Central Intelligence Agency,
Washington, DC, July 2, 1991.
Hon. John Glenn,
Select Committee on Intelligence, U.S. Senate, Washington, DC.
Dear Senator Glenn: I am writing in response to your letter of 17 June 1991 in which you requested my assistance in obtaining information about past and current CIA Deputy Directors and General Counsels. Enclosed are a chronology of CIA's senior management structure since the beginning of the Agency and a separate list of those individuals (along with biographic data) who were appointed to senior Agency management positions and who did not possess substantial intelligence-related experience prior to attaining those positions.
Of CIA's 47 deputy directors, spanning more than 40 years, only seven did not have extensive intelligence experience. Of those seven, only three were appointed within the last 14 years.
I hope this information responds to your questions. I appreciate the candid way in which we have been able to communicate on some difficult issues during my tenure as Director of Central Intelligence. I would hope that you will accord my successor the same channel of communication on this issue following my departure from this office.
I am forwarding a copy of this letter and the enclosures to the Chairman and Vice Chairman because I believe this topic is also of interest to them.
William H. Webster,
Director of Central Intelligence.
Chronology of CIA's Senior Management Structure
General Walter Bedell Smith, in his tenure as DCI (1950-1953), first organized the Agency into deputy directorates: the first Deputy Director for Administration (DDA) was appointed on 1 December 1950; the first Deputy Director for Operations (DDO--then titled Deputy Director for Plans) was appointed on 4 January 1951; and the first Deputy Director for Intelligence (DDI) was appointed on 1 January 1952. John McCone appointed the first Deputy Director for Science and Technology (DDS&T--then titled Deputy Director for Research) on 19 February 1962; and on 5 September 1989, I appointed the first Deputy Director for Planning and Coordination (DDP&C). The General Counsel position was transferred to the CIA from the Central Intelligence Group when the Agency was established in September 1947.
DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR ADMINISTRATION
DDA, established effective 1 Dec 50.
Title change from Deputy Director for Administration to Deputy Director for Support was effective 3 February 1955.
Title change for Deputy Director for Support to Deputy Director for Management and Services was effective 22 March 1973.
Title change from Deputy Director for Management and Services to Deputy Director for Administration was effective 19 August 1974.
Murray McConnel, 1 Dec 50-30 Mar 51.
Walter Reid Wolf, 1 Apr 51-30 Jun 53.
Lawrence K. White (Col., USA Retired) Acting DDA, 1 Jul 53-21 May 54.
DDA, 21 May 54-5 Jul 65.
Robert L. Bannerman, 5 Jul 65-31 Dec 70.
John W. Coffey, 1 Jan 71-17 Mar 73.
Harold L. Brownman, 17 Mar 73-3 Aug 74.
John F. Blake, 3 Aug 74-12 Jan 79.
Don I. Wortman, 13 Jan 79-16 Jan 81.
Max Hugel, 13 Feb 81-11 May 81.
Harry Fitzwater, 11 May 81-31 Dec 84.
Richard J. Kerr, 1 Jan 86-21 Apr 86.
William F. Donnelly, 21 Apr 86-18 Jan 88.
R. M. Huffstutler, 25 Jan 88.
DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR OPERATIONS
DDO, established effective 1 Dec 50.
Although the Office of the Deputy Director for Operations was established 1 December 1950, by the time Allen Dulles was appointed as the first incumbent the title was changed to Deputy Director for Plans.
Title change from Deputy Director for Operations to Deputy Director for Plans was effective 4 Jan 51.
Title change from Deputy Director for Plans to Deputy Director for Operations was effective 1 Mar 73.
Allen W. Dulles, 4 Jan 51-23 Aug 51.
Frank G. Wisner, 23 Aug 51-1 Jan 59.
Richard M. Bissell, Jr., 1 Jan 59-17 Feb 62.
Richard M. Helms, 17 Feb 62-28 Apr 65.
Desmond FitzGerald, 28 Jun 65-23 Jul 67.
Thomas H. Karamessines, 31 Jul 67-27 Feb 73.
William E. Colby, 2 Mar 73-24 Aug 73.
William E. Nelson, 24 Aug 73-14 May 76.
William W. Wells, 15 May 76-31 Dec 77.
John N. McMahon, 11 Jan 78-12 Apr 81.
Max Hugel, 11 May 81-14 Jul 81.
John H. Stein, 14 Jul 81-1 Jul 84.
Clair E. George, 1 Jul 84-1 Dec 87.
Richard F. Stolz, 4 Jan 88-31 Dec 90.
Thomas A. Twetten, 1 Jan 91.
DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR INTELLIGENCE
DDI, established effective 1 Jan 52.
Title change from Deputy Director for Intelligence to Director, National Foreign Assessment Center (NFAC) was effective 11 Oct 77.
Title change from Director, National Foreign Assessment Center to Deputy Director for Intelligence was effective 4 Jan 82.
Loftus Becker, 1 Jan 52-30 Apr 53.
Robert Amory, Jr., 1 May 53-30 Mar 62.
Ray S. Cline, 23 Apr 62-17 Jan 66.
R. Jack Smith, 17 Jan 66-15 May 71.
Edward W. Proctor, 15 May 71-1 Jun 76.
Sayre Stevens, 1 Jun 76-11 Oct 77.
Robert R. Bowie, 11 Oct 77-17Aug 79.
Bruce C. Clarke, Jr., 18 Aug 79-12 Apr 81.
John N. McMahon, 12 Apr 81-4 Jan 82.
Robert M. Gates, 4 Jan 82-21 Apr 86.
Richard J. Kerr, 21 Apr 86-13 Mar 89.
John L. Helgerson, Acting DDI: 13 Mar 89-20 Mar 89.
DDI: 20 Mar 89.
DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR RESEARCH
DDR, established effective 19 Feb 62.
Herbert (Pete) Scoville, 19 Feb 62-15 Jun 63.
DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DDS&T, established effective 5 Aug 63.
Title change from Deputy Director for Research to Deputy Director for Science and Technology was effective 5 Aug 63
Albert D. (Bud) Wheelon, 5 Aug 63-26 Sep 66.
Carl E. Duckett, Acting DDS&T: 26 Sep 66-20 Apr 67.
DDS&T: 20 Apr 67-1 Jun 76.
Leslie Dirks, 1 Jun 76--3 Jul 82.
R. Evans Hineman, 3 Jul 82--5 Sep 89.
James V. Hirsch, 5 Sep 89.
DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR PLANNING AND COORDINATION
DDP&C, established 5 Sep 89.
Gary E. Foster, 5 Sep 89.
CIG, 1947; CIA/DS, 1955, established effective 27 Jan 49.
The functions of the General Counsel were transferred from the Personnel and Administrative Branch to the Office of the Director, Central Intelligence Group, effective 1 Jul 47.
The General Counsel was placed under the Office of the Deputy Director for Support, effective 3 Feb 55.
The General Counsel left the Directorate of Support and came under the Office of the DCI, effective 1 Jul 62.
Lawrence R. Houston, 27 Jan 49-29 Jun 73.
John S. Warner, Acting: 30 Jun 73-14 Jan 74
GC: 14 Jan 74-1 Apr 76
Anthony A. Lapham, 1 Jun 76-9 May 79
Daniel B. Silver, 27 May 79-30 Apr 81
Stanley Sporkin, 18 May 81-10 Feb 86
David P. Doherty, 10 Feb 86-16 Jan 88
Russell J. Bruemmer, 16 Jan 88-16 Apr 90
Elizabeth R. Rindskopf, 16 Apr 90.
Curriculum Vitae of CIA Deputy Directors and General Counsels Who Did Not Have Substantial Prior Intelligence-Related Experience
A. DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR ADMINISTRATION
Murray McConnel (1 December 1950-30 March 1951): McConnel was a businessman brought in by DCI Walter Bedell Smith and his DDCI, William Jackson, first as CIA Executive, 16 October 1950, and then appointed as first DDA on 1 December 1950. Remaining only until the spring of 1951, he left CIA to return to private business.
Walter Reid Wolf (1 April 1951-30 June 1953): Wolf, another businessman, joined CIA on 16 February 1951 as a Special Assistant to DCI Smith, who a few weeks later appointed him as the second DDA, to succeed Murray McConnel. Wolf also returned to private business when he resigned as DDA in mid-1953.
Don I. Wortman (12 January 1979-16 January 1981): Wortman was proposed as DDA by Frank Carlucci, Stansfield Turner's DDCI. In 1972-1974 Carlucci had been Under Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare where Wortman had been a career civil servant. At the time appointed DDA, Wortman was Deputy Commissioner of Social Security, and Acting Commissioner. Resigning as DDA at the end of the Carter Administration, he left CIA to become head of the national United Fund in Alexandria, Virginia.
Max Hugel (13 February 1981-11 May 1981): Hugel served in the U.S. Army in World War II, and in 1954 founded Brother International Corporation, an importing and distributing firm, which he headed until selling his interest in 1975. He was Executive Vice President of the Centronics Data Computer Corporation in New Hampshire before taking leave to join the Reagan campaign in April 1980. On his appointment as DCI in January 1981, William Casey brought Max Hugel into CIA as Special Assistant to the DCI, and two weeks later appointed him DDA. As noted below, on 11 May 1981 DCI Casey appointed Hugel DDO.
B. DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR OPERATIONS
Max Hugel (11 May-1 July 1981): Having joined CIA in January 1981, and served (as noted above) as DDA from February to May 1981, Hugel was then appointed DDO by DCI Casey. After a series of press reports of alleged improper stock-trading practices, Hugel resigned from CIA on 1 July 1981. Hugel subsequently won a libel judgment against the individuals who had made the accusations against him.
C. DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR INTELLIGENCE
Loftus Becker (1 January 1952-30 April 1953): Becker, a lawyer who had served as a military adviser at the Nuremberg War Trials, was brought into CIA on 29 November 1951 by DDCI William Jackson. Before becoming CIA's first DDI he served a month as Assistant to the DCI and in the Office of the Deputy Director for Plans (the 1951-1973 title for the DDO). When Becker resigned in February 1953 he was replaced as DDI by Robert Amory, anothr Harvard-educatted lawyer whom Becker had recruited into the Agency in 1952 with such a role in mind. On leaving CIA, Becker became a Washington partner of the law firm of Cahill, Gordon, Reindel & Ohl, and later served as a legal adviser to the Department of State, 1957-1959.
Robert R. Bowie (11 October 1977-17 August 1979): Robert Bowie was a graduate of Princeton and Harvard Law School who after serving in the Army in World War II, had been a Harvard Law professor, General Counsel to the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, Director of the Policy Planning Staff and Assistant Secretary of State, as well as founder and director of Harvard's Center for International Affairs. He was a Professor of Government and International Affairs at Harvard when Stansfield Turner appointed him Director, National Foreign Assessment Center (D/NFAC--the title for the DDI, 1977-1982) in October 1977. He resigned as D/NFAC and left CIA to return to Harvard in August 1979.
D. GENERAL COUNSEL
Anthony A. Lapham (1 June 1976-9 May 1979): Lapham did his enlisted service in an Army intelligence detachment (doing photo interpretation). This brief Army exposure probably would not be considered to be `substantial' intelligence-related experience. Before joining CIA as General Counsel, Lapham practiced law with the Washington litigation firm of Shea & Gardner, where he returned after CIA and remains today. Lapham was selected as a result of a systematic search in early 1976 by then-DCI George Bush to find a new General Counsel from outside of the intelligence world. This presumably had its roots in Bush's efforts to restore congressional and public confidence in CIA, in the wake of the Church and Pike Committee investigations.
Stanley Sporkin (18 May 1981-10 February 1986): After graduating from Penn State in 1953 and Yale Law School in 1957, Sporkin clerked for the presiding judge of the U.S. District Court for Delaware and had a solo practice in Washington, D.C. before joining the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 1961 as a Staff Attorney. Sporkin became Deputy Director of SEC's Division of Enforcement while William Casey was SEC Chairman, 1971-1973, then served as Director of that division from 1974 until DCI Casey appointed him CIA General Counsel in May 1981. He left CIA in 1986 on his appointment as a judge in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.
Russell J. Bruemmer (16 January 1988-16 April 1990): After graduating from the University of Michigan Law School in 1977, Bruemmer served as law clerk to the Honorable William H. Webster, United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. In February 1978, after Judge Webster became Director of the FBI, Bruemmer was appointed as his Special Assistant until June 1980, when he became the FBI's Chief Counsel for Congressional Affairs. In 1981 he went into private practice with the Washington firm of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering, where he worked primarily in corporate and commercial areas (including federal regulation of financial institutions and commercial financing transactions). Bruemmer joined CIA in September 1987 as Special Counsel to DCI Webster, to investigate allegations of misconduct by CIA employees in the Iran-Contra affair. Judge Webster then appointed him General Counsel in January 1988. Resigning as General Counsel in April 1990, Bruemmer returned to Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering.