The collection management process does not dramatically change
with echelon or operation (joint, combined, or interagency). Organization,
terminology, and tools may vary, but the steps stay the same.
The following covers considerations in applying the collection
management process at different echelons and during different
types of military operations.
Joint, Combined, and Interagency
Joint intelligence is rapidly
evolving into a "pull down" system . . . when the JTF
pulls, the strings reach to the top.
There is no standard collection management organization
at existing joint-level commands. There are CM&D sections
that perform the CRM and COM functions. This section often interfaces
with a Joint Reconnaissance Center (JRC) for the conduct of airborne
collection during operations other than war. Another approach
is the Collection Coordination Center (CCC), organized by intelligence
The JTF is the primary organization for joint operations,
especially during force projection. The JTF performs missions
of short duration with specific, limited objectives. The JTF draws
units from theater components and may receive out-of-theater augmentation
in terms of units, intelligence capabilities, and communications.
The collection management organization includes component
collection management sections, the JTF headquarters CM&D,
and JIC collection managers. Since the organization is not fixed,
but is tailored to each mission, collection managers must quickly
learn and become proficient at using the systems available to
JTF service component commanders employ forces to accomplish
operational tasks, including intelligence collection. There is
a tasking relationship, therefore, between the JTF CM&D and
The JTF also relies upon national collectors and production
agencies to fill intelligence gaps. The JTF sends collection requirements
and requests for intelligence to the JIC. If the JIC determines
that a new collection requirement is warranted, the collection
requirement goes to the National Military Joint Intelligence Center
(NMJIC) for resolution.
If a coalition or alliance enters into combined operations,
command and control may remain essentially national or it may
integrate. Either way, intelligence remains a national responsibility.
US units subordinated to a non-US headquarters may require augmentation
with translators and interpreters and "front end" terminals
(MITT, FAST-I) or complete processors (IPDS, EPDS) to ensure their
continued connectivity with US theater and national collection
Intelligence collection operations in a combined environment
are affected by the confusion factors of language, differing tasking
and request channels and formats, information classification and
releasibility concerns, and national sensitivities.
Collection managers must be familiar with allied and coalition
collection and communications systems and the tasking and request
channels they require. A proven technique is the use of intelligence
liaison personnel to formulate effective collection strategy and
facilitate rapid dissemination.
Another complication is the disparity in the collection
capabilities of the US and other nations. While other nations
often have greater HUMINT resources within a given region, there
usually exists a large technological disparity between US and
non-US collection capabilities. A combined unit commander must
establish a system that optimizes each nation's contributions
and provides all units a high quality intelligence picture.
US units subordinated to non-US headquarters may face
unique problems in disseminating intelligence. If a direct channel
is available to the next higher US headquarters, the tactical
US unit may have better and more current intelligence than its
controlling non-US headquarters. In that instance, liaison personnel
have a responsibility to disseminate intelligence both up and
down, while adhering to restrictions that deal with the release
of intelligence to other nationals.
The primary consideration from an organizational and leadership
standpoint is the absence of a formal command structure. Non-DOD
agencies often operate with management and direction vice command,
complicating any attempt at maintaining unity of effort. Each
- Will have its own collection management structure.
- May have been augmented with special collection assets.
- Will most likely enjoy exceptional access to national
An excellent example of a joint headquarters operating
in an interagency environment is US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA), and a variety of economic development agencies exercise
non-DOD elements of national power throughout the region.
Interagency operations require a robust liaison environment
to make things work. Additionally, in the absence of command unity,
commanders and agency chiefs should establish formal agreements
to ensure all parties clearly understand their responsibilities
and relationships within the system.
In the collection management arena, formal agreements
should specify tasking and request relationships, timelines, and
formats. They should identify who, or which agency, has PIR and
collection plan approval authority. The responsibility for collection
platform readiness and scheduling and the elements of availability
should be clearly defined.
Collection Management at
The EAC MI brigade establishes support elements at the
corps Analysis and Control Company to effect the ISOS "push-pull"
concept. This organization is the Corps Military Intelligence
Support Element (CMISE).
The EAC structure also supports Theater Army collection
management with personnel from the echelon above corps intelligence
center (EACIC) of the MI brigade.
The EAC MI brigade provides Army all-source collection
capability at the theater level. Overt and controlled collection
HUMINT programs, SIGINT collection and analysis systems, measurement
and signature intelligence (MASINT) and technical intelligence
(TECHINT) teams, and a variety of IMINT collection and exploitation
systems form a formidable family of collectors. The brigade is
tailored to meet the intelligence needs of the theater and may
have organic tactical exploitation of national capabilities (TENCAP)
processors, airborne reconnaissance low (ARL), Joint STARS, TRACKWOLF,
and single source processing-SIGINT (SSP-S). The brigade may also
have access to automated collection management applications, including
Aside from the CMISE and theater staff augmentation, the
brigade performs the asset management function in response to
external tasking. The theater collection management organization
exercises tasking authority through the brigade S3.
National assets and agencies provide significant support
to EAC, and the theater collection manager leverages national
level collectors and producers on behalf of the corps. For further
discussion on EAC operations, see FM 34-37.
The scope of corps operations requires a robust collection
management structure within the ACE. In addition to requirements
managers, mission managers, and the MI brigade S3, there may be
liaison personnel from organic collection units, such as the aerial
The CMISE serves as a "smart bridge" between
echelons. CMISE collection managers assist the corps in pulling
collection schedules, strategies, and posture reports, and in
ensuring product dissemination from EAC. They also serve as subject
matter experts on EAC collection system capabilities and tasking
During deployments, the CMISE will provide continuing
direction to potential stay-behind processors such as IPDS or
EPDS. They maintain focus on the corps AI while the corps is in
transit and support the forward CM&D section from garrison.
The corps has an impressive array of collection and exploitation
systems and units. HUMINT collectors include the ACR, the LRS
company, and CI and interrogation teams. The principal SIGINT
collector is GRCS. There are TENCAP processors (EPDS, IPDS) to
link the corps with national systems. Mobile terminals like the
Joint STARS GSM and MITT provide mixed and redundant coverage
to the corps on the move. The corps may have access to automated
collection management applications, including system-specific
The corps conducts detailed collection management planning,
resulting in "tools" (such as IEW synchronization matrix,
collection plan, asset evaluation worksheets) tailored to the
commander's needs. While the corps enjoys a good mix of organic
collection and processing assets, collection capability is finite
and must be carefully balanced between many competing missions
(such as target and situation development and BDA). The corps
collection manager generally tasks organic assets to satisfy the
majority of his intelligence requirements, relying on requests
to fill remaining voids. With a number of subordinate units, the.
dissemination responsibility grows. This includes secondary imagery
dissemination for those corps with an organic imagery exploitation
The corps collection manager requires automation and mission
management applications to optimally exercise these functions.
He also must have direct connectivity to organic asset managers
to continuously monitor collector readiness and performance in
a fast-paced operational environment. For more discussion on corps
operations, see FM 34-25.
The division collection management structure also fits
within the ACE. It is a scaled-down version of the corps organization,
retaining separate requirements and mission management functions.
There is no EAC augmentation element at division level.
The division has fewer organic assets than its higher
headquarters. The division's cavalry squadron, LRS detachment,
and CI and interrogation teams provide HUMINT support. There is
ground-based and limited aerial SIGINT collection. The UAV and
Joint STARS GSM will provide the IMINT capability divisions currently
lack. "Front-end" terminals (such as MITT, FAST-I) allow
the division to "pull" IMINT and electronic intelligence
(ELINT) from corps and EAC.
Division collection management operations resemble those
at corps. Again, it is a question of scale and level of detail.
The division collection management organization generates an ISM
and collection plan. Asset evaluation worksheets may not be as
important due to the reduced number of assets. The division collection
manager ensures he develops specific and prioritized intelligence
requirements for transmission to corps for action, following through
until each requirement is satisfied. For further discussion on
division operations, see FM 34-10.
At division level and higher, the collection management
process is shared among several elements. At brigade level the
same personnel in the S2 section will usually perform all six
steps of the collection management process.
The Joint STARS GSM provides the brigade with a link to
the intelligence provided by division and higher level assets.
For HUMINT resources, brigades rely on their battalions' scouts
and augmentation with CI and interrogation teams from division.
Light brigades also receive GSR and REMBASS support.
Although the collection management process remains the
same, the brigade S2 section may not generate a separate IEW synchronization
matrix; consolidation with the brigade's BOS matrix may suffice.
Similarly, SORs are usually less developed with SIRS often passed
directly to collection assets. The brigade's collection plan is
usually supplemented with graphics in the form of a consolidated
The consolidated R&S overlay is the collection plan
in graphic form. Its foundation is the event template, a result
of the brigade's IPB and decision making process. The event template
is modified to depict, as a minimum, the deployed or planned deployment
of the brigade's R&S assets and control measures associated
with their operations. Control measures normally include--
- R&S limit of responsibility.
- Movement controls (start points, release points, and check
- Sectors of scan for sensors.
- Locations of primary, alternate, and supplementary positions.
- Graphics depicting route, area, or zone reconnaissance.
It can also include any information which will help R&S
assets plan and conduct their intelligence collection missions.
For example, it might include the known locations of obstacles
and minefields as well as information from the enemy situation
templates. Most units also duplicate the written collection plan
in the form of a matrix within the overlay's margins.
For additional information on event templates and R&S
planning, see FM 34-2-1
and FM 34-130.
Like brigades, the battalion S2 section performs requirements
and mission management. Depending on local SOPs, the battalion
S2 may also serve as the asset manager of some or all of the battalion's
In addition to the scouts, the battalion S2 might integrate
GSR and REMBASS into his R&S planning. Frontline troops and
combat patrols are other sources of organic collection.
At battalion level, intelligence requirements generally
appear on the BOS synchronization matrix rather than on a separate
intelligence matrix. The collection plan is normally presented
graphically in the form of a consolidated R&S overlay.
Depending on local policies, the S2 may have or share
responsibilities for planning collection missions and coordinating
transportation, fire support, and logistical support.