Congressional Documents

EXCERPTS - Intelligence and Related Activities



105th Congress                                                   Report
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

 1st Session                                                    105-132
_______________________________________________________________________


 
        NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 1998


                               ----------                              

                              R E P O R T

                                 OF THE

                     COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY
                        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

                                   ON

                               H.R. 1119

                             together with

                    ADDITIONAL AND DISSENTING VIEWS

      [Including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office]
                   

 June 16, 1997.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
              State of the Union and ordered to be printed


HOUSE COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY One Hundred Fifth Congress FLOYD D. SPENCE, South Carolina, Chairman BOB STUMP, Arizona RONALD V. DELLUMS, California DUNCAN HUNTER, California IKE SKELTON, Missouri JOHN R. KASICH, Ohio NORMAN SISISKY, Virginia HERBERT H. BATEMAN, Virginia JOHN M. SPRATT, Jr., South JAMES V. HANSEN, Utah Carolina CURT WELDON, Pennsylvania SOLOMON P. ORTIZ, Texas JOEL HEFLEY, Colorado OWEN PICKETT, Virginia JIM SAXTON, New Jersey LANE EVANS, Illinois STEVE BUYER, Indiana GENE TAYLOR, Mississippi TILLIE K. FOWLER, Florida NEIL ABERCROMBIE, Hawaii JOHN M. McHUGH, New York MARTIN T. MEEHAN, Massachusetts JAMES TALENT, Missouri ROBERT A. UNDERWOOD, Guam TERRY EVERETT, Alabama JANE HARMAN, California ROSCOE G. BARTLETT, Maryland PAUL McHALE, Pennsylvania HOWARD ``BUCK'' McKEON, California PATRICK J. KENNEDY, Rhode Island RON LEWIS, Kentucky ROD R. BLAGOJEVICH, Illinois J.C. WATTS, Jr., Oklahoma SILVESTRE REYES, Texas MAC THORNBERRY, Texas TOM ALLEN, Maine JOHN N. HOSTETTLER, Indiana VIC SNYDER, Arkansas SAXBY CHAMBLISS, Georgia JIM TURNER, Texas VAN HILLEARY, Tennessee F. ALLEN BOYD, Jr., Florida JOE SCARBOROUGH, Florida ADAM SMITH, Washington WALTER B. JONES, Jr., North LORETTA SANCHEZ, California Carolina JAMES H. MALONEY, Connecticut LINDSEY GRAHAM, South Carolina MIKE McINTYRE, North Carolina SONNY BONO, California CIRO D. RODRIGUEZ, Texas JIM RYUN, Kansas MICHAEL PAPPAS, New Jersey BOB RILEY, Alabama JIM GIBBONS, Nevada Andrew K. Ellis, Staff Director C O N T E N T S ---------- Page DIVISION A--DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION.................. 19 TITLE I--PROCUREMENT............................................. 19 Other Procurement, Army...................................... 41 Items of Special Interest.................................. 50 Aircraft Procurement, Navy................................... 57 Items of Special Interest.................................. 61 Other Procurement, Navy...................................... 81 Items of Special Interest.................................. 91 Aircraft Procurement, Air Force.............................. 101 Items of Special Interest.................................. 106 Missile Procurement, Air Force............................... 113 Items of Special Interest.................................. 116 Other Procurement, Air Force................................. 117 Items of Special Interest.................................. 123 Procurement, Defense-Wide.................................... 124 Items of Special Interest.................................. 129 TITLE II--RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, TEST, AND EVALUATION............ 140 OVERVIEW....................................................... 140 Army RDT&E-.................................................. 142 Items Of Special Interest.................................. 151 Navy RDT&E................................................... 164 Items Of Special Interest.................................. 174 Air Force RDT&E.............................................. 202 Items Of Special Interest.................................. 211 Defense Agencies RDT&E....................................... 216 Items Of Special Interest.................................. 225 LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS......................................... 255 Subtitle B--Program Requirements, Restrictions, and Limitations................................................ 255 Section 213--Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles............. 256 TITLE III--OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE............................. 262 Intelligence Matters......................................... 303 Budget Justification Materials............................. 303 Command and Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence Integrated Architecture Plan................ 304 Defense Space Reconnaissance Program (DSRP)................ 304 Foreign Instrumentation Intelligence....................... 305 Imagery and Geospatial System Production................... 305 Intelligence System Interoperability....................... 306 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar................... 307 Joint Planning and Program Review.......................... 307 National Imagery and Mapping Agency Civilian Personnel..... 307 National Imagery and Mapping Agency Mission Support........ 308 Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)..................... 309 Tactical Information Program............................... 309 Tactical Support........................................... 309 Other Issues................................................. 314 Computer Crimes and Information Technology Security........ 317 Subtitle G--Other Matters.................................... 338 Section 375--Prohibition on Use of Special Operations Command Budget for Base Operation Support................ 340 TITLE IX--DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT...... 392 LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS....................................... 395 Section 907--Termination of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office.................................... 397 TITLE X--GENERAL PROVISIONS...................................... 399 Counterdrug Activities....................................... 399 Overview................................................... 399 Items of Special Interest.................................. 399 C-26 aircraft photo reconnaissance upgrade............... 399 Gulf states counterdrug initiative....................... 399 Mapping, charting and geodesy............................ 400 Mexican, Caribbean and South American initiative......... 400 Non-Intrusive Inspection Systems......................... 402 Optionally piloted air vehicle........................... 403 Southwest border fence project........................... 403 Tracker aircraft......................................... 403 Other Matters................................................ 404 Implementation of Whistleblower Protections................ 404 Intelligence Shortcomings During Persian Gulf War.......... 404 Subtitle C--Counter-Drug Activities.......................... 408 Section 1031--Prohibition on Use of National Guard for Civil-Military Activities Under State Drug Interdiction and Counterdrug Activities Plan.......................... 408 Subtitle D--Miscellaneous Report Requirements and Repeals.... 409 Section 1042--Repeal of Annual Report Requirement Relating to Training of Special Operations Forces with Friendly Foreign Forces........................................... 409 Subtitle E--Other Matters.................................... 409 Section 1051--Authority for Special Agents of the Defense Criminal Investigative Service to Execute Warrants and Make Arrests............................................. 409 TITLE XXVIII--GENERAL PROVISIONS................................. 465 ITEMS OF SPECIAL INTEREST...................................... 465 Withdrawals of Public Lands for Military Purposes.......... 466 105th Congress Report HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 1st Session 105-132 _______________________________________________________________________ NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 1998 _______ June 16, 1997.--Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed
DIVISION A--DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION TITLE I--PROCUREMENT ............. Other Procurement, Army ............. Items of Special Interest ............. All source analysis system (ASAS) The budget request contained $7.8 million for procurement of six ASAS-Extended unit sets to replace selected ASAS Common Hardware Software (CHS)-I workstations with CHS-II workstations and enhanced software. The ASAS is a ground-based, mobile, intelligence information processing and fusion system designed to provide automated intelligence support to combat commanders. The system interfaces with selected national, joint, and theater-level intelligence assets to provide commanders at echelons above corps down through battalion level a common, comprehensive picture of an opposing force's capabilities and potential actions. The committee anticipates that the Army will become increasingly reliant upon timely and accurate all source intelligence data provided by ASAS for the rapid targeting and employment of precision weapons and, therefore, recommends an increase of $9.0 million for the procurement of additional ASAS-Extended unit sets and enhanced software. ............. Common hardware software (CHS) The budget request did not contain funding for the procurement of CHS, which provides the standardized hardware and software for the information systems that will support the Army's first fully digitized division. The committee understands that the Army's contract for CHS- I will expire prior to the end of fiscal year 1997. The committee believes it would be imprudent to terminate the existing CHS-I contract until a thorough analysis of the results of the recently concluded Advanced Warfighting Experiment, which evaluated its ``digital battlefield'' modernization efforts, has been completed. Allowing the CHS-I contract to expire prior to the complete evaluation of CHS-I, CHS-II and other battlefield digitization hardware could potentially delay fielding of critically-needed command, control and communications capabilities. Therefore, the committee directs the Army to extend the expiring CHS-I contract for one year, a period commensurate with minimizing fielding interruptions and with attaining the final certification of CHS-II. Communications satellite radios The budget request did not contain funding for procurement of satellite communications radios for counterintelligence (CI) units in Korea. The committee is aware that communications shortfalls exist to fully support CI units deployed throughout the Korean peninsula and that a recent study identified a requirement to provide satellite communications connectivity for these units. Therefore, the committee recommends an increase of $2.8 million for this purpose. ............. Sentinel The budget request contained $41.0 million for 12 Sentinel systems. The Sentinel system consists of a trailer-mounted radar and an identification-friend-or-foe device, along with Forward Area Air Defense stCommand, Control and Intelligence interfaces. The system plays an integral role in the digital battlefield by automatically detecting, identifying, and reporting cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and rotary and fixed wing aircraft targets and rapidly transmitting data on these targets to air defense units. The committee believes that the Sentinel system will play increasingly critical air defense and force protection roles, especially with the proliferation of UAVs and cruise missiles throughout the world. These small targets require early detection in order to provide maximum reaction times for engagement at ranges well beyond the forward line of troops. Therefore, the committee recommends an increase of $20.3 million for 14 additional Sentinel systems. ............. Single channel anti-jam manportable (SCAMP) terminals The budget request contained $4.3 million for fielding of SCAMP terminals. No funds were requested to procure new terminals even though the Army has procured less than half of its requirement for 660 terminals. These satellite communications terminals provide extended- range, anti-jam voice and data command and control (C2) communications capability worldwide as part of the extremely high frequency Milstar satellite communications program. Based on the critical requirement for joint C2 communications and to ensure that the Army can be fully integrated into the joint C2 network provided by the Milstar communications network, the committee recommends an increase of $12.3 million for SCAMP terminals and encourages the Secretary of Army to exercise the existing firm fixed price contract option for these terminals in fiscal year 1998. Aircraft Procurement, Navy ............. Items of Special Interest ............. P-3 series modifications The budget request contained $164.9 million for P-3 series modifications, $74.7 million of which is for four anti-surface warfare improvement program (AIP) kits, and $41.3 million of which is for 11 sustained readiness program (SRP) kits. The AIP improves the P-3's capabilities in communications, survivability and over-the-horizon targeting through the installation of commercial-off-the-shelf components. The committee understands that the Commanders-in-Chief (CINCs) of the Atlantic and Pacific theaters require 68 AIP-configured P-3 aircraft by fiscal year 2001, but the future years defense program only provides for 44 aircraft by this time. In the last year alone, these aircraft have played major roles in joint naval operations in Bosnia, Liberia, Central Africa, the Formosa Strait and the Strait of Hormuz by providing littoral and overland surveillance. Consequently, in order to meet CINC requirements and achieve a more efficient production rate, the committee recommends an increase of $56.6 million for an additional eight AIP kits. The SRP extends the service life of the P-3C by replacing and refurbishing airframe components. The committee understands that material conditions of the fleet aircraft are deteriorating faster than originally forecast, requiring frequent major airframe repairs in advance of the nominal 30- year expected operational service life. If left unchecked, aircraft could be rendered unserviceable due to corrosion or cracking of major structural components. Accordingly, the committee recommends an increase of $35.1 million to procure 17 additional shipsets of SRP kits. ............. Other Procurement, Navy ............. Items of Special Interest ............. Cooperative engagement capability (CEC) The budget request did not contain funding for CEC. The CEC significantly improves anti-air warfare (AAW) capability by integrating all battle group component AAW sensor information into a single, real-time depiction that allows one platform to target and engage a hostile air threat with information from another. CEC distributes sensor data from any ship or aircraft in the battle group to all others through a real-time, line-of-sight, high-data-rate distribution network. The committee notes that the Chief of Naval Operations has identified CEC as one of the top three fiscal year 1998 unfunded procurement priorities. Therefore, the committee recommends $114.8 million to restore the Navy's CEC fielding plan by procuring and installing CEC shipsets for two aircraft carrier battle groups. ............. Aircraft Procurement, Air Force ............. Items of Special Interest ............. Predator unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) The budget request contained $116.5 million for 15 Predator UAVs. The Predator was acquired as an advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD) program in response to an urgent requirement identified by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) in 1993 and is the first ACTD to make the transition to a production program. The committee is aware of the success of the Predator in a number of continental United States exercises, as well as two operational deployments to Bosnia, and supports the full number of systems validated by the JCS. However, the committee notes that the request does not include funds needed for attrition aircraft or for spares and, therefore, recommends $30.0 million for these purposes. RC-135 The budget request did not contain funding for re-engining RC-135 reconnaissance aircraft. The committee notes that $145.0 million was authorized to re-engine six RC-135 aircraft in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104-106). The committee remains convinced the RC-135 will continue to be the workhorse of the manned special reconnaissance fleet well into the 21st century and is disappointed that, despite previous assurances to the contrary, continuation of this effort remains unfunded in the fiscal year 1998 budget. Nevertheless, the committee is persuaded by the General Accounting Office's analysis of the re-engining program, which concluded that the Department can expect to realize savings of over $1.5 billion with new engines compared to operating and maintaining the current TF-33 engines on these aircraft. Accordingly, the committee recommends an additional $52.0 million to re-engine two RC-135 aircraft. Senior Year Electro-Optical System (SYERS) The budget request contained $141.5 million for continued procurement of spares and repair parts for the U-2 aircraft and sensors. Because the U-2 SYERS imagery satisfies a large percentage of theater commanders' imagery requirements, the committee is committed to ensuring the availability of this aircraft and the viability of its sensors. The committee understands that the request does not adequately fund either upgrades to existing components of or required additional spare parts for SYERS. Accordingly, the committee recommends an increase of $5.0 million for these purposes. Congress initiated and sustained for several years an upgrade to the SYERS imaging sensor which among other things would allow it to be carried in the ``Q-bay'' of the U-2, such that a radar sensor and the SYERS electro-optical sensor could be flown simultaneously. This initiative appeared to Congress to be well worth the small investment in SYERS, since in wartime this dual capability could free another U-2 aircraft to fly other missions. The committee has now learned that the aircraft fuselage may have to be modified in order to carry SYERS in the Q-bay. Specifically, a ``canoe'' would have to be added to allow the camera to image beyond 45 degrees. In view of this fact, the committee directs the Secretary of the Air Force to provide a report to the congressional defense and intelligence committees by March 15, 1998, on the need and the costs to design and procure the number of ``canoes'' necessary to allow SYERS and a radar sensor to flown simultaneously. Theater Airborne Warning System (TAWS) The budget request contained $67.1 million for defense airborne reconnaissance program modifications, but did not contain funding for TAWS, a medium-wave infrared (MWIR) sensor system capable of detecting and calculating the launch points of tactical ballistic missiles. TAWS is currently deployed on the Cobra Ball RC-135 reconnaissance aircraft. In the statement of the managers accompanying the conference report on H.R. 3230 (H. Rept. 104-724), the conferees urged the Air Force to proceed with a program to install TAWS on the Rivet Joint RC-135 aircraft, which is available in greater numbers than the Cobra Ball. Such a program would provide an option for early deployment of TAWS in support of improved theater ballistic missile defenses. However, the Department has opted instead to install this capability on the Airborne Laser (ABL). The committee understands that the ABL is not scheduled to reach initial operational capability until 2003. The long intervening period during which TAWS would remain only on the very few Cobra Ball aircraft would not meet the near-term need for a theater ballistic missile analysis and warning capability. Furthermore, the Air Force plans to acquire no more than seven ABL aircraft, a force structure too small to assure that TAWS would be available when and where needed. The committee believes this important mission is best satisfied by a reconnaissance aircraft. Therefore, the committee recommends an increase of $20.0 million to migrate the MWIR TAWS technology from the Cobra Ball RC-135 to the Rivet Joint RC-135 to enhance near-term deployment flexibility. ............. Missile Procurement, Air Force ............. Items of Special Interest ............. Medium launch vehicle (MLV) The budget request contained $165.8 million for the MLV program. The Air Force has identified $14.8 million in excess prior year funds in this program resulting from lower-than-expected cost growth and launch failure recovery activities that are no longer required. Of this total, $5.0 million was recommended for rescission in H.R. 1469, the Fiscal Year 1997 Supplemental Appropriations Act. The committee notes that the remaining balance of these excess funds are available to meet fiscal year 1998 MLV requirements and, consequently, recommends $156.0 million, a $9.8 million reduction. Titan space boosters The budget request contained $555.3 million for Titan IV boosters and related equipment and launch support activities. The Air Force has identified $204.0 million in excess prior year funds in the Titan program. Of this total, $122.0 million was recommended for rescission in H.R. 1469, the Fiscal Year 1997 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act. The committee notes that the remaining balance of these excess funds are available to meet fiscal year 1998 Titan IV requirements. Consequently, the committee recommends $473.3 million, a decrease of $82.0 million. ............. Other Procurement, Air Force ............. Items of Special Interest Air Force satellite control network (AFSCN) The budget request contained $32.2 million for the AFSCN. The committee understands that $9.0 million was authorized and appropriated in fiscal year 1997 for an AFSCN hardware purchase to support a classified program. The committee has been informed, however, that the Air Force canceled this hardware purchase because of a delay in the classified program and a resulting shift in plans to support it. The committee notes that the funds for this purchase are now available to meet fiscal year 1998 AFSCN requirements and recommends $23.2 million, a reduction of $9.0 million. ............. Joint situational awareness system (JSAS) The budget request did not contain funding for the JSAS. The committee is aware of the significant progress made by the Air Force in providing theater-wide situational awareness to joint task force commanders through the JSAS. The JSAS has proven to be a highly-effective, low-cost, real-time, user- friendly intelligence fusion system and represents a building block for greatly expanded capabilities. The committee believes the Air Force should pursue integrating the JSAS into the Global Command and Control System and recommends an additional $6.3 million for this purpose. ............. Tactical signals intelligence support The budget request contained $4.1 million for tactical signals intelligence support. The committee fully supports the Department of Defense's efforts to coordinate intelligence data broadcasts to the warfighters and recommends an increase of $5.0 million to accelerate the procurement of hardware and software to fully implement the Integrated Broadcast Service technical/ operational architecture. Procurement, Defense-Wide ............. Information systems security The budget request contained $19.6 million for information systems security. As a result of its hearing on information warfare, where for the first time all of the Department of Defense's corporate information officers were present in one forum, thecommittee was pleased to learn that the global threat of information warfare is an issue which the Department has taken extremely seriously. However, the committee is concerned that the number of attempted intrusions into the Department's unclassified networks has been occurring with increasing frequency. While the Department is meeting the challenge with a well-organized system to protect against would-be intruders, detect those who attempt to intrude, and react to those that do intrude, the committee is convinced that much more needs to be done, especially at the worldwide locations of the theater Commanders-in- Chief (CINCs). Although the committee recognizes that there are plans to fully secure the CINCs' information links, it believes that these plans require expediting. Consequently, the committee recommends an increase of $50.0 million to implement network intrusion devices, firewalls, multi-level security assurance guards and other equipment in order to ensure the secure operation of these links as soon as it is possible to do so. ............. LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS Subtitle A--Authorization of Appropriations ............. TITLE II--RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, TEST, AND EVALUATION ............. Army RDT&E ............. Items of Special Interest ............. All source analysis system The budget request contained $24.0 million for engineering development of the all source analysis system (ASAS). The committee notes that the ASAS is a critical Army tactical intelligence fusion effort essential to the success of the Army's Force XXI digitization initiative, and recommends an additional $3.5 million in PE 64321A to support the software upgrade program for ASAS. ............. Force XXI architecture The budget request contained $11.1 million for command, control, and communications systems engineering development in PE 64805A. The committee is aware of the Army emphasis on digitization for Force XXI and the high priority of its architecture development. The committee supports acceleration of the Army's highest priority unfunded requirement, and recommends an increase of $5.0 million. ............. Information systems technology, information superiority, and information security The budget request contained approximately $10.3 billion for Department of Defense information systems and information technology, including $544.4 million for information systems and information technology research, development, test, and evaluation. Of that amount, $306.0 million was for information security research, development, test, and evaluation. The committee views with great interest the development of information systems technology and the increasing use of, and dependence on information systems in the Department of Defense and in the nation as a whole. Rapidly advancing information- based technologies and an increasingly competitive global environment have thrust information into center stage in society, government, and warfare. Increasingly, complex information systems are being integrated into traditional military operational disciplines such as mobility, logistics, command, control, communications, and intelligence, and increased emphasis is being placed on the use of the commercial information infrastructure. The committee believes that the application of information and information technology in our military forces, combined with the supporting infrastructure in the Department of Defense, and our national life will offer greatly increased capabilities, but also will require that the Administration begin to treat information technology as a strategic resource vital to our national security. Inherent in these new capabilities, information technology also creates potentially serious vulnerabilities that could be exploited by an adversary, as the military and other elements of national power become increasingly dependent upon information systems and information capabilities. The vulnerability of information infrastructures to attack and the linkage between information systems and the traditional critical infrastructures (such as the electrical power system) have increased the scope and potential of the information warfare threat. The promise of information technology as a key ``enabler'' to achieve superiority on future battlefields, the vulnerabilities that information technology brings, and how theDepartment of Defense plans to protect against these vulnerabilities provided the focus for a committee hearing in March 1997. The committee also heard testimony on the findings and recommendations of the 1996 Defense Science Board Task Force on Information Warfare-Defense. The task force report cited a robust information infrastructure as critical to the future effectiveness of U.S. military forces and the need for extraordinary action to deal with the present and emerging challenges of defending against possible information warfare attacks on the United States. The committee commends the efforts taken to develop and institutionalize the use of common information architectures within the Department of Defense, to improve policies and management practices, and to create a Department-wide environment that promotes interoperability and integration among the military services and defense agencies. The committee notes the efforts that are underway to protect and assure the integrity of the Defense and national information infrastructures. The committee also notes that the budget request for the information systems security program in PE 33140G includes an increase of $56.6 million above the fiscal year 1997 funding level. The committee supports the maintenance of a robust information systems security research and development program. Accordingly, the committee recommends the following increases to the budget request: (1) $2.0 million in PE 63006A for tactical internet command and control protection; (2) $6.7 million in PE 65604A for information operations/warfare survivability analysis of command, control, communications, and computers/information electronic warfare systems; (3) $1.6 million in PE 33150A for development and application of information protection measures for the Army's component of the global command and control systems for the U.S. European Command; and (4) $2.7 million in PE 33140F for the Air Force information protection program. The committee directs the Secretary of Defense to report to the Congressional defense committees with the submission of the fiscal year 1999 budget, an assessment of the progress in the Department's information systems security program that addresses the current status of the program, specific actions being taken on the recommendations of the 1996 Defense Science Board Task Force on Information Warfare-Defense, and additional actions that should be taken to assure the increased security and integrity of the Defense information infrastructure. The report shall also address measures necessary to assure the integrity of those elements of the national information infrastructure and critical national infrastructure on which the Defense information infrastructure depends, and identification of any additional resources and legislative authority which may be required. ............. Missile defense battle integration center The budget request contained $5.0 million for the battle integration center (BIC). The Army is building a flexible distributed interactive simulation-based architecture which can operate in regimes of training, exercises and military operations, as well as providing support to advanced concept development. The committee understands that this effort has been identified as an Army priority, yet it is insufficiently funded. The committee recommends an increase of $14.0 million in PE 63308A to continue development of the BIC as an integrated battlelab with the capability to provide high fidelity representation of the modern battlefield. ............. Short-range unmanned aerial vehicle The budget request contained no funding for short-range unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The Department, based on lack of progress in the tactical unmanned aerial vehicle program, which is under close scrutiny for possible cancellation, has directed the Services to assess other solutions for UAV requirements. The Army has an unfulfilled, validated operational requirement for a short-range UAV. The committee directs the Secretary of Defense to initiate an Army acquisition program for the Department, to develop and procure a short-range UAV to fulfill the existing requirement. Performance specifications for a short-range UAV are to be as defined by the validated operational requirement. The UAV is to be equipped with the objective digital data link that is compatible with the Army's digital architecture for the future. The committee notes that historically, requirements changes and upgrading have been, in great part, the cause of many failed UAV programs. Therefore, the Department is directed to acquire a short-range UAV with minimum development to meet the existing validated operational requirement. Subsequent to IOC, as appropriate, block changes may be used to implement a pre- planned product improvement program. The committee notes that technology improvement since validation of the operational requirement may allow increased range beyond 100 kilometers. The committee directs that the range threshold be 100 kilometers with specified endurance, while the objective range shall be 200 kilometers. The committee recommends $5.0 million in PE 63003A to begin development of a short-range UAV for all services having the defined requirement. Such development should as much as practicable, use mature, existing air vehicle technology and include digitization of systems to be compatible with emerging digital force architecture. ............. Navy RDT&E ............. Items of Special Interest ............. Automatic target recognition/optical correlation The budget request contained $34.2 million in PE 63609N for Navy conventional munitions development, $26.2 million in PE 63601F for Air Force conventional weapons technology, and $4.8 million in PE 63232D for automatic target recognition. The committee is aware progress is being made in the Director, Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) automatic target recognition (ATR) program and the development of ATR technologies for missiles, precision-guided weapons, and target cueing for surveillance systems. The DDR&E's January 1997 report to the Congressional defense committees on optical correlation technology describes the progress that has been made in the potential weaponization of optical correlation technology for these purposes. The committee also understands that the Air Force is investigating the use of optical correlators for missile applications in its Optical Processor Enhanced Ladar program. The committee recommends an increase of $8.0 million in PE 63609N for the development and demonstration of a miniature optical correlator for automatic target recognition and improved aimpoint selection for the Standard Missile, and an increase of $3.5 million in PE 63601F for the development and demonstration of a miniature optical correlator for automatic target recognition and aimpoint selection for the AGM-130. The committee expects the Air Force and the Navy to capitalize on current programs for the development of ATR technologyand the application of optical correlator technology and to coordinate their activities with the DDR&E's ATR program. ............. Cooperative engagement capability The budget request contained $139.2 million in PE 63658N for the cooperative engagement capability (CEC). As reflected in the House report (H. Rept. 104-563) on H.R. 3230 and the statement of managers accompanying the conference report on H.R. 3230 (H. Rept. 104-724), the Congresshas recognized the CEC program as among the highest priority programs in the Navy and the Department of Defense. In testimony during the defense posture hearing on the fiscal year 1997 budget request, the Secretary of Defense singled out the CEC as a program of high priority that he had chosen to accelerate because of its great potential for linking units from more than one service together and greatly increasing their warfighting capability. The Congressional defense committees agreed with the priority established by the Secretary and recommended significant increases to the CEC program to accelerate the fielding of the capability to the fleet and to accelerate and expand joint service integration efforts. The committee notes that the Navy's fiscal year 1998 budget request for the CEC program is significantly less than projected in the fiscal year 1997 Future Years Defense Plan and budget justification, and results in a slip of over one year in the fielding of the capability to fleet units. The committee does not understand the Navy's failure to provide the funding required to maintain the accelerated fielding schedule for a program that has received such a high priority from the Secretary of Defense and from the Congress. The committee believes that the Navy has overemphasized programs for new naval ``platforms'', at the expense of the warfighting weapons systems that would make existing platforms more effective. The committee recommends a total increase of $50.0 million in PE 63658N for the CEC program: $15.0 million to continue the accelerated development of the low cost common equipment set, $5.0 million to support transfer of the CEC design and development agent to industry, $20.0 million to accelerate integration of the CEC into Navy E-2C and P-3 aircraft, $5.0 million to initiate development of an integrated capability between CEC and the ship self defense program, and $5.0 million to accelerate joint service integration and demonstration of CEC with the Army's Patriot and the Marine Corps' Hawk air defense missile systems. ............. F/A-18F Tactical Reconnaissance The budget request contained no funding for developing the F-14 Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) Completely Digital (CD) capability. The committee understands that the Navy plans to replace the F-14 Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) with an electro-optical podded system for the F/A-18F Super Hornet. The committee has closely monitored the technical issues and difficulties experienced by the Marine Corps with the internally mounted Advanced Tactical Reconnaissance System (ATARS) for the F/A-18D. These issues, combined with the expected costs and extent of modifications to the F/A-18F if an internally mounted sensor were chosen, point to a podded reconnaissance capability as a more cost-effective and flexible approach for Navy fighter aircraft. Therefore, the committee supports the Navy's decision to develop a non-dedicated podded reconnaissance capability for the Super Hornet. The committee expects that the Navy will adhere to this decision and stresses that it will not favor any future request for development of an internally mounted F/A-18 reconnaissance capability. The committee believes that the Navy should, to the extent possible, ensure that the TARPS development be transferable to the F/A-18F pod. To ensure that the latest technologies are provided to the user, the committee directs that the development and procurement of the F/A-18F podded system be awarded competitively. The committee has followed the TARPS digital imagery (DI) electro-optical (EO) improvements and is pleased with the results of this interim, but limited, capability. However, the committee believes there is a need to move to a production EO capability with a larger format backplane that provides both better resolution and a larger target area field-of-view, and understands that the TARPS CD development would provide such a capability at significantly less cost than a Navy purchase of the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System (ATARS). Based on the successful results from the interim DI efforts, the committee is convinced that CD will provide a cost effective EO tactical manned reconnaissance capability to replace the current film-based F-14 pods. Therefore, the committee recommends $5.0 million in PE 24136N for TARPS CD non-recurring engineering. The committee directs the Navy to move to TARPS CD production as expeditiously as possible. ............. Integrated ship self defense test site The budget request contained $132.3 million in PE 64755N for the ship self defense program and $33.2 million in PE 64759N, Major Test & Evaluation Investment. No funds were requested in either program element for the ship self defense set and support equipment required to activate the Navy's Integrated Ship Self Defense Engineering Center (ISDEC). In 1991, the Navy received approval to construct a land- based test facility at Wallops Island to integrate and test the ship self defense system (SSDS) and its related equipment. The decision was made after a comprehensive review of available test sites and their ability to support the engineering development, in-service engineering, training, testing, and other initiatives associated with the SSDS. Construction of the facility was completed in 1995. A December 1996 letter from the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations advised that ``program reductions have resulted in delays of two or more years for the procurement and installation of systems intended for ships and insufficient funding to operate and maintain the Wallops Island facility.'' In view of the priority assigned to the cooperative engagement capability (CEC) and ship self defense programs, the committee does not understand the inability of the Department of the Navy to fund the installation of the required SSDS equipment set and related equipment required to activate the integrated SSDS test site. Such funding should have been an integral part of the program plan when approval for construction of the site was sought and given in 1991. The Navy's inability to provide the required funding is even more incomprehensible in view of the fact that the ship self defense and CEC programs that will use the site have been among the Navy's highest priority programs. These programs have been funded at an average funding level of approximately $400.0 million annually since 1990, and have received significant annual funding increases from Congress. By failing to budget for the activation and operation of the ISDEC, the Navy has severely restricted its ability to perform testing and lifetime engineering support, in-service engineering, and engineering initiatives related to the CEC and SSDS systems. Accordingly the committee recommends an increase of $8.6 million in PE 64759N to purchase the SSDS and related equipment required to activate the integrated land based test site at Wallops Island. The Secretary of the Navy is also directed to provide from available funds the $6.0 million that is required to refurbish and install an AN/SPS-48E air search radar at the site. ............. Joint surveillance and target radar system integration The budget request contained $5.1 million in PE 64231N for the Joint Maritime Communications Information System (JMCIS)-- Afloat. No funds were requested to include a capability within JMCIS to exploit the Joint Surveillance and Target Radar System (JSTARS) moving target indicator (MTI) data. The committee believes that there are compelling reasons for the Navy to acquire the ability to use the JSTARS radar surveillance system. The Navy currently has no means to detect and track, and locate moving targets, on a large scale, to contribute meaningfully to operations ashore. The Navy and Marine Corps aviation forces, future variants of the Tomahawk missile, shore fire-support systems, and amphibious forces will all require highly capable moving target indicator (MTI) radar support for situation assessment and targeting. Therefore, the committee recommends an increase of $10.0 million to perform the tasks necessary to integrate JSTARS data into Navy and Marine ship and air platforms. ............. Precision targeting and location system The budget request contained no funds for global positioning system (GPS) interference precision targeting and location. The committee is aware of the potential vulnerability of GPS signals to collateral interference and intentional jamming. In fiscal year 1997, Congress authorized and appropriated $3.5 million in PE 64270N for demonstration of a flyable prototype of a currently available technology capable of rapid, precision location of sources of GPS interference in order to assess the technical feasibility and utility of such a targeting system incorporated on operational aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. The committee recommends an increase of $2.8 million in PE 64270N to complete the demonstration. ............. Air Force RDT&E ............. Items of Special Interest ............. Range improvement program The budget request contained $47.3 million for major test and evaluation investment in PE 64759F. The committee understands that the test range at Eglin Air Force Base is a national asset that provides important test and evaluation capabilities for the Department of Defense. It is also aware that the range needs improved instrumentation and other modernization to meet 21st century requirements. The committee supports improved test and evaluation and recommends an increase of $14.8 million for range modernization. Rocket propulsion research The budget request contained $48.1 million for rocket propulsion technology in the integrated high payoff rocket propulsion technology (IHPRPT) initiative programs. The IHPRPT represents the Department of Defense's principal technology effort to dramatically improve the performance of rocket systems and is leveraged through coordination and cooperation with industry and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The committee believes that the Department's strong leadership and commitment to this effort is essential to achieving this leverage, and is concerned that the requested level of funding may be insufficient to sustain critical research in materials and propellants. Therefore, the committee recommends an increase of $6.0 million to PE 62601F, $1.5 million be added to PE 63302F, and an increase of $1.0 million to each for PE 62111N and PE 63217N for IHPRPT programs. Rocket system launch program The budget request contained $8.0 million in PE 65860F for the rocket system launch program (RSLP). The RSLP provides research, development, test, and evaluation support to the Department of Defense and other government agencies using excess ballistic missile assets. The committee continues to support the atmospheric interceptor technology (AIT) program, a primary technology base program within the Ballistic Missile Defense Office for advanced hit-to-kill interceptor technologies. Flight tests are needed in fiscal year 1998 for the AIT program to move ahead, but funding for these tests was not included in the AIT or RSLP budget requests. The committee understands that these flight tests may use experimental Advanced Solid Axial Stages boosters, the testing of which will help the RSLP program better meet future requirements. The committee recommends $33.0 million for RSLP, an increase of $25.0 million, to support AIT flight tests in fiscal year 1998. Solar thermionics orbital transfer vehicle The budget request contained $40.8 million for advanced spacecraft technology in PE 63401F. The committee is aware that space power and thermal management technology is important to the goal of making future space-based systems more affordable. The committee also understands that the Air Force has initiated an orbital transfer vehicle program that will use thermionics technology to provide both electrical power and propulsion. The committee supports use of technological innovation to reduce the cost of space systems and recommends an increase of $20.0 million to support the orbital transfer vehicle program. Space and Missile Rocket Propulsion The budget request contained $16.2 million within PE 63302F for Space and Missile Rocket Propulsion. The committee remains concerned that the nation's space launch system is too unreliable and expensive and believes that exploration of potentially revolutionary launch technologies is fully justified. Improving the efficiency and responsiveness of U.S. launch capabilities is important to a wide range of military activities and to reducing infrastructure costs. The Scorpius space launch technology demonstration program embodies one promising approach to robust, inexpensive, scalable launch capabilities. It has been funded through seven small business innovative research awards by BMDO and Phillips Laboratory. The committee recommends an increase of $15.0 million for continuation of the Scorpius program and that the funding for the Scorpius program be transferred from BMDO (PE 63173C) to the Air Force (PE 63302F). The committee believes that military single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles could also be important to future defense missions and could provide assured and very flexible access to space. The committee notes that the budget request contained no funding for the military spaceplane, however, the Air Force has expressed support for this program and indicates that it will be funded in fiscal year 1999. The committee recommends an increase of $15.0 million in PE 63302F to continue this program. Titan space launch vehicles The budget request contained $82.4 million in PE 35144F for research and development on Titan IVB boosters and related equipment. The Titan IVB uses upgraded strap-on solid rocket motors (SRMUs) to enable the Titan booster to meet increasing performance requirements. The Air Force determined that the SRMU needed to be requalified for use on the Titan IVB, if the program were to continue beyond 37 launches. The process of making this determination resulted in a significant lag in the obligation and expenditure of funding that was authorized in fiscal year 1996. Therefore, the committee recommends $67.4 million, a reduction of $15.0 million to reflect this delay. Trusted rubix The budget request contained $5.3 million for the information systems security program in PE 33140F. The committee is aware that the advent of the information age has caused a greater reliance on computer-based systems and, accordingly supports the Department's efforts to improve computer security and to protect the defense information infrastructure from attack. The committee recommends an increase of $2.3 million for continued development of the Trusted Rubix multi-level security program. Defense Agencies RDT&E ............. Airborne information transmission The budget request contained $10.8 million in PE 35206D to continue testing and evaluation of the airborne information transmission (ABIT) system. The committee believes that all major airborne reconnaissance systems should have the ability to communicate and cooperatively operate sensor systems using wide-bandwidth, high data rate communications. Such a capability would allow real-time database sharing, cooperative target location, a long haul ``reach back'' capability to national processing facilities, and use/control of collection systems from platform to platform. The committee supports the Department's Common Data Link (CDL) and ABIT efforts to pursue these capabilities. Accordingly, the committee directs the Secretary of Defense to conduct a study on the costs, requirements, and benefits of adding wide-bandwidth data links on all major airborne reconnaissance/surveillance aircraft. The study should also provide costs for developing and installing this capability on the various aircraft. The results of this study shall be provided to the Congressional defense and intelligence committees by October 1, 1998. The committee notes the ongoing Air Force efforts to integrate ABIT capabilities on the RC-135 reconnaissance aircraft, and believes this effort should be the basis for all future manned reconnaissance interoperability efforts, including an ABIT capability on the joint surveillance target attack radar system aircraft. The committee recommends an increase of $3.0 million for the Air Force to lead this effort. Airborne overhead integrated task force (AOITF) The Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community have formed an integrated task force to investigate the costs and benefits of correlating airborne and overhead signalsintelligence data for improved target location capabilities. The task force has concluded the first phase of its work, unquestionably showing results that would provide high payoff for tactical forces at modest costs. Due to the timing of the task force's study, the administration could not address its findings and funding recommendations in the budget request. Based on the potential importance of this initiative for dominant battlefield awareness in several primary mission areas, the committee recommends an increase of $7.2 million in the PE 35206D, within Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Program for continuing AOITF investigations and developments. Additionally, the committee recommends an additional $2.3 million in PE 31359A, within the General Defense Intelligence Program for required software improvements to the Joint Collection Management Tool program. Other actions are detailed in the classified annex to this report. The committee applauds the work of the task force and the decision to sustain it and ultimately transform it into a joint office to oversee implementation. The committee also fully endorses the task force's plan to examine the costs and benefits of cooperative processing in other, closely related areas. Airborne reconnaissance advanced development The budget request contained $4.5 million in PE 35206D for continued refinement of the joint airborne reconnaissance architecture standards. Included in this amount was funding for verifying compliance and interoperability of new upgrades and developments. The committee recommends $1.5 million for this effort, a decrease of $3.0 million. The budget request for PE 35206D also contained $3.0 million for initiating development of the heavy fuel engine (HFE) for the tactical UAV. Department of Defense documentation duplicates justification for requesting an HFE within PE 35204D. Additionally, the committee is aware that previous authorizations and appropriations for this effort have not been fully obligated or expended. Therefore, the committee recommends a decrease of $3.0 million in this program element. Airborne reconnaissance advanced development The budget request contained $9.6 million in PE 35206D for studies and advanced designs leading to possible future integration of the joint signals intelligence (SIGINT) avionics family (JSAF) collection systems on the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). It also contained $6.6 million for beginning development of systems to incorporate the JSAF prime mission equipment. The committee understands that this funding will not build systems, but only provide the necessary studies and initial design efforts to do so. The committee understands the Global Hawk is an advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD) designed to validate the military utility of a high altitude, long endurance, wide area coverage UAV. There is no stated goal for a SIGINT demonstration in the ACTD, and as stated by Department witnesses, there is no Joint Requirements Oversight Council approval for such requirement. Additionally, since the military utility demonstration phase of this ACTD is scheduled to be completed in fiscal year 2000, there has been no determination that this air vehicle will be continued beyond the ACTD. Although the committee does not believe this vehicle will ever totally replace existing SIGINT systems, it does believe there may be a future utility for a focused Global Hawk SIGINT mission. However, the committee is not willing to authorize the expenditure of such large sums for studying such a future mission when the air vehicle has not yet flown, or proven its military utility and suitability for its primary imagery role. The committee is particularly sensitive to this issue when the Department is apparently willing to deny funding to upgrade critical operational SIGINT collection systems in order to fund demonstration systems. Accordingly, the Congress for fiscal year 1997 denied $10.0 million funding request in the Global Hawk program element for SIGINT development. The committee, however, has recently learned that the Department has an additional $4.0 million in fiscal year 1997 funds in the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Program's advanced technology funding line for this same purpose. Therefore, the committee recommends a decrease of $16.2 million in this program element for the purpose of advanced design for a SIGINT capability on Global Hawk. The committee will be willing to address this issue as a product improvement to an imagery-capable and militarily suitable air vehicle that has been demonstrated, proven, and approved for acquisition. The committee believes the fiscal year 1997 funds are sufficient to study not implement development of a future SIGINT application and agrees the funds should be expended for that purpose. ............. DarkStar The investigation of last year's crash of the first DarkStar unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the experience of trying to field the Predator after its successful demonstration have revealed that reliability is an important issue for these advanced concept technology demonstrations (ACTDs). In principle, an ACTD is to demonstrate technology and should not expend much resources ensuring that the demonstrated system is ready for serial production. However, in practice, the Department of Defense has demonstrated a proclivity to move directly into production with ACTD configurations immediately after successful demonstrations. Taking production issues into account in designing systems for ACTDs, therefore, would appear to be prudent, especially in cases (such as the endurance UAVs) where a unit price cap is a determining factor in the success of the program. The DarkStar program office is currently examining high-payoff reliability improvement measures for the system. The committee directs Department to provide the results of this review and any actions taken by February 15, 1998. The committee also requests the Department to sponsor a study of the operational benefits of adding a moving target indicator (MTI) radar capability to the DarkStar, and the costs of doing so. This study should be coordinated with the program office of the Joint Mobile Target Engagement ACTD, assuming it gets underway in fiscal year 1998. The study should be submitted to the Congressional defense and intelligence committees by April 1, 1998. Defense airborne reconnaissance office The budget request included $21.5 million in PE 35209D for operation of the defense airborne reconnaissance office (DARO). The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994 (Public Law 103-160) directed the creation of an organization to oversee and coordinate the activities of the military services with respect to the development of airborne reconnaissance systems. While the committee continues to support oversight of service developmental efforts to ensure system interoperability and preclude unnecessary duplication of efforts, it believes defense reconnaissance system oversight and guidance would be more effectively accomplished by the Director of Military Intelligence (DMI) than it has been thus far by the DARO. The committee further believes that development and acquisition of reconnaissance systems would be more properly controlled by the military services rather than centrally directed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Therefore, the committee recommends a provision (sec. 907) that directs abolishment of the DARO, and transfer of required defense airborne reconnaissance program functions to the Director, Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) under his authorities as Director of Military Intelligence (DMI) and Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) Coordinator. The committee directs the Director, DIA to provide a transition plan, with a draft DMI DARP charter, to the Congressional defense and intelligence committees no later than the submission of the fiscal year 1999 President's budget. The committee recommends no funding for the DARO, and $7.5 million for continued DARP management, a decrease of $14.0 million. Digital terrain elevation data The budget request contained no funds in PE 35206D for developing a digital terrain elevation data (DTED) collection capability for aircraft. The stated requirements for DTED are very stringent and may cost the Department of Defense more than it can afford using current and planning collection methods. There are also indications that the Joint Warfare Capabilities Assessment for intelligence and reconnaissance casts doubt on the need for worldwide DTED at the currently required levels (3, 4, and 5). Instead, the committee believes it may be sufficient to have the surge capability to collect such data only when needed with an airborne system. However, no such DTED collection capability currently exists. Therefore, the committee, recommends $2.0 million in this PE for the Department to conduct an analysis to determine design trades from which to choose an airborne platform to perform fine DTED data collection. This analysis should determine whether an embedded system or a ``remove and replace'' configuration that could be installed as necessary on an airframe of opportunity makes the most sense. The committee requests that the results of this analysis be provided to the defense and intelligence committees no later than April 1, 1998. ............. Endurance unmanned aerial vehicles The budget request contained $216.7 million in PE 35205D for endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (EUAV). The request for high altitude EUAVs contained $96.0 million for Global Hawk and $54.6 million for DarkStar, while $15.0 million was requested for the medium altitude UAV Predator. The committee notes that the Department initiated Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTD) to develop and demonstrate the two high altitude EUAVs in 1995 in order to permit the rapid and affordable evaluation of advanced capabilities. The EUAV ACTD also included the specific requirement that the two EUAV candidates must prove the ability to be procured at a unit cost of $10.0 million or less before being selected to perform the EUAV mission. The committee understands that the Global Hawk is to provide continuous, all- weather, day/night, wide-area reconnaissance and surveillance in direct support of the joint forces commander. The DarkStar is intended to provide essentially the same capabilities, but is designed to employ stealth technology to operate in high threat environments. While the committee supports the need for determining the military utility of long-dwell UAVs for broad area coverage, it remains concerned about the two high altitude EUAVs. The concern is heightened by the recent DOD Inspector General report that states a lack of clear military worth of the current high altitude EUAV efforts. Further, the committee is concerned that current efforts are pushing the technologies involved and not specifically demonstrating proven/existing technologies (a major issue raised in the DOD IG report). The committee is also aware of system reliability and maintainability concerns and is concerned that it appears as though there is an apparent rush to this unproved UAV solution. In fact, the Department's own documentation shows that roughly 39 percent of the airborne reconnaissance budget is going into proving UAVs--an extremely high percentage to demonstrate unproved capabilities that have marginally stated requirements. The EUAV ACTD management plan states that the number of Global Hawk and DarkStar EUAVs produced may be changed based on program status or user input. The committee understands that an adequate test program can be conducted with four Global Hawk air vehicles, four DarkStar air vehicles and two ground control stations, and strongly recommends that the Department complete the ACTDs, and user evaluations of the EUAV's military worth, before authorizing a high altitude EUAV acquisition program. The committee understands that the Department currently plans to suspend Global Hawk and DarkStar production after delivery of a total of five prototypes each in fiscal year 1997 until both UAVs have been proven airworthy. The committee endorses this decision and recommends that all Global Hawk and DarkStar UAV assets remaining after completion of ACTD testing be transferred to the Air Force Air Combat Command for continued evaluation and user operational testing. The medium altitude EUAV, the Predator, was established as an ACTD in response to an urgent requirement identified by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) in 1993. The committee notes that while there have been some problems with this system, Predator is the first ACTD to complete transition to a production program. The success of the Predator in a number of continental United States exercises and two operational deployments to Bosnia has prompted the JCS to seek additional funding for Predator, including a number of pre-planned product improvement (P3I) upgrades to be included with production systems. Of the funds requested for fiscal year 1998, $4.4 million are designated for beginning development and integration of P3I upgrades. The committee recommends elsewhere in this report that additional procurement funding be provided to accelerate these upgrades. Facial recognition technology The budget request contained $29.1 million for the DOD counter-terror technical support (CTTS) program in PE 63122D. The CTTS is an interagency program for development and demonstration of surveillance, physical security, and infrastructure protection technology. The committee fully supports use of advanced technology to control access to critical facilities, and recommends an increase of $5.0 million for the development and demonstration of biometric access control technology, including the use of authentication software and the principal component method of facial recognition. ............. High altitude endurance unmanned aerial vehicle common ground segment The budget request contained $51.1 million in PE 35205D for the high altitude endurance (HAE) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) common ground segment (CGS), $9.0 million of which was for testing. The committee understands that $10.0 million of fiscal year 1997 funds were authorized and appropriated for this same testing. The committee also understands that such testing was not completed due to the delays in both HAE advanced concept technology demonstrations. Therefore, the committee recommends $42.1 million, a decrease of $9.0 million. ............. Smart unattended undersea sensors The budget request contained $69.1 million in PE 63763E for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency marine technology program, including $21.9 million for development of sensor and sonar technologies, advanced ship mechanical systems, and advanced maritime platforms. The committee is aware that the proliferation of quiet diesel-electric submarines in the fleets of potentially hostile nations represents a significant threat to U.S. Naval forces operating in the shallower waters of the world's littoral regions, where environmental factors of acoustic propagation, reverberation and ambient noise degrade the capabilities of existing acoustic detection systems. While improvements are being made in active and passive acoustic sensors systems for surface ships and submarines, the committee believes that the development of smart unattended undersea sensors capable of detecting, classifying, and reporting the presence of threat submarines to a remote monitoring center could significantly improve the capability of the anti-submarine warfare system of systems. The committee understands that such sensors could be capable of both passive listening and active echo reception, and could exploit recent advances in computer chip technology, information processing, global positioning system navigation, and cellular communications. The committee recommends an increase of $4.0 million in PE 63763E for development and demonstration of the technology for smart unattended undersea sensors. Special operations intelligence systems development The committee is aware of the significant importance of mission familiarization for the special operation forces and the technology investments being made by joint Department of Defense activities. The Department, through its development of the Virtual Light Table, has displayed a highly effective, user friendly environment that is being adapted by the special operations forces for mission familiarization. This effort is intended to serve as a model for infusion of commercial technology into the DOD training environment. The committee views the Mission Familiarization Virtual Reality Project (MFVRP) as a cornerstone for greatly expanded mission familiarization and a new intelligence dissemination methodology. The committee recommends that the Special Operations Command pursue development of the MFVRP virtual reality technology and recommends an increase of $3.0 million in PE 1160405BB for this effort. Special technology support The budget request contained $11.8 million in PE 63704D, for various Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence and Security) quick reaction intelligence support projects. The committee fully supports funding for the Department's efforts to quickly respond to unforeseen theater and unified command technical requirements. However, the committee believes the justifications provided for fiscal year 1998 indicate that much of the activities in this program do not fall within this category and ought to be pursued, if at all, by the services or other DOD technology development agencies. Therefore, the committee recommends an authorization of $9.8 million for this project, a decrease of $2.0 million. ............. Tactical unmanned aerial vehicle The budget request contained $122.0 million for Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (TUAV) in PE 35204D, including $87.5 million for the Outrider Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) program. The committee understands that the purpose of the Outrider ACTD is to assemble and demonstrate a significant new tactical reconnaissance military capability based on matureadvanced technology. The Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO) established the Joint Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (JTUAV) program from two previously unsuccessful programs, the close range and the maneuver UAVs. The DARO conducted a competitive selection which evaluated nine candidates and awarded a twenty-four month contract for the Outrider JTUAV in May 1996. The ``best value'' selection was based on the ability to successfully develop and deliver six ACTD systems, each consisting of four air vehicles and a ground control station with associated equipment, within the 24 months schedule, and, in part on the winning contractor's successful flight demonstration of the Hellfox air vehicle. The committee is informed that Outrider ACTD is well behind schedule and experiencing serious performance problems. Its first flight, scheduled for November 1996, did not occur until March 1997. The committee supports efforts to streamline the current acquisition process and enable demonstrated capability to transition quickly to production. However, the committee is extremely concerned that the Outrider ACTD appears to have circumvented important acquisition criteria and milestones, including the need for the program to address a validated military requirement. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) has failed to formally validate a joint operational requirement for the JTUAV, which contradicts the Department's own guidance that ACTDs must address user requirements clearly enough to firmly establish operational utility and system integrity. The committee is fully aware of the technical problems that have plagued development of the Outrider UAV. Outrider is experiencing serious shortcomings that indicate that the program is not based on mature technology. The committee understands that the program is under special review by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology, and is being considered for cancellation by the Department. The technical problems with the Outrider UAV, and recent observations/statements by the Director, DARO that the Department was ``going to cut its losses'' on the program appear to lend creditability to this notion. The committee recommends a decrease of $87.5 million, resulting in no funding for the outrider ACTD. To address urgent service requirments for tactical UAVs, the committee recommends an increase $10.0 million to support a vertical takeoff and landing UAV competition that was recently initiated by the DARO. In addition, the committee recommends an increase of $11.5 million of the funds authorized be made available to provide a dedicated Predator UAV system and associated equipment, including at least two aircraft equipped with synthetic aperture radar and Ku-band link, for operational experimentation and testing of the common UAV Tactical Control System (TCS). To ensure a viable transition from the Outrider ACTD, elsewhere in the report the committee recommends an additional $10.0 million in operations and maintenance, Army, for operating currently owned Hunter UAVs. Finally, the committee believes there are a number of existing UAVs, including Hellfox (from which the Outrider was derived), the Prowler, and others that could satisfy the Army's tactical short range UAV requirement. Therefore, the committee recommends $20.0 million in aircraft procurement, Army, for acquiring an ``off-the- shelf'' tactical UAV with minimum development. The UAV selected is to be equipped with a digital data link that is compatible with the Army digital architecture for the future. In summary, the committee recommends a decrease of $66.0 million for tactical UAVs. The committee directs the Secretary of the Army to provide a report to the Congressional defense committees outlining the short range UAV acquisition strategy no later than February 1, 1998. None of these funds may be obligated prior to submission of this report ............. Transfer of cooperative engagement capability operating frequency band Title VI of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (Public Law 103-66) requires the federal government to provide a span of radio frequencies aggregating not less than 200 Mhz for allocation to the public. To minimize negative impact on the federal government, the act requires that the spectrum to be reallocated must not be ``required for the present or identifiable future needs of the Federal Government'' and should not result in costs to the federal government that exceed the benefits gained. In February 1995, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, recommended reallocation of 50 MHz from within the operating frequency band of the Navy's cooperative engagement capability (CEC) system. In the statement of managers accompanying the conference report on H.R. 3230 (H. Rept. 104-724), the conferees directed the Secretary of the Navy to prepare a detailed report on: (1) progress being made to resolve spectrum interference that would result from the reallocation of the CEC operating band, and (2) steps being taken to resolve interference between CEC and other fleet weapon systems and data links. According to the Department of Defense (DOD) and the General Accounting Office (GAO), this transfer could result in the loss of a total of 200 MHz (one-third of the CEC's usable operating frequencies) and could severely affect the operational capability of the CEC. DOD officials have also indicated to the GAO that current and future spectrum reallocations could significantly degrade the capabilities of many major weapons systems in addition to the CEC and could cost the Department hundreds of millions of dollars to modify systems and/or rent frequencies from the private sector or foreign governments. The committee is informed, however, that the full implications of the 1993 act are not yet known and that the Department is conducting a comprehensive analysis of spectrum requirements for critical systems in order to determine the extent that operational effectiveness of these systems could be affected by loss ofthe frequency spectrum. The committee also understands that a recent DOD study indicates that the Department's top level spectrum management for planning, policy, and oversight is diffused and weak and that there is no single high-level DOD point of contact for spectrum management. In response to H. Rept. 104-724, the Secretary of the Navy has reported that the Navy is working with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to minimize interference with civilian applications in the reallocated frequency band and the effect of the reallocation on CEC performance. The Secretary's report also states that the Navy's preferred technical option for resolution of interference between CEC and the LAMPS Mk III data link is moving the LAMPS data link to the Ku-band. Should the Navy choose this option for resolution of the problem, the committee expects that the funding required for the transfer will be included in the fiscal year 1999 defense budget request. The committee concurs with the steps taken by the Navy to address the issues raised in the House report, but believes that the problem should be addressed in a more comprehensive manner by the Secretary of Defense. The committee encourages the Secretary to assign responsibility for overall radio frequency spectrum management to a specific organization within the Department. The committee directs the Secretary to prepare a report to the Congress, in coordination with the Chairman of the FCC and the Secretary of Commerce, which addresses: (1) agreements on measures being taken to resolve the impact of the transfer of 50 Mhz from the radio frequency operating band of the cooperative engagement capability (CEC); (2) the impact of transfers of the federal radio frequency spectrum on other critical military systems; (3) how the DOD plans to modify the CEC and other critical systems, including estimated costs and schedule, to compensate for any operational degradation that might be caused by losses of the radio frequency spectrum due to such transfers; and (4) any unresolved issues in joint frequency spectrum management and impediments to the resolutions of these issues. The report shall be submitted to the Congress by March 31, 1998. United States imagery and geospatial system improvements The budget request contained $109.4 million in PE 35102BQ, for the national imagery and mapping agency's (NIMA) development, procurement and integration of an end-to-end imagery production capability for geospatial information. The Director of NIMA has officially embraced the Defense Science Board's (DSB) direction to move NIMA from production of products to the maintenance of geospatial information, a move the committee supports. One of the DSB's recommendation included trading off production of lower priority products and less critical functions in order to fund NIMA's more pressing technical needs, thereby allowing the agency to move more rapidly in implementing future technical capabilities. However, judging from the budget request, the committee does not believe NIMA's technology investment is sufficient to efficiently and effectively transition to these capabilities. Therefore, the committee recommends $124.4 million, an increase of $15.0 million for developing and fielding the modern imagery and mapping technologies. ............. Verification technology demonstration The budget request contained $83.4 million in PE 63711H for verification technology demonstration. The committee understands that the requested funding increase of $54.3 million is to initiate a new program for monitoring associated with the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), and that this program was previously administered by the Air Force, with anticipated expenditures for fiscal year 1998 of $29.0 million. The committee finds that the capability to conduct such activities, with regard to seismic events within the United States and its territories already exists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), an agency of the Department of the Interior. Therefore, CTBT functions and obligations associated with seismic events occurring within the United States should be performed by the USGS, and a redundant technical capability should not be created within the Department of Defense. The committee recommends no funds for use by the Department of Defense for the purpose of establishing an independent capability to monitor, analyze, and report on domestic seismic events, as part of the CTBT functions or obligations. The committee, therefore, recommends $69.1 million, a decrease of $14.3 million in PE 63711H. Of the amount authorized, $11.0 million is recommended to be solely for seismic research and technology development. Additionally, of the amount authorized, the committee directs that not more than $20.0 million may be obligated until memoranda of agreement are signed between the Department of Defense and the U.S. Geological Survey delineating relationships associated with seismic sensing and CTBT monitoring. ............. Section 213--Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles This section would direct that: (1) no funds be made available for the Outrider advanced concept technology demonstration program, (2) that $10.0 million be made available to carry out a competition for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of vertical takeoff and landing, and (3) that $11.5 million be made available to provide a Predator UAV system to facilitate development of a common tactical control system. ............. Intelligence Matters Budget Justification Materials The Congressional Budget Justification Books (CBJBs) for the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) and the Congressional Justification Books (CJBs), for the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) and Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) represent the official documentation provided yearly by the intelligence Community Management Staff (CMS) and the Department of Defense to the Congress on the President's intelligence budget request. These documents provide the official budget numbers, by program, with which Congress evaluates the President's proposed intelligence program and renders decisions on individual programs and policy matters. However, the committee is concerned that the current budget documents lack several critical components necessary for the Congress to ensure the proper alignment of funding within the funding appropriations categories. Clear identification of each project; its specific budget request numbers; the appropriation category (e.g. Other Procurement, Defense-wide; RDT&E, Navy; etc.); the budget request line number, and, if a research and development project, the Program Element number is essential to this task. Further, the committee requires a detailed accounting of all program reprogramming and reallocation actions, where unallocated cuts were taken, identification of total program costs (such as aircraft or spacecraft and association ground station costs, including system engineering and systems integration costs and operations support). Therefore, the committee directs the CMS and the Department to provide this specific data in all future budget justification documents. Finally, the committee is also concerned that past and current budget justification documents have not consistently shown all direct and associated funds requests for intelligence programs. Research and development costs in the Defense Cryptologic Program, for example, are not identified specifically with the programs that are the direct beneficiaries. Also, operations and maintenance costs are often carried in a service's total obligation authority and not specifically identified in the CBJBs. The committee cannot fully understand the magnitude of budgetary actions without fully and clearly understanding all the costs of a program. Therefore, the committee directs that in future CBJBs and CJBs all direct and associated costs, in each budgetary category (e.g. procurement, research and development, operations and maintenance, military construction, etc.), be clearly and completely provided in each program request. Command and Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence Integrated Architecture Plan The budget request contained $3.6 million for the Command and Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I) Integrated Architecture Plan (CIAP). CIAP provides the Commanders in Chief (CINCs) in-depth analysis of region-centric intelligence issues resulting in regional intelligence support plans, resource programming and operational architecture designs. The committee has been very supportive of this effort, and is concerned that it is once again underfunded jeopardizing the completion of CIAP plans for several of the regional CINCs. The committee believes these plans provide a unique analytical basis for future intelligence decisions, and that intelligence funding will be most effectively programmed and expended with such analysis. Therefore, the committee recommends a total of $9.3 million for the CIAP efforts, an increase of $5.7 million. Defense Space Reconnaissance Program (DSRP) The committee believes there is no longer a need to maintain the (DSRP), a program within the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP). The Defense Support Program Office (DSPO), operated by DSRP funds, was established to provide an overt coordination mechanism for providing National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) system capabilities to military users. Since the NRO is now declassified, the committee believes that there is no longer a need to maintain this special DSRP liaison function. Therefore, the committee directs that, effective October 1, 1998, the DSRP be abolished, and all funds properly apportioned to the services, defense agencies and the NRO. The committee further directs that, no later than February 1, 1998, the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command & Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) and the Director, NRO provide the defense and intelligence authorizing committees a joint plan, including the transfer of funding, for transitioning the functions of the DSPO and the DSRP. Foreign Instrumentation Intelligence The budget request contained no funding or personnel billets in the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) for Foreign Instrumentation Intelligence (FISINT) analysis. The committee is concerned about the significant reduction in the number of weapons-specific FISINT analysts. While some decline in this capability may have been justified following a decline in Russian missile test activities, it is not consistent with the corresponding increase in missile developments and testing by other nations. Numerous countries that did not retain such weapons capabilities during the bi- polar Cold War era are now able to obtain or indigenously develop high technology missiles and components. Many of these weapons could be used to threaten U.S. and allied forces. The committee is convinced that weapons FISINT analyst levels have dropped too far as important analysis of weapons systems have been postponed, and gaps in U.S. understanding of new weapon systems are widening. Therefore, the committee recommends that of the positions realized as result of the abolishment of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office elsewhere in this report, ten military personnel and five civilian personnel should be made available to the Director, Defense Intelligence Agency, under his authorities as the Defense General Intelligence Applications Program Coordinator, to rebuild weapons FISINT analysis capabilities. The Director, DIA will allocate these billets to the National SecurityAgency, the National Aerospace Intelligence Center, the Missiles and Space Intelligence Center, and the Office of Naval Intelligence as required. Imagery and Geospatial System Production The budget request contained $541.8 million for continued operations of National Imagery and Mapping Agency's (NIMA) Geospatial System Production and Customer support. The Director of NIMA has officially stated that, because of the large operations and maintenance cost of older production equipment, the Agency will completely phase out the legacy Digital Production System (DPS) by the year 2000. Although the overall NIMA operations and maintenance budget decreases slightly in fiscal year 1998, very little of this decrease is due to a reduction in legacy system funding. The committee notes that migration away from DPS began in fiscal year 1997, and a more significant decline in funding should result in fiscal year 1998. Therefore, the Committee recommends $501.4 million for this activity, a decrease of $40.0 million. Intelligence System Interoperability The budget request contained $196.6 million for Command and Control, Communications, Computer Intelligence (C4I) support system development and interoperability, and for establishing a virtual intelligence analysis environment. The systems identified within this request are contained within the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP), the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) and the Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) aggregation, and include the following programs: (1) Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture; (2) Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System (JDISS) (3) All Source Analysis System (ASAS); (4) Joint Maritime Communications Information System (JMCIS); (5) Combat Intelligence System (CIS); (6) Analysis System (IAS); and (7) JDISS-Special Operations Command Research, Analysis, and Threat Evaluation System (SOCRATES). The committee supports the Department's efforts to provide an interoperable intelligence dissemination architecture and a ``virtual'' analytical environment with which analysts world- wide can collaborate. However, the committee believes the various projects reflected in the President's request do not have the necessary direction and control to require the sharing of developments and to ensure that duplication of effort is minimized, as demonstrated by a review of the budget justification documents. Further, the committee believes that the systems stated above can be broken down into the basic components of 1) a high powered workstation with communications; 2) an operating environment that, by direction of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I) must be Defense Intelligence Infrastructure (FII) and Common Operating Environment (COE) compliant; and 3) a set of applications software. While the common stated goal of the above systems is to provide support to analysts and operators, the program managers of these systems rarely, if ever, work together to achieve common goals by sharing ideas and developments. Therefore, the committee is convinced of the need to establish a management focal point within the Department that would involve includes representation from each of the service and agency system program offices. The mission for this organization would be to provide oversight, integration, and development of collaborative applications for the associated C4I systems. The function of this organization should not be to dictate specific service or agency hardware solutions or unique software applications, but to provide for the development of common applications, act as a conduit for sharing analytical ideas and processes, and to ensure world-wide interoperability via standards. The committee does not support the concept of centralizing funding for these efforts, since these systems are the responsibilities of the various services and agencies. Therefore, the committee directs that no more than 50 percent of the funds authorized for the above systems be obligated or expended, until the Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I) provides the defense and intelligence authorizing committees with a plan for creating a management focal point within the Department with a charter encompassing the goals outlined. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar The budget request contained $23.2 million to continue development of the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) mission to collect Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) level 2 information. The IFSAR mission is scheduled to fly on the Space Shuttle in the 2000 timeframe. The IFSAR mission itself will cost $163.3 million, with $98.4 million for follow-on analysis. The committee continues to believe that there are other, more cost-effective alternatives to the IFSAR mission for collecting DTED level 2 data. One such alternative appears to be an algorithm developed by commercial industry that allows DTED level 2 data to be derived from the European Resource Satellites (ERS-1 and -2). The Canadian RADARSAT also appears to be able to satisfy this requirement. Additionally, new processes for aircraft with SAR capabilities hold great potential. Therefore, the committee recommends cancellation of the IFSAR mission and a corresponding reduction of $23.2 million in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency budget. Joint Planning and Program Review The budget request contained $6.6 million for Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) general support to the defense community. This request included funding for moving DIA elements within the Pentagon and to leased space due to anti- terrorism and force protection direction from the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The committee supports new DIA efforts, within this project, to provide intelligence assessments, intelligence inputs to Defense Planning Guidance, and other intelligence support functions. The committee hopes that these efforts are indeed havingan impact on defense planning and programming. The committee further notes that the budget justification materials assert that these DIA assessments have ``determined shortfalls in current high-cost reconnaissance and surveillance programs and identified/ prioritized specific near-term solutions, which resulted in great savings across Future Year Defense Plan (FYDP).'' Therefore, the committee requests that the Director of DIA provide the defense and intelligence committees a report on these assessments before the fiscal year 1998 conference. Further, the Committee does not believe there is adequate justification in the request for a 35 percent increase in funding for moving personnel. Therefore, the committee recommends a limitation on the obligation of $2.0 million of the request until the Department provides the committee with a detailed explanation and rationale for the increased costs incurred by the DIA for these forced moves. National Imagery and Mapping Agency Civilian Personnel The budget request contained $680.3 million for running the National Imagery and Mapping Agency's (NIMA) mapping and geospatial information operations, including funding for 6,389 civilian personnel positions. The Director of NIMA has stated that NIMA's Digital Production System (DPS) will no longer be operational by the year 2000, and that NIMA's primary role in mapping will evolve to that of maintaining information databases instead of producing imagery and other intelligence products. If realized, this approach should result in a greater decline in required personnel over the current mandatory downsizing reductions, since the majority of NIMA personnel currently support the development of intelligence products. The committee supports the effort to move away from DPS, however, the committee believes that NIMA has failed to properly take into account the effect this plan will have on personnel levels. Therefore, the committee recommends a decrease of $15.0 million in civilian personnel funds to accelerate the downsizing of NIMA's personnel consistent with the DPS phase out. Further, personnel costs account for more than half of NIMA's operations and maintenance request and consequently, more than half of its budget. The committee believes that NIMA must drastically reduce its workforce and become more efficient if it is to be able to fulfill its mission in the information age. Therefore, the committee directs the Director of NIMA to submit a personnel plan to the Congressional defense and intelligence committees containing a forecast of the required personnel levels over the Future Years Defense Program given NIMA's new direction in the geospatial arena. This plan should include an assessment of the types of skills required in the future versus what NIMA now possesses, a breakdown per year of the types of personnel positions that shows how NIMA's demographics will change as the agency moves to its required skill mix, an assessment of whether cartographer personnel slots can be transformed into imagery analyst slots and the potential for retraining cartographers into imagery analysts, and an assessment of the challenges and obstacles facing the agency in achieving the necessary personnel reductions, including suggested remedies for such obstacles. The committee requests that an interim plan be submitted by August 1, 1997, with a final plan to be provided by December 1, 1997. National Imagery and Mapping Agency Mission Support The budget request contained $147.6 million for National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) facilities management. As NIMA consolidates facilities, the committee expects to see a marked decline in mission support costs. Such a decline is not apparent in the budget request justification materials. Therefore, the committee recommends a decrease of $10.0 million. Further, the committee requests that the Director of NIMA submit a facilities plan that lays out locations and functions of all current facilities, and describes NIMA's strategy to consolidate and reduce its facility holdings. The committee requests that an interim plan be submitted by August 1, 1997, with a final plan to be provided by December 1, 1997. Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) The budget request contained $2.2 million in the Army Operations and Maintenance account for continued operation of one-to-two Hunter UAV systems currently owned by the U.S. Army. This request was not, however, reflected in the Army's Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities (TIARA) request. The committee understands that the Army is operating at least 2 full Hunter systems and has recently sent a partial system to the Navy. The remaining systems are in storage. With the cancellation of Hunter procurement, the cancellation of the Maneuver UAV, and the delay in the Outrider Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration, the committee is concerned with the need to satisfy near-term Army tactical UAV requirements. The committee believes the best short-term solution is for the Army to operate the systems it currently owns. Therefore, the committee recommends an additional $10 million in the Army's Tactical Intelligence and Related Applications aggregation for operation of additional Hunter UAVs to satisfy Army tactical reconnaissance requirements and to refine tactical UAV operational procedures. The committee does not authorize additional or attrition Hunter air vehicle purchases, nor does it authorize technical improvements to the air vehicle or its electronic systems. Finally the committee notes that this is a Congressional interest item and directs that the Army receive prior defense and intelligence committee approval before redistributing these funds for any purpose other than that authorized above. Tactical Information Program The budget request contained $5.2 million in Operations and Maintenance, Air Force, partly for operation of the Integrated Broadcast Service (IBS) executive agency by the Air Intelligence Agency (AIA). The committee believes the budget request does not adequately fund the increased operational demands levied on AIA as a result of the decision by the Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I) to direct the Air Force to manage the development of the IBS data broadcast program. Therefore, the committee recommends an increase of $4.0 million for this purpose. Elsewhere in this report, the committee recommends a reduction of$3.0 million from PE 0304111F, R-169 and $1 million from Other Procurement, Air Force, line 113, as an offset for this increase. Tactical Support The budget request contained $9.9 for continued support to the Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) programs, to provide management support to intelligence processes, and for funding contingency operations for Operation Southern Watch. Elsewhere in this report, the committee has recommended reductions to the TENCAP programs, as it believes the utilization of space has become more commonplace, and therefore requires less specialized management support. Additionally, the committee does not believe a funding increase for Operation Southern Watch is justified. Therefore, the committee recommends $8.7 million for this effort, a reduction of $1.2 million. ............. Other Issues ............. Computer Crimes and Information Technology Security Although highlighted in the Quadrennial Defense Review, the committee is concerned by the modest support from the Department of Defense (DOD) leadership for improving information security for non-classified systems. The committee is aware that in response to concerns raised in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104- 201), several computer investigations training, computer forensics laboratory, and hardware and software improvement programs are under development. To ensure consistency of such training and system improvements throughout DOD and build on the efforts of the Air Force and Navy, the committee directs the Secretary of Defense to establish a standard training program, open to participation by members of all relevant programs in the military departments and defense agencies. This standard program should provide the necessary training, forensic laboratory, and hardware and software support to strengthen DOD's capabilities to identify, respond, and protect information system vulnerabilities. The committee recommends that of the funds authorized for Operations and Maintenance for fiscal year 1998, $9.8 million should be made available to support these programs. ............. TITLE IX--DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ITEMS OF SPECIAL INTEREST ............. LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS ............. Section 907--Termination of the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office This section would abolish the Defense Airborne Reconnaissance Office (DARO), and transfer specified management responsibilities for the defense airborne reconnaissance program to the Director, Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) under his authorities as Director of Military Intelligence (DMI) and Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP) Coordinator. The Director, DIA would be further required to provide a transition plan, with a draft DMI DARP charter, to the Congressional defense and intelligence committees no later than the submission of the fiscal year 1999 President's budget. Since creation, the DARO has failed to successfully develop new unmanned aerial vehicles, except for Predator, which was under development prior to formation of the DARO. DARO-managed UAV acquisition programs have been marred with program delays, cost escalation, technical problems and in general, failure to provide the services with this critical new capability. Therefore, this provision is intended to return UAV system acquisition responsibility to the appropriate military services, while retaining overall airborne reconnaissance coordination and oversight responsibility within the Department of Defense. TITLE X--GENERAL PROVISIONS Counterdrug Activities Overview The budget request for Department of Defense Fiscal Year 1998 drug interdiction and counterdrug activities contained $652.6 million, plus $156.0 for operational tempo which is included within the operating budgets of the military services. This represents a net decrease of $154.4 million from the fiscal year 1997 appropriated level of $807.0, and an increase of $5.6 million for operational tempo from the fiscal year 1997 appropriated level of $150.4. The committee recommends an authorization for fiscal year 1998 defense counterdrug activities as follows: [In thousands of dollars] FY98 Drug Interdiction & Counterdrug Request.................. $652,582 Dismantling Cartels....................................... 54,306 Source Nation Support..................................... 166,763 Detection and Monitoring.................................. 124,686 Law Enforcement Agency Support............................ 223,589 Demand Reduction.......................................... 83,238 Recommended Decreases: National Imagery & Mapping Agency (Project #1401)......... 800 Non-Intrusive Inspection Systems (Project #1403).......... 4,611 Recommended Increases: Gulf States Counterdrug Initiative (Project #7406)........ 4,000 Multi-Jurisdictional Task Force (Project #7408)........... 1,000 Optionally Piloted Air Vehicle (PE #305889D).............. 2,500 Southwest Border Fence Project............................ 7,000 Recommendation................................................ 661,671 Items of Special Interest C-26 aircraft photo reconnaissance upgrade The budget request does not contain funding for the Common Airborne Imagery Processing System (CAIPS) and electro optical (EO) sensors for the Air National Guard C-26 aircraft. The committee understands that the procurement of EO sensors and CAIPS would allow the National Guard to upgrade the current chemical-based imagery capability to a digital system which could provide near-real time photo-quality imagery to requesting law enforcement agencies. Accordingly, the committee urges the Department to evaluate this reconnaissance capability and consider funding the C-26 upgrade from within the fiscal year 1998 National Guard program. Gulf states counterdrug initiative The committee continues to support the Gulf States Counterdrug Initiative (GSCI) and is concerned that the budget request of $1.1 million does not adequately support the funding requirements of this program. The committee understands that this funding level does not include sufficient system training costs or the sustainment of command, control, communications and computer (C4) capabilities for the states of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Mississippi. Therefore, the committee recommends an authorization of $5.1 million, an increase of $4.0 million over the requested amount to support these program improvements. The committee maintains that none of these funds should be utilized for construction or other infrastructure-related costs; rather, funds authorized for this program should continue to be used in support of training, on-site support and maintenance of the C4 network and software system. Further, the committee encourages the designation of non-Department of Defense (DOD) funds for additional operations and maintenance (O&M) and procurement costs identified by law enforcement agencies to sustain the GSCI information system. Mapping, charting and geodesy The budget request contained $8.4 million for continued National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) support to the Defense Intelligence Counterdrug Program's (DICP) mapping, charting and geodesy (MC&G) requirements. The committee has taken action elsewhere in this report intended to modernize and streamline NIMA MC&G operations. This action would encourage NIMA to move more rapidly toward privatization and use of geospatial data maintenance rather than developing paper map products. Therefore, the committee recommends an authorization of $7.6 million for this effort, a decrease of $0.8 million. Mexican, Caribbean and South American initiative The committee continues to support the essential role of the Department of Defense (DOD) in reducing the flow of illegal drugs into the United States. To accomplish this mission, Congress has charged the DOD to act as the single lead federal agency for the detection and monitoring of aerial and maritime transit of illegal drugs into the United States. In addition, DOD is to integrate appropriate command, control, communications, and technical assets of the federal government into an effective communications network. According to the DOD Counterdrug Program, the Department supports foreign law enforcement agencies and military governments by providing initial detection and monitoring, intelligence, operational planning assistance, training in tactical procedures and equipment maintenance, infrastructure improvements, and logistics/communications support. In this capacity, Congress granted authority to DOD through section 1004 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FiscalYear 1991, as amended (Public Law 101-510) and sections 517 and 506(a)(2)(A) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. Section 1031 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997 (Public Law 104-201) expanded DOD authority to provide equipment and maintenance for the Government of Mexico to aid in its counterdrug activities. This support was granted conditionally as a short-term, limited means of enhancing Mexico's counterdrug capabilities and was not intended to replace or circumvent the established foreign assistance authorities or resources of the Department of State. However, the committee is aware of a provision included in the Administration's legislative proposal that would expand current DOD authority to include support for not only Mexico, but Colombia, Peru and selected Caribbean countries; would increase the amount of support to $150.0 million over five years; and would expand the nature of support to include lethal equipment to enhance the interdiction capability of the recipient nations. The committee acknowledges the recent success achieved by participating nations in their combined efforts to stem the production and transfer of illegal drugs. Specifically, U.S. and regional forces under Operation Laser Strike successfully interfered with narcotrafficking along air routes in the Andean region and have caused the price of coca to plummet. Analysis suggests that the narcotraffickers may have adjusted to this initiative and have begun to transit cocaine along the rivers of the Andean region and the Amazon basin, particularly in Peru. Based upon this presumption, the Administration's proposal outlined above is focused on an enhanced riverine interdiction plan. While the committee supports the Administration's strategy to pursue a program which capitalizes upon the achievements of Operation Laser Strike, the current proposal is inappropriately resourced and uncoordinated among the U.S. and regional governments and militaries. The committee is also concerned with the proposed expansion of DOD authority to provide funds for a foreign assistance program from within the Department's counterdrug account. Although the committee continues to support the mission established by the DOD Counterdrug Program, it believes that the direct provision of material and assistance to foreign nations is not a proper utilization of the unique capabilities offered by DOD. Rather, the Administration's initiative should be authorized and resourced more appropriately as a part of the International Narcotics Control Program of the Department of State. While the proposed legislation advocates a coordinated management effort between the Departments of Defense and State, the lack of coordination thus far between the two agencies has manifested itself in a major disconnect over strategic planning between U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) and the relevant U.S. embassies. Given the absence of overall integration in planning among those responsible for the implementation of the program, the committee questions the Administration's long-term commitment to this ambitious riverine strategy. The committee also notes with concern the assumptions made by the Administration in developing the enhanced riverine interdiction plan. Although it seems plausible, there has been no threat assessment to confirm that narcotraffickers have in fact shifted their transit routes to the rivers in a magnitude that would justify such an expansion of DOD authorities and resources. The relevant U.S. embassies and SOUTHCOM have not contributed to the proposal a coordinated lessons-learned evaluation of problems encountered and solutions developed as a result of previous riverine operations in the region, nor does the plan include an outcome-based reporting system to measure the program's success. Further, the committee understands that the Administration's proposal is based upon the presumed existence of clear roles and missions within the respective nations' institutions. On the contrary, long-standing rivalries are certain to hamper the efforts of the host country military and national police forces without the establishment of direct counterdrug authorities to foster interagency cooperation. In addition, the committee is aware of concerns raised by the General Accounting Office (GAO) in a February 1997 report entitled ``Drug Control: Long-Standing Problems Hinder U.S. International Efforts'' (GAO/NSIAD-97-75). The report concluded that despite legislation mandating end-use monitoring, past history has shown that the United States has been unable to ensure that equipment given to Mexico, Colombia and Peru has been used by the host nations as intended upon delivery. The committee is concerned with the transfer of equipment, especially lethal equipment, to unstable governments struggling against ``narcoguerrillas'' and other insurgent factions. Also, given the pervasive influence of powerful drug lords over all levels of government in the proposed participating countries, the threat of corruption affecting the use of counterdrug equipment needs to be more fully addressed by the Administration. The committee notes the existence of corruption exhibited most recently in Mexico with the arrest of General Jesus Gutierrez Rebollo, the former Mexican ``drug czar,'' and by testimony implicating the involvement in drug trafficking of several other high-ranking Mexican military leaders. In light of these concerns, the committee strongly urges the Administration to reevaluate its enhanced interdiction plan. Should a threat assessment justify the need for an ambitious riverine effort, coordination between the Departments of Defense and State needs to preempt any planning at the SOUTHCOM/U.S. embassy country team level. Non-Intrusive Inspection Systems The budget request contained $4.6 million for continued development of non-intrusive inspection systems, technologies that enhance the capability to detect narcotics in cargo container and trucks at U.S. ports of entry. The committee remains concerned that the agencies involved with the development of narcotics detection technologies disagree on the types of systems which need to be developed and ultimately deployed. According to an April 1997 study by the General Accounting Office entitled ``Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Responsibilities for Developing Explosives and Narcotics Detection Technologies'' (GAO/NSIAD-97-95), a detailed procurement methodology has yet to be determined despite near completion of narcotics detection technology development. The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), responsible for the coordination and recommendation of counterdrug technology programs; the U.S. Customs Service, required to deploy the systems developed by the Department of Defense (DOD); and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), involved in the oversight of Customs' technology plans, are all currently working to resolve differences in technology development and deployment. At the request of ONDCP, these agencies are preparing a five-year technology plan for the development of non-intrusive inspection systems and currently estimate a January 1998 completion date of this report. Since December of 1994, DOD has spent about $30.0 million to develop technologies which have not been deployed as a result of concerns with the operational suitability of the systems. Based upon this experience, the committee recommends limiting DOD's development efforts until better funding priorities have been established by the relevant federal agencies.Therefore, the committee denies the $4.6 million funding request for non-intrusive inspection system research and development. Optionally piloted air vehicle The budget request contained no funding for the ``Owl'' Optionally Piloted Air Vehicle (OPV). The committee believes development of this multi- functional aircraft will provide a unique, low-profile, airborne observation platform, providing an inexpensive, long- dwell reconnaissance capability for counterdrug and law enforcement agencies. The committee understands that funding for this aircraft would be provided by a federal/private industry partnership. The majority of funding is to be provided by the private industry partners. Therefore, pending the commitment of private industry funds, the committee recommends $2.5 million for this project in program element 0305889D. Southwest border fence project The committee continues to support the Southwest border road, fence and lighting project in East San Diego County, California. The committee notes the need for a reinforced fence along the fourteen miles of international border east of the Pacific Ocean, and the construction of second and third fences, with roads between the fences, to improve border security in this designated high intensity drug trafficking area (HIDTA). The committee commends the efforts of the California National Guard and the Joint Task Force Six (JTF-6) in allocating sufficient resources for this national priority from within their respective counterdrug budgets. While the construction of a triple fence is currently funded from within the immigration control budget, the committee wishes to ensure the efficient execution of this project. Therefore, the committee recommends an increase of $7.0 million to facilitate completion of the Southwest border fence project from within the law enforcement agencies support component of the Department of Defense Counterdrug Plan. Tracker aircraft The budget request contained $10.0 million for operation of five specially configured tracker aircraft. The committee believes the tracker aircraft mission is more properly aligned with similar missions funded within the Defense Intelligence Counterdrug Program (DICP) of the Joint Military Intelligence Program (JMIP). Therefore, the committee recommends the funding request for project code 7410, but directs that this amount be transferred to O&M, Air Force, within the DICP. Further, the committee directs that future funding requests for this program be properly identified within the DICP. Other Matters Implementation of Whistleblower Protections The committee is aware of existing concerns over unintended consequences resulting from the implementation of section 1034 of title 10, United States Code, providing for the protection of individuals who engage in whistleblower communications with Members of Congress, the Department of Defense Inspector General, and any Department of Defense audit, inspection, investigation, law enforcement organizations, or chain of command communications. Of particular concern are indications that the definition of protected communication in the statute may be overly broad and result in the extension of protections in a manner that needlessly dilutes available investigative and other resources. Therefore, the committee directs the Department of Defense Inspector General to provide the House National Security Committee and the Senate Armed Services Committee with a report by March 1, 1998 that examines the current statutory framework governing the protection of whistleblower activity, assesses the effectiveness of the implementation of these provisions and makes any recommendations for modifications that the Inspector General finds appropriate. Intelligence Shortcomings During Persian Gulf War The Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) has acknowledged that both during and after the Persian Gulf war: (1) The intelligence community failed to adequately alert U.S. military forces to the presence of Iraqi chemical weapons at the Khamisiyah storage facility; (2) This failure was the result of avoidable errors and oversights in processing and analyzing information; (3) The demolition of Khamisiyah in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf war on March 4, 1991, by U.S. forces who were unaware of the presence of Iraqi chemical weapons stored at the facility, may have inadvertently exposed U.S. troops to chemical agents. Furthermore, a study released by the Director of Central Intelligence on April 9, 1997, acknowledges ``that intelligence support associated with Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm--particularly in the areas of information distribution and analysis--should have been better. Key issues include problems with multiple databases; limited sharing of `sensitive' but vital information; and incomplete searches of files while preparing lists of known or suspect CW facilities.'' The study makes a number of general recommendations for avoiding similar intelligence failures in the future such as ensuring that intelligence analysts remain increasingly careful to avoid ``tunnel vision'' in crafting their judgments. The committee agrees that these shortcomings in intelligence analysis and distribution must be corrected so that similar intelligence failures do not occur in the future. To that end, the committee directs the Secretary of Defense and the Director of Central Intelligence to submit a report, not later than March 1, 1997, to the House Committee on National Security, the Senate Committee on Armed Services, the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence describing the actions to be taken to implement the study's recommendations for avoiding future situations like those surrounding the Khamisiyah issue. The report should identify the specific steps planned for training analysts, reorganizing data bases, and sharing sensitive information on a broader basis. It also should outline other steps that will be taken to improve intelligence analysis and distribution, explain how broadlythese improvements are being made across functional and regional issue areas, and indicate when these steps will be implemented. ............. Subtitle D--Miscellaneous Report Requirements and Repeals ............. Section 1042--Repeal of Annual Report Requirement Relating to Training of Special Operations Forces with Friendly Foreign Forces This section would amend section 2011 of title 10, United States Code, to repeal the requirement that the Department of Defense prepare an annual report relating to training of United States Special Operations Forces with the forces of friendly foreign governments. Subtitle E--Other Matters Section 1051--Authority for Special Agents of the Defense Criminal Investigative Service to Execute Warrants and Make Arrests This section would provide the Secretary of Defense with the authority to authorize special agents of the Defense Criminal Investigative Service (DCIS) to execute and servewarrants and other process issued under the authority of the United States. The section also would permit the Secretary of Defense to authorize DCIS special agents to make warrantless arrests in cases in which an offense against the United States is committed in the presence of special agents and in the case of felonies cognizable under the laws for which such special agents have sufficient probable cause. The authority of a DCIS agent under this section could only be exercised in accordance with guidelines approved by the Attorney General of the United States. ............. TITLE XXVIII--GENERAL PROVISIONS ITEMS OF SPECIAL INTEREST .............. Withdrawals of Public Lands for Military Purposes The committee stresses the importance to military training and readiness of adequate ranges and maneuver areas. The committee notes the requirement in the Military Lands Withdrawal Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-606) that mandates the preparation by November 6, 1998 of draft environmental impact statements and applications for the continued withdrawal from the public domain of the lands comprising the ranges, maneuver areas, and other training areas covered by that Act for which the appropriate secretary of a military department intends to seek continued or renewed withdrawal of those lands. The committee urges the appropriate military departments to complete by that date the requirements for Bravo-20 Bombing Range, Nevada; Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada; Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range, Arizona; McGregor Range, New Mexico; Fort Greely Maneuver Area and Fort Greely Air Drop Zone, Alaska; and the Fort Wainwright Maneuver Area, Alaska, so that continued or renewed withdrawal of those lands for military purposes may be considered by Congress in a timely and expeditious manner without potential disruption of training activities at those sites. ............. ADDITIONAL VIEWS OF JOHN SPRATT .......... On a more positive note, I was pleased by several actions taken by the committee to address needs at Shaw Air Force Base and the South Carolina National Guard. The committee fully funded the Air Force's request for $6.072 million for the construction of an ``information warfare sq ops facility.'' The facility will house a new information warfare unit at Shaw Air Force Base in Sumter, South Carolina. The Joint Chiefs of Staff state in Joint Vision 2010 that information superiority will be a key asset in the battles of the 21st century. The Research & Development and Procurement Subcommittees held a hearing this week which underscored this point. Lt. Gen. Douglas Buchholz, Director for Command Control, Communications and Computer Systems who represented the JCS at the hearing explained, ``Our successes in the battlespace of the future, whether combating large, heavily armed forces or providing peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance, depend upon the precise application of force across the full spectrum of missions. The cornerstone of this effort is the ability to get the right information to the right place at the right time--or information superiority.'' The Air Force's information warfare unit at Shaw is tasked with making informational warfare ``operational at the component level.'' In other words, its work is where the rubber meets the road, developing methods to make certain that information technology can be used to tactical advantage. The committee included language directing the Air Force to study the acquisition of land near Shaw without appropriated funds. This language will allow the Air Force to exercise its authority, granted in the FY96 Defense Authorization Act to acquire land adjacent to Shaw. This land will provide a significant enhancement to the base, improving operational flexibility for the Air Force. ............. John Spratt.