Copy No. ___
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MAJOR OPERATION PLAN: (Number or code name)
References: Maps, charts, and other documents
TASK ORGANIZATION/COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS.
1. SITUATION. Integrate tactical considerations important to IO in the early phases of an operation into the overall description of the operational situation. Refer to command and staff estimates, country studies, or OPLANs. Indicate trigger events that would signal execution of specific components to an IO within the OPORD.
a. Intelligence. Integrate adversary threats to friendly IO. A detailed discussion of the intelligence aspects of IO is found in the intelligence annex (Annex B) or the intelligence estimate.
b. Friendly Forces. Provide information on friendly forces that may affect the execution of the IO plan being put forth. These effects may impact directly on the command or on organizations subordinate to the command.
c. Attachments and Detachments. List attachments and detachments here.
d. Assumptions. Integrate a summary of the conditions and situations that must exist to enhance IO.
2. MISSION. Address IO to the degree necessary to fully state the overall operational mission.
a. Commander's Intent. Briefly include how IO will support the mission within the context of the commander's overall vision of the operation.
b. Concept of Operations. Include a clear, concise statement of implied or specified IO tasks to be achieved in all phases of the major operation. One example is legitimizing an overall campaign through IO to prepare the people in the adversary country to accept results of the operation, particularly if it could be viewed with bitterness. Summarize IO tasks assigned by the CINC and other informational tasks derived from the commander's analysis of the environment and his understanding of his superiors' intent. At the operational level, the concept of operation is usually divided into phases.
(1) Phase I. The first operational phase of a contingency is usually the detailed preparation of the command to execute the operation. IO elements often addressed during this phase include the following:
(a) Establishing liaison with various entities, to include the unified command responsible for the target area; with other unified and subunified commands (especially those involved in deployment); with SOF already in the target area; and with appropriate US Government agencies. Each of these liaisons will form a portion of the overall IO support.
(b) Using diplomatic and interagency support to assist in transferring status of forces agreements, constraints (Annex E), and ROE (Annex F) for the proposed operation with participating nations (in coordination with DOS and appropriate embassies and country teams).
(c) Establishing INFOSYS forward to establish C2 and to assist in establishing or preparing intermediate staging bases in the target region and directing the repositioning of supplies and equipment.
(d) Using CA, PSYOP, and PA to support political and diplomatic initiatives.
(e) Transmitting the commander's intent and scheme of operational maneuver, including close battle, deep battle, and rear security operations to ensure simultaneous understanding and execution of complex operations by all participants.
(f) Supporting operational fires with IO such as EW and appropriate C4I architectures. This support assists complex arrangements for fire support (Annex G), including joint and multinational employment of fires and targeting.
(g) Determining IO support to civil affairs (Annex T), air defense (Annex H), EW and ES (Annex D, Appendix B), PSYOP (Annex D, Appendix D), and rear operations (Annex L), protection of forces and means (Annex M), provost marshal functions (Annex N), PA (Annex O), and space operations (Annex P).
(h) Developing IO branches and sequels.
(i) Providing coordinating instructions applicable to two or more subordinate elements executing IO. Also include instructions for informational linkups with SOF or ground units involved in the deep battle.
(2) Phase II. The second operational phase is usually the execution of the operation itself. Address those aspects of IO that play a major role in supporting this phase.
(a) Include in the description of the concept of operations the role of IO elements in increasing the effectiveness of major units.
(b) Set forth the scheme of maneuver, as well as the deployment scheme, of IO units to attain initial objectives. The scheme should include, where appropriate, the forcible insertion of combat elements and necessary C2 elements and their accompanying support. Address--
1. Sequencing of informational units as the operational situation becomes clearer. The deployment of contributing informational elements may be accelerated or delayed as appropriate.
2. Changes in the nature of the operation.
3. Major regrouping of informational forces.
4. Significant changes in enemy capabilities that would affect the informational units necessary in the operation.
(c) In the fire support subparagraph or its annex, address joint interfaces such as the joint targeting board (JTB) and the battlefield coordination element (BCE) and the IO considerations bearing on such interfaces.
(d) Include IO provisions for CA (Annex T), air defense (Annex H), EW and ES (Annex D, Appendix D), PSYOP (Annex D, Appendix D) and rear operations (Annex L), protection of forces and means (Annex M), provost marshal functions (Annex N), PA (Annex O), and space operations (Annex P).
(e) As necessary, state the location and tasks for IO elements held in reserve.
(f) Include coordinating instructions that apply to two or more subordinate elements executing IO. Also include link-up procedures through IO between the force and forces already in the operation, if appropriate.
(3) Phase III. The third operational phase is usually the consolidation of the results of a successful end state for this phase. It does not contain the detail of the preceding phases. Address supporting IO as appropriate.
c. Tasks for Major Subordinate Commands. Ensure that IO are addressed as appropriate for each major subordinate command.
d. Coordinating Instructions. Integrate instructions on C2W whenever two or more phases of the operation are affected. Coordinating instructions may include the following:
(1) Times, events, or situations that may signal the transition of various IO between phases.
(2) Constraints (Annex E). IO in situations other than war are usually constrained significantly by factors other than strictly military ones. Describe such limitations on IO on military actions in the same annex detailing the provisions of treaties, agreements, and conventions governing the political, military, and informational limits on the military effort.
(3) Rules of engagement (Annex F). In addition to constraints imposed by international agreement, certain self-imposed ROE govern the use of military forces and certain weapons effects during the major operation. These rules may affect the use of EMS, computer networks, and interference with space-based communications and other signals.
(4) Resource management guidance that may limit IO (for example, limited communications circuits, limited equipment availability, or limited access to networks).
(5) Training guidance concerning IO procedures (for example, PSYOP, CA). Refer to a separate annex (Annex Q).
(6) Operational planning guidance involving IO.
(7) Space operations planning guidance (Annex P) providing enhancements to IO.
(8) Public affairs operations (Annex O).
4. SUPPORT. Insert specific information as to how IO support Army elements involved in an operation. In this paragraph or in a support annex (Annex R), the ARFOR commander includes IO among descriptions of those support matters necessary to accomplish the combat mission of his force. The IO support plan phases must coincide with OPLAN phases.
5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.
a. Command. Enter liaison requirements and designate alternate command posts (CP) and succession of command if not adequately covered in the SOP. This instruction includes CP locations and axis of CP displacement if not shown on an accompanying overlay.
b. Signal. As a minimum, list the current communications-electronics operations instructions (CEOI) index. These instructions can refer to an annex but should include rules concerning the use of communications and other electronic equipment (for example, radio silence).
ANNEXES: In recognition of the expanding contribution that IO can make to the accomplishment of the overall mission, OPLAN annexes have been reorganized by creating a new C2W Annex that consolidates the traditional annexes dealing with deception, EW, and PSYOP.
A Task Organization/Command Relationships. In a plan for a major operation composed of several phases, within this annex, identify and integrate the task organization required to conduct IO. Outline command relationships and their changes, if any, as the IO progresses from one phase to the next. Include information-specific task organizations for Army component support to contingencies in the annexes referring to the plans for those operations. Relate the informational structure against interfaces expected with the following activities involved in the operation:
a. Civil-Political Relationships. Embassies, country teams, non-DOD US Government agencies (Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], Drug Enforcement Agency [DEA], Agency for International Development [AID]).
b. Multinational Force Relationships. Host nations, allies, forces from regional/treaty organizations.
c. Joint Relationships. DOD agencies (DIA, NSA, DISA), unified and specified commands (subunified commands and joint task forces when appropriate), other services in uniservice roles.
d. Other Army Forces. The informational structure that enables connectivity from the highest level army component participating in operations down to the lowest level, including:
(1) Army components of subunified commands and joint task forces.
(2) Functional commands.
(3) Area commands.
(4) Major combat and combat support organizations directly under full theater army command in peacetime.
(5) Army organizations providing EAC support to the BCE and air combat elements.
(6) ARSOF, especially deployable informational structures, to include PSYOP, SF, and supporting communications units.
B Intelligence. This annex should incorporate critical information needed to support IO and integrate those elements into the larger overview of the enemy situation. Detailed information needed to conduct C2W operations should be further developed in the C2W Annex.
C Operations Overlay. This annex is a graphic representation of the concept of operations.
D C2W Annex. The C2W annex focuses on providing the necessary information to conduct C2W operations and consolidates all information previously found in the annexes dealing with deception (formerly Annex D), EW (formerly Annex I), and PSYOP (formerly Annex K). The intent is to integrate all aspects of C2W to best identify and synchronize the application of available capabilities to achieve the overall mission. A sample C2W Annex is provided in Annex B of this appendix.
E Constraints. This annex contains those political, humanitarian, economic, and social/cultural limitations on applying military power during the operation.
F Rules of Engagement. This annex contains guidelines to subordinate and supporting organizations regarding the rules for the control of forces and their weapons systems, to include guidance on the conduct of IO.
G Fire Support. This annex contains a statement of the fire support operations to be carried out, to include major groupings of fire support means and priorities and the integration of nuclear, chemical, and conventional fires, as appropriate.
H Air Defense. This annex should state the air defense operation to be carried out, to include air defense priorities and reference to the deployment overlays appendix. It should contain the allocation of counterair units, tasks, and coordinating instructions.
I Not Used.
J Engineer. This annex should include a statement of how the engineering support is to be carried out, to include priorities of mobility, countermobility, and survivability tasks within sectors and priority of uncommitted engineering resources to subordinate units or sectors.
K Not Used.
L Rear Operations. This annex contains guidance and priorities for securing the rear areas and facilities to prevent or minimize enemy interference, disruption of combat support and service support, or movement of friendly troops. It designates a unit to find, fix, and destroy enemy incursions into the rear area and provides area damage control after an attack or incident.
M Protection. This annex contains instructions for the protection of bases, installations, military personnel, family members, and other US nationals in the theater from terrorism, natural disasters, and other dangers. It also contains information on protection of C4I architecture.
N Provost Marshal. This annex prioritizes the four MP battlefield missions: area security, battlefield circulation control, enemy prisoner-of-war operations, and law enforcement. It should specify any tasks and/or coordinating instructions not covered in the OPORD.
O Public Affairs. This annex contains guidance for facilitating the media effort to cover the operation and for supporting the information needs of soldiers and their families. While PA is clearly a part of IO, it is addressed in its own annex since it falls outside C2W as defined by joint doctrine.
P Space Operations. This annex describes planned and available space support to the OPLAN. It explains how to obtain and coordinate space support and lists operational constraints and shortfalls. This annex is linked to space-based systems such as communications and, as such, is closely related to IO.
Q Training. This annex contains guidance for multinational, joint, and service training of individuals and units assigned or attached to the theater army, which includes liaison teams and other forms of connectivity that enable coalition C4I.
R Support. This annex spells out in detail the necessary support for subordinate formations to accomplish their missions. It may include special instructions for INFOSYS support of software support, configuration support, evacuating criteria, repair criteria, and so forth.
S Communications-Electronics. This annex describes the link provided by the force headquarters between the ATCCS, which exists among its subordinate units and joint and multinational C2 systems, as well as those of the sustaining base. It addresses INFOSYS and must be carefully coordinated with C2W operations.
T Civil Affairs. This annex describes civil affairs operations and organizations that affect the overall operation. It specifies how CA activities can provide relevant information supporting the CCIR from nontraditional sources in the GIE. While CA is clearly a part of IO, it is addressed in its own annex since it falls outside C2W as defined by joint doctrine.