands.
IO Intelligence Support: LIWA's structure contains a small intelligence organization designed to
be the focal point for IO intelligence support. The value of this organization resides in its ability to
respond rapidly to field- generated, IO- unique intelligence requirements, and to forward and track
requests for IO intelligence support. A mix of intelligence specialties, supported by automation
and connectivity to DIA, NSA, joint intelligence centers and IW cells of the other services, allows
LIWA to request and receive IO specific data from multiple sources. In addition, LIWA provides
liaison personnel to selected intelligence organizations, increasing their awareness of Army IO
needs and facilitating the exchange of IO- related intelligence. LIWA intelligence analysts provide
deployed teams with sharply focused IO area studies, IO targeting products, and quick-response
one-of-a-kind reports designed to meet specific needs from the field.
Future IO Requirements and Capabilities: LIWA conducts and participates in studies, wargames
and exercises designed to identify future IO requirements and capabilities. Models and simulations
are developed to support analysis and decision making. Working closely with government,
industry, and academia, LIWA looks for opportunities to apply advanced technology against IO
requirements using commercial, off- the- shelf hardware and software. The dynamic nature of C2-
related technology, and RDA funding constraints places a premium on off- the- shelf applications,
and low density procurements. Information Operations, directed against opponents employing
advanced commercial C2 systems, may require state- of- the- art systems to effectively attack,
exploit, an opponent's C2 systems, or to protect friendly systems.
The following matrix portrays the type of operations LIWA supports and the LIWA core
compabilities associated with each.
Mobilization and Reserve Component Integration
The LIWA is heavily dependent upon both Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMAs) and
Drilling Individual Mobilization Augmentees (DIMAs) to provide valuable IO support during
IMAs and DIMAs will serve in the LIWA Support Center providing intelligence and
communications support to deployed LIWA Field Support Teams (FST). Support includes C2W
Target Folders, Information IPB studies, and specialized C2W area studies. Reservists assigned to
LIWA Field Support Teams contribute to OPLAN IO planning and targeting for Army commands
and perform specialized C2W targeting and intelligence functions. Reservists will also augment
the Army Computer Emergency Response Team contributing to the protection of Army computer
systems and networks.
Command and Control
The Commander, Headquarters Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM- IAOPS)
provides command, personnel, resources, security, UCMJ authority, administration, and logistics
support for the LIWA. HQDA (DAMO- ODI), Director of Operations, Readiness and
Mobilization exercises operational tasking authority of the LIWA including IW, IO, and C2W
operational support policy and program planning guidance.
As shown in Figure 3- 7, Army organizations should address messages and correspondence
requesting LIWA assistance to one of the following, with copy furnished to Director LIWA.
Informal contact and coordination between the requesting command and LIWA are
encouraged and should be exercised extensively as soon as a request for support is contemplated.
As shown in Figure 3- 8, contact with the Director LIWA or his staff can be established using any
of the following means:
Validation and Approval Authorities
All request for LIWA support will be validated and approved by HQ Department of Army
(DAMO- ODI). Requesting organizations will receive confirmation of all requested support
through official communication channels.
Upon receipt of the request, DAMO- ODI coordinates the action within the ARSTAF, JCS,
and other services and agencies if required, and with the Director LIWA and the G3 INSCOM.
DAMO- ODI either tasks INSCOM (LIWA) to provide the requested support, or adjusts support
requirements in coordination with the requesting command. Organizations requesting LIWA
support are cautioned not to irreversibly plan for LIWA assistance until confirmation is received.
LIWA priorities for support, as directed by the Army Vice Chief of Staff, are:
1. Contingency Operations
2. Army XXI Initiatives
3. Combat Training Center Exercises (BCTP, JRTC, NTC, AAN etc.)
4. Service School Support
5. Routine Operational Support