UNCLASSIFIEDI am pleased to submit this year’s unclassified “Annual Report for the United States Intelligence Community” pursuant to the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997.
The Director of Central Intelligence
Washington, D.C. 20505
The Intelligence Community has had a successful year working collaboratively to provide a decisive information advantage to the President, the military, diplomats, the law enforcement community and the Congress. The Intelligence Community has spent much of this past year preparing for the future. In March 1999, the first DCI Strategic Intent was published setting forth goals/objectives for the Intelligence Community to meet the new and complex threats to our national security and establishing a comprehensive strategic planning process. We are taking seriously our commitment to prepare for future challenges in a corporate way.
I am proud of the contributions the men and women of the Intelligence Community have made in protecting our national security and appreciate the opportunity to share their contributions with Congress and the public.
George J. Tenet
Table of Contents
DCI Strategy For The Future
This report responds to the Congressional request for an annual report on the Intelligence Community.
Section 109 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 404d) directs the President to submit an unclassified report “on the requirements of the United States for intelligence and the activities of the intelligence community.”
The Intelligence Community Today
Nineteen hundred and ninety nine marked the end of a decade and a century, so it seems appropriate to note how far the Intelligence Community (IC) has evolved since its formal inception through the National Security Act of 1947. For more than fifty years, we have invested in an intelligence business which has grown in size and in capabilities, encompassing not only a vast network of human assets, but also a fleet of satellites, high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft and sophisticated listening posts around the world. Our country has been well-served by this effort, but the world has changed and the IC must change along with it. We have expended a considerable amount of energy this past year wrestling with how to balance the current demands on our systems while preparing for the future.
The security environment in which we live is dynamic and uncertain, replete with a host of ominous threats and challenges that have the potential to grow more deadly. To meet the challenges of this increasingly dangerous and complex world, our consumers are demanding more timely, accurate, and actionable information to inform their decisions and to take preventive measures, if necessary. The IC continues to pursue better, more lucrative collection methods and inter-connectivity enabling analysts to share information quickly and produce more timely and accurate assessments.
A unified Intelligence Community
optimized to provide a decisive information
advantage to the President, the military,
diplomats, the law enforcement community
and the Congress
DCI Strategic Intent March 1999
The Year in Review
Throughout 1999, the IC provided vital information on issues ranging from support to military operations in former Yugoslavia to support for environmental disaster relief. The Community has made a concerted effort to be more involved with its customers and most of our efforts are tailored to a specific customer request.
We were reminded this year that we must maintain our vigilance in areas that are considered routine or can fall into neglect. The accidental bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade was a painful wake-up call. It reminded us of the critical importance of keeping our data bases current. The discovery of a listening device in the State Department and security challenges at nuclear weapons labs has reinvigorated our attention on counterintelligence. The Community must improve its vigilance and take on the responsibility to prevent lapses in attention to these areas.
The accomplishments described in the following pages represent only a small sampling of the activities of the men and women of the IC. Thousands of intelligence reports are produced each day in response to a panoply of customer requirements. It is impossible to list every achievement, but the impressive outcomes affirm that our customers and the American people are getting a favorable return on their investment in the IC.
One of the pivotal goals for the Intelligence Community (IC) is to achieve a balance between working together as a Community to address critical national security needs and working independently as organizations to serve a given set of customers. The DCI's vision for the future demands closer teamwork across the IC and more efficient use of our capabilities to keep pace with the demands of law enforcement, diplomatic and military operations.
The Community’s customers are better served when agencies collaborate and work corporately toward shared goals. Our intelligence resources are optimized when competing requirements are evaluated across the community and not within each organization. We have made progress toward managing the IC as a kindred group of organizations, but much more work is needed to achieve the vision in the DCI Strategic Intent.
In March 1999, the DCI issued the Strategic Intent for the US Intelligence Community outlining a future strategy. It established a comprehensive strategic planning process for key functional areas as well as individual agencies. The DCI Strategic Intent describes five basic objectives for the Community.
The Office of the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management (ODDCI/CM) and the Assistant Directors of Central Intelligence for Administration, Collection, and Analysis and Production have worked over the past year with the Community Management Staff to establish processes that improve community capabilities. Several of these efforts are described below.
1. Unify the Community through Collaborative Processes
2. Invest in People and Knowledge
3. Develop New Sources and Methods for Collection and Analysis
4. Adapt Security to the New Threat Environment
5. Improve Corporate Management of Resources
Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration
The Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration (ADCI/A) was established by the FY 1997 Intelligence Authorization Act and serves as the deputy to the DDCI/CM.
The ADCI/A accomplished the following activities:
— Led the Mission Requirements Board to ensure that future systems addressed the national and tactical needs of all customers.
— Explored personnel reform initiatives and devised Community-wide strategies on training, recruitment and diversity.
— Ensured that multi-agency AR&D program efforts were adequately funded to develop new concepts addressing complex IC problems.
— Facilitated agreement on declassification of imagery and worked with commercial imagery vendors on critical sources and methods problems.
— Initiated work to establish a National Integrated Intelligence Requirements Process.
— Reformed the policy on SCI facilities at home, and coordinated policy on IC security concerns.
Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection
The Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection (ADCI/C) was established by the FY 1997 Intelligence Authorization Act and is responsible for ensuring the most efficient and effective collection of national intelligence.
The ADCI/C has initiated a series of activities that have produced substantial improvements in cross-discipline collection and that will optimize collection resources in FY 2000 and beyond.
— The Strategic Direction for Collection, sets the following goals for IC collection:
— Use collective assets in a collaborative fashion to ensure optimum effectiveness.
— Invest in the human and technical resources needed to deliver quality intelligence to consumers in a timely manner.
— Develop innovative cross-discipline collection strategies and methods to address unmet consumer needs.
— Share collection capabilities and results to the maximum extent while protecting sources and methods.
— Optimize investment across all disciplines to ensure support to consumers.
Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production
The Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production (ADCI/AP) was also established by the FY 1997 Intelligence Authorization Act and is responsible for developing corporate strategies to improve the quality of analysis, meeting customers requirements, improving production management, addressing analytic gaps and shortfalls, and establishing processes for analytic requirements to drive collection.
To carry out the DCI’s vision within the analytic community, the ADCI/AP published the Strategic Direction for Intelligence Community Analysis. This document provides goals and specific objectives for the 11 member agencies and analytic organizations that comprise the National Intelligence Production Board (NIPB):
— Manage analytic and production processes more effectively by implementing broader planning and collaborative procedures.The ADCI/AP has begun implementing the DCI Strategic Intent by identifying concrete fiscal, policy, and procedural initiatives to achieve the analytic community’s required capabilities in the next five to ten years, and beyond. The Strategic Investment Plan for Intelligence Community Analysis will outline the plan of action and milestones to address the objectives across each of six core issues that the ADCI/AP has identified as areas for investment by the analytic community: intelligence priorities, customer support, technology, investing in people, interacting with collectors, and external analysis.
— Attract, educate, and retain a knowledgeable, empowered, and diverse analytic workforce.
— Develop innovative sources and methods for analysis and production.
— Share intelligence products more widely across the Community and with consumers while protecting intelligence from unauthorized disclosure.
— Optimize our support to intelligence consumers by allocating resources more collaboratively.
Community Management Staff
To improve corporate management of our intelligence resources as described in the Strategic Intent, the Community Management Staff (CMS) has taken the following steps:
— Improved the reconciliation between the Department of Defense data base and its President’s Budget Decision data base.
— Expanded our budget dialogue with the Office of Management and Budget.
— Orchestrated more detailed budget reviews and improved the ability to ascertain execution anomalies within the agencies’ budgets.
— Managed the Intelligence Program Review Group annual review of intelligence resources and supported the DCI and DepSecDef in adjusting resources to address our most critical needs.
— To further the DCI’s objective to manage the community more efficiently and effectively, the CMS has:
— Created the Office of the Senior Acquisition Executive (SAE) to improve the DCI’s oversight of major system acquisition activities and created an Intelligence Senior Steering Group to oversee major acquisitions and architectures.
— Established the Intelligence Community Cost Analysis Improvement Group (IC/CAIG) – the first ever capability for the DCI to conduct independent cost estimates and cost assessments of major system acquisition activities. The IC/CAIG is now working on an independent cost estimate for the Future Imagery Architecture – a major future investment for the Community.
— Tested and evaluated an Intelligence Community Budget Information System prototype to be fielded in FY 2000.
— Completed a series of Strategic Plans (Diversity, Advanced Research and Development, Collection, and Analysis and Production) in support of the DCI’s Strategic Intent for the IC.
Intelligence Community Chief Information Officer
The Intelligence Community Chief Information Officer (IC CIO) appointed by the DCI in 1998, has made significant strides in working with Community CIO’s and other Information Systems (IS) leaders to shape enabling information systems (IS) and technology in response to the DCI Strategic Intent. To meet the DCI’s vision of a unified Intelligence Community, the IC CIO, in partnership with the DoD, is guiding and coordinating the efforts of IC Agency CIOs to collectively support the DCI’s goals and those of his corporate Assistants for Collection and for Analysis Production. These business leaders envision new practices for the 21st Century that strengthen partnerships across the spectrum of the intelligence cycle, while creating greater synergy with the private sector and academia. This business vision requires technology providers to play a key role in ensuring an information edge for the nation’s leadership and military forces.
During this first year, the IC CIO implemented an improved governance process for decision making and oversight that engages senior IS leadership as a team. This process empowers both the IC CIO Executive Council and Working Council to systematically look across the enterprise to define Community requirements, drive the formulation of IS policy, define priorities and the pace of change, identify resourcing solutions by active engagement in the programming and budgeting process, and oversee implementation of Community IS. Working together to advance collaboration and interoperability, the IC CIO and the Councils developed specific goals in an IC IS Strategic Direction that defines a high level concept of operations for future Community information systems. They built an IC IS Capability Roadmap, which serves as their vehicle for describing and prioritizing requirements, guiding resource and policy decisions, and measuring progress. Using the Roadmap and a set of detailed action plans, signficant progress has been made to improve IT capabilities. The following are examples of accomplishments during 1999:
— Led the development and adoption of Community policies for electronic mail and directory services that guarantee a fully functioning IC email capability and common locator service to SCI users across the IC.
— Establish an IC Information Assurance (IA) Policy Board to formulate Community-level IA policy, starting with a Community-wide Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) policy for the SCI fabric to maximize secure data sharing.
— Implement Communities of Interest (COIs) on Intelink’s Classified network to increase information distributed to collateral consumers.
— Activated the IC Metropolitan Area Communications (IC MAC) system, which enhances connectivity among IC and DoD networks at a reduced cost, and agreed to its funding and future direction.
— Initiated a joint study to explore opportunities for better integration of DoD and IC networks.
— Developed a Community-wide Unclassified network for Open Source information.
— Developed a secure, web-based tool called XLINK to support collaboration among IC hard-target analysts and collectors.
— Led efforts to ensure all IC systems were Y2K compliant, including conducting national exercises to assess the readiness of mission critical systems and establishing an IC Coordination Center.
The security environment in which we live is dynamic and uncertain, replete with a host of threats and challenges that have the potential to grow more deadly. The Intelligence Community (IC) plays an important role in our national security strategy. It must maintain worldwide vigilance on the foreign threats to our citizens, infrastructure, and allies. In addition, Intelligence Community agencies are expected to inform policy makers of opportunities to advance US foreign policy objectives.
During FY 1999, the IC made critical and important contributions to advance our national security strategy. Thousands of intelligence reports are produced each day to support policy makers, law enforcement and military customers. This report includes only those achievements that can be described without risk to sensitive sources and methods.
The IC prioritizes its collection, processing and analysis resources according to customer requirements. This section lists accomplishments by the IC according to strategic priority, region of the world, transnational issues, and the various intelligence disciplines.
China, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Russia have been identified by US policy makers as strategic priorities for the IC. The following accomplishments are listed by country.
- Stability. CIA sponsored an unclassified conference on prospects for China’s stability over the next 10 years during which intelligence analysts and other experts from academia and US Government agencies set out their views on unrest in the rural areas and the implications of economic reforms for social disturbances.
- Policy Support. CIA provided analytic support to policymakers on a variety of issues affecting US-China relations.
- Human Rights Negotiation Support. A CIA team reviewed and translated materials on dissident activities in support of the 11-12 January 1999 State Department human rights negotiations with China.
- List of Warning Indicators Developed. CIA developed a surge capability to respond to crises in the Caribbean by developing a list of indicators to provide warning of rapid change in Cuba that is updated quarterly.
- Illegals Network. In May 1999, a 26-count superseding indictment was brought against the 10 members of an illegals network in Miami Florida, who were arrested on September 12, 1998. Most notably, this indictment included a count charging one of the subjects with conspiracy to commit murder in relation to the Cuban downing of two “Brothers to the Rescue” airplanes on February 24, 1996.
- Cuban Techniques. FBI investigations and operations have identified techniques used by Cuban intelligence officers in spotting and assessing US persons for possible recruitment, to include individuals working within the US Government.
- On-going Support. CIA supported US military commanders and policymakers by providing assessments of North Korean developments.
- Support to Deployed Forces Along the Korean DMZ. The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) and NIMA produced a definitive baseline report of all North Korean border defense posts along the DMZ.
- All-Source Analytic Support. CIA produced a large body of analysis focused on key Russian political, economic, and military issues.
- Internet Sources Exploited. In response to the explosion of Internet sources, CIA initiated a daily Internet selection list based on material found on multiple Russian Internet sites which cover a broad range of topics from daily news to political, economic, military, and scientific information. The list has been well received by customers and has been used in analytic products.
The following accomplishments cover more than one region of the world:
- Support to NATO. The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) supported the NATO stockpile planning program. The expansion of NATO and the entry of selected East European countries into the Alliance have added new planning requirements to account for the differences in capabilities of former Warsaw Pact equipment and that of the historic members. NGIC analysts provided data on equipment performance to support the modeling used to quantify the amounts of materiel and ammunition needed to execute specific missions.
- Arms Control Monitoring. NIMA analysts provided support to monitoring existing arms control agreements. Imagery provided a key tool in monitoring compliance with the limitations on treaty-limited weapons covered in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, and the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty.
- Deployed imagery and mapping support. NIMA deployed Customer Support Response Teams (CSRTs) to Kosovo, Italy, Albania, Germany, Kuwait, Bahrain, and El Salvador. These teams provided imagery and geospatial information expertise and products in support of combat, peacekeeping, and humanitarian operations. The teams permitted deployed forces in tactical environments to obtain support from personnel familiar with National systems and direct links to those systems and NIMA information. In the past, many of these forces have been unable to obtain such direct support.
- Peace Talks Support. NIMA provided onsite imagery and mapping support to the Kosovo Peace talks at Rambouillet, France. The NIMA geospatial analyst deployed to the talks provided negotiators access to imagery and imagery intelligence and geospatial information. The deployed analyst produced near real-time special purpose imagery and geospatial products releasable to foreign governments.
- NIMA-in-a-Box. During Operation Allied Force, NIMA provided imagery and maps at multiple scales plus near real-time imagery via the Internet on 15 deployed laptop computers, dubbed “NIMA-in-a-Box.” The imagery and maps could be easily accessed at the desired scale with the click of a mouse. Printouts could be made quickly with an attached color printer. NIMA-in-a-Box won immediate accolades for helping to save the life of a downed F-16 pilot. The Airborne Command and Control Center (ABCCC) battle staff used NIMA-in-a-Box to identify potential obstacles, such as power lines, and plotted a safe course for the rescue helicopter.
- War Crimes. INR played a central role in implementing the President’s December 1998 commitment to genocide and atrocities prevention. INR helped USG efforts to document the ethnic cleansing campaign in Kosovo that led to the forced displacement of over a million Kosovars and the NATO bombing campaign against the Belgrade regime. INR also was the lead drafter of the Department of State-released document entitled Erasing History: Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo which was published to support US diplomatic efforts and to raise international awareness of ethnic cleansing by Serb forces.
- Humanitarian Issues. To support global and humanitarian issues, INR worked with the rest of the IC on imagery support in response to natural disasters, such as forest fires in Southeast Asia, hurricanes, and earthquakes. Declassified U-2 imagery helped regional planners in Latin America during the clean-up from Hurricane Mitch.
- Global Coverage. CIA has a well-integrated package of programs that gives the DI “global coverage” of key functional issues in lower priority countries. A combination of in-house analysis linked closely to an ambitious program of outsourced research and analysis enables CIA to serve policymakers on a variety of issues, such as: political instability, food insecurity, demographic stress points, warning of impending humanitarian crises and potential mass killings, ethnic conflict, and water flashpoints. For each of these issues, CIA analysts have developed or are developing sophisticated quantitative and qualitative methodologies, supplemented by extensive outreach to academic, think-tank, and policy communities.
- Counter Drug Activities. CIA collected intelligence that assisted US law enforcement agencies in conducting operations against members of Latin American and Middle East terrorist groups, smugglers of aliens into the United States, and narcotics traffickers.
- Humanitarian Aid to Earthquake Affected Regions. CIA supported USAID’s humanitarian relief efforts following the earthquakes in Turkey and Taiwan by quickly assembling map packages of the affected regions and, in each case, delivering the packages to a representative of USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster literally on their way to the airport for an outbound flight.
- Briefings to Military on CIA. CIA hosted 2,000 military visitors and traveled to the field to meet and brief many more, including battle groups, Marine Expeditionary Forces, and Special Operations Units. Briefings provided direct access to Agency analytical and operational expertise and informed officers of CIA roles, missions, and capabilities to support the warfighter.
- Kosovo. CIA analysts provided key analytic support on the crisis in Kosovo to US policy and military commanders, receiving praise from US diplomats and military commanders.
- Humanitarian Support in Kosovo. NIMA supplied 200 maps and an updated names index to USAID for Kosovo humanitarian response planning. This information on towns, the natural geography, and the transportation infrastructure was used to plan relief efforts in Kosovo.
- Crisis Support. US European Command’s Joint Analysis Center supported joint and combined task forces in the European Theater by providing intelligence communications technicians, planners, operations officers, and regional experts to the US national intelligence cells in Sarajevo and Pristina.
- Kosovo Support. US Transportation Command provided timely and comprehensive intelligence support to planners and operators throughout offensive, peacekeeping, and humanitarian relief phases of the Kosovo mission. Customers were afforded quick, around-the-clock access to a wide range of intelligence products.
- Kosovo. INR worked actively with several international agencies involved in Kosovo to create Geographic Information System (GIS) mechanisms that improved operational coordination and data sharing on such critical areas as landmines, housing damage and the safe repatriation of refugees.
- Quick-Response Programs. Throughout the Balkan conflict, National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) specialists were on alert for repair, maintenance, and training missions in support of customers using NRO systems in the Balkan war zone. Quick-response missions included efforts such as: repair of data receive and analysis terminals onboard US ships supporting the operation; the training of pilots on proper combat search and rescue procedures to optimize NRO systems support to rescues; and the enhancement of threat situational awareness systems in tactical fighter wings.
- Training for Balkans-Bound Navy Air Squadron. In July, the NRO trained pilots and crews of Patrol Squadron (VP-16) Jacksonville, FL, on the unit’s newly acquired, NRO-developed data receive systems, as the unit prepared to deploy to the Balkan war zone. This training provided aircrews a better understanding of how NRO systems’ data could assist in executing their over-the- horizon, threat, and indications and warning missions.
- CIA Reporting on Conflicts. CIA reported on internal conflict and regional instability in Sub-Saharan Africa to support policymakers formulating strategies for these ongoing regional conflicts.
- Africa. In July 1999, INR published the ground breaking paper Arms and Conflict in Africa. The first of its kind, this unclassified paper tracked licit and illicit arms flows in Africa.
- Protection in High-Threat Areas. US Pacific Command provided force protection threat assessments to US military elements deployed on joint military exercises and humanitarian operations in high-threat environments such as Sri Lanka, Laos, Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Command reporting identified indigenous and transnational terrorist threats as well as areas of insurgent violence or political unrest and criminal activities.
- East Timor. CIA analysts provided policymakers analysis on the crisis in East Timor and supported policymaker visits to the region.
- Relief and Rebuilding Efforts in Central America. US Southern Command’s (USSOUTH-COM’s) J2 and its Joint Intelligence Center (JIC) helped restore civil and environmental stability in Central America in the aftermath of severe hurricane damage. Following Hurricane Mitch, over 15,000 US troops were deployed to carry out a $155 million relief and rebuilding effort to assist El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Honduras. The USSOUTHCOM J2 and JIC provided the first intelligence personnel and assets on the ground and coordinated the deployment of NIMA’s Enhanced Deployable Image Product Library, which provided the most current imagery and mapping products available to help with rescue and reconstruction.
- Training to CENTCOM Forces in the Gulf. In April the NRO initiated a program of tailored NRO systems presentations for the Joint Task Force-Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA) Pre-Deployment Course at the Regional Joint Intelligence Training Facility (RJITF) in Tampa, FL. These presentations are now a standard part of all JTF-SWA Pre-Deployment Courses to ensure CENTCOM and component command intelligence personnel deploying to the Gulf are trained to effectively use core intelligence skills and systems.
- Prototype Imagery Tool to CENTCOM. In response to an urgent CENTCOM request, NRO in partnership with DIA immediately deployed a prototype tool that provides users with an up-to-date display of the national imagery tasking plan. This quick response allowed CENTCOM to enhance the impact of NRO imaging systems on combat operations during DESERT FOX.
- Support to US Policy. CIA provided media analysis, all-source briefings, and written finished intelligence in support of US policy objectives in the region.
These are threats that do not respect national borders and which often arise from non-state actors, such as terrorists and criminal organizations. They threaten US interests, values and citizens in the United States and abroad. The IC provides information to national and military customers on transnational threats such as international economic development, international organized crime, drug trafficking, and terrorism.
International Economic Developments
Intelligence can help identify threats to private US economic enterprises from foreign intelligence services as well as unfair business practices. Intelligence must also identify emerging threats that could affect the international economy and the stability of some nation states.
International Organized Crime
- Economic Development Studies. NIMA imagery analysis provided information on economic developments not available from other sources on topics of concern to US policymakers. Imagery provided objective corroboration of information furnished by other governments or entities.
- Natural Disasters. Imagery provided extremely responsive inputs to US crisis planners when natural disasters occurred. Timely collection and exploitation allowed NIMA geospatial analysts to produce geographic overlays that aided officials in assessing the extent and concentration of damage.
- Hurricane Mitch Response. NIMA supported disaster relief efforts to rebuild the devastated Central American nations in the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch. This included coordinating the initial distribution of maps for Joint Task Force Bravo in Honduras and Joint Task Force Aguila in El Salvador for use in rehabilitating damaged bridges and roads. NIMA sent its Enhanced Deployable Imagery Library to El Salvador in December 1998, to assist Joint Task Force Aguila with on-scene imagery analysis.
- Environmental Conditions. NIMA has developed imagery intelligence applications in support of US environmental policy objectives. Imagery provided a valuable historical record of land use that supported assessments of environmental conditions for eventual remediation of military facilities that are being turned over to foreign governments. NIMA worked with military medical planners to assess the impact of environmental conditions on US military contingency plans at selected sites where significant toxic materials were openly discharged. NIMA monitored large-scale political and civil impacts of water projects and assessed the impact of land-use patterns on civil, environmental, and political conditions.
Corruption and extortion activities by organized crime groups can undermine the integrity of government and imperil fragile democracies. And the failure of governments to effectively control international crime rings within their borders – or their willingness to harbor international criminals – endangers global stability.
Presidential Decision Directive 42 (PDD-42) dated 22 October 1995, recognizes that international criminal enterprises move vast sums of illicitly derived money through the world’s financial systems, buy and sell narcotics and arms, and smuggle aliens, nuclear materials, and weapons of mass destruction. The IC targets all aspects of international criminal organizations from the leadership structure to the organization’s activities. The following are several intelligence achievements in our efforts to combat international organized crime.
- Environmental Crime. CIA evaluated the size and nature of global environmental crime.
- Impact of Criminal Activity on US Firms Overseas. CIA launched an effort that will allow us for the first time to measure the financial impact of organized criminal activity on US firms operating overseas. CIA analysts have begun to consult regularly with academic and industry experts on criminal trends and the economic and social impact of organized criminal activity.
- Money-Laundering. CIA expanded its anti-money-laundering efforts to include crucial financial analytic support to US law enforcement agencies investigating money launderers in the Caribbean, Colombia, and Europe.
- Organized Crime. CIA analysts continued to work with US law enforcement and liaison partners abroad against major international organized crime groups around the world.
The aim of the US drug control strategy is to cut illegal drug use and availability in the United States by 50 percent by 2007 – and reduce the health and social consequences of drug use and trafficking by 25 percent over the same period, through expanded prevention efforts, improved treatment programs, strengthened law enforcement and tougher interdiction. This strategy recognizes that, at home and abroad, prevention, treatment and economic alternatives must be integrated with intelligence collection, law enforcement and interdiction efforts.
Key issues for the IC include: cocaine and heroin trafficking organizations; leaders of narcotics trafficking organizations; infrastructure; smuggling routes and techniques; illicit drug shipments; host-nation counter-drug performance; drug cultivation, production, and processing; and international counterdrug cooperation. The following are IC achievements in the war against drugs:
- Drug Seizures. US Coast Guard intelligence assets helped to prevent more than 29,000 kilograms of cocaine and nearly 5,000 pounds of marijuana from reaching American shores.
- Strategic Analysis. The National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) prepared the following strategic analyses on the illicit drug trade: The National Drug Threat Assessment — An In-Progress Prototype; Global Heroin Assessment; Southeast Border Threat Assessment; Southwest Border Assessment; National Drug Intelligence Digest; Methamphetamine; and 44 other analyses.
- Black Market Peso Exchange. NDIC participated in the Black Market Peso Exchange Initiative with FinCen, FBI, DEA, US Customs, and CIA’s Counternarcotics Center (CNC).
- Assessments Initiated in 1999. NDIC initiated strategic assessments on Nigerian Trafficking Organizations and Eastern European Organized Crime.
- Narcotics Estimates. CIA analysts provided US cultivation and production estimates for all major illicit coca- and opium-producing countries.
- Drug Flows. CIA analysts completed the most comprehensive analysis to date of drug flows in Latin America to determine how much cocaine from this region could be reaching the US.
- In-Country Surveys. CIA analysts completed initial surveys of cocaine and heroin consumption in several key regions of the world to help determine the volume of illicit drugs that could be available to US consumers.
- Interagency Efforts. CIA enhanced law enforcement-Intelligence Community counterdrug programs through the initiation and coordination of interagency efforts against major drug trafficking organizations throughout the world.
The United States has made concerted efforts to deter and punish terrorists and remains determined to apprehend and bring justice to those who terrorize American citizens. The President signed PDD-62 in May 1998 creating a systematic approach to fighting the growing terrorist threat. Countering terrorism requires day-to-day coordination within the US Government and close cooperation with other governments and international organizations. The following describes how the intelligence community directly supports these efforts:
- Reserve Component Support for Counterterrorism Analysis. DIA began the integration of full-time Reserve Component support to assist in all aspects of terrorism analysis and production. This support consists of approximately 25 work-years of analysts working on long-term analysis, data base production, and crisis and warning intelligence. DIA has incorporated five full-time reservists into the operations of the National Military Joint Intelligence Center’s Terrorism Desk. In addition, seven reserve units outside the Washington, DC, area support DIA analysis and data base production on terrorism. Overall, the reserves accomplished over 50 percent of the data base update effort.
- Counterterrorism Intelligence Analysis. DOE’s Special Technologies Program's Counterterrorism Analysis Cell (CTAC) developed an all-source assessment on nuclear-related terrorism and its associated threat to U.S. interests. Initially briefed at the interagency Technical Support Working Group, it proved so successful that a number of DOE organizations and other government entities requested presentations. Since the initial briefing, the assessment has been presented to the DOE Offices of Defense Programs and Security Affairs; the Joint Special Operations Command; the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center; and the Naval Special Warfare Development Group.
- Open Source Reporting. CIA reporting on terrorist groups and activities as well as the efforts to follow and thwart the terrorist agenda by foreign governments has been a valuable addition for counterterrorist customers.
- US Embassy Bombings. In response to the August 7, 1998, twin bombings of the US Embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya, the FBI launched the largest overseas criminal investigation in our country’s history. More than 1,000 FBI and Joint Terrorism Task Force personnel rotated through East Africa. The New York Division, with critical support from the Washington Field Office, other FBI offices, and other government agencies, spearheaded this effort. To date, 17 individuals, to include Usama Bin Laden (UBL), have been charged with the bombings of the US Embassies and/or conspiring to kill US nationals. Nine individuals are in custody and eight are currently fugitives. Four of the nine were captured outside of the United States, and as a result of international cooperation, were rendered back to face the pending charges. Efforts to apprehend the remaining fugitives are being pursued vigorously. The indictment charges that the named individuals conspired to conduct acts of terrorism against US interests as members of the terrorist organization, Al Qaeda, UBL’s organization. These acts of terrorism include the bombing of the US embassies; the killing of US military personnel on October 3, 1993, in Somalia; the recruitment of US citizens to commit acts of terrorism; the shipment of weapons and explosives to Saudi Arabia; and efforts to obtain Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The trial date has been tentatively set for September of 2000.
- Reward. For UBL alone, the US Government posted the largest reward ever, 5 million US dollars. A similar reward is being offered for information leading to the arrest or conviction of other subjects suspected of being involved in the East African bombing conspiracy. UBL is the target of the largest and most extensive effort undertaken by the US Government against any one individual, as was demonstrated by the US retaliatory missile strike against UBL and the Al Qaeda organization in Afghanistan. On June 7, 1999, Director Freeh announced that UBL was added to the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) “Ten Most Wanted Fugitives” list.
- Cooperation in the Anti-Kidnapping War. US citizens have been the subjects of kidnappings for almost 20 years in Colombia. The US Government response to kidnappings is generally limited to the FBI and the Miami Division working with the Colombian Government in a reactive fashion. In May, 1999, the US Ambassador to Colombia advised that the Colombian Anti-Kidnapping Czar and the President of Colombia were “interested in reaching a formal agreement with the US Government regarding cooperation in the anti-kidnapping war similar to current cooperation in the drug war."
- Six New Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTFs) Established in 1999. FBI Field Offices granted JTTFs were San Antonio, El Paso, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Indianapolis, and San Diego. The mission of JTTFs is to serve as a mechanism to ensure that the counterterrorism investigative efforts of applicable Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies within the territory covered by the applicable field office are effectively coordinated.
Efforts to control the proliferation of WMD and conventional weapons remains a high priority for the US Government. Through international treaties and other methods, the US aims to strengthen controls over weapons-grade fissile material and prevent the theft or diversion of WMD and related material and technology.
- Improvements in Monitoring Nuclear Detonations. Global monitoring of nuclear detonations in the atmosphere has been improved because of advances in modeling and simulation of the Global Positioning System/Nuclear Detonation Detection System Constellation. A new simulation tool, called CAPFAST, includes graphics-based outputs that enable quick analysis and reporting.
- WMD. NIMA imagery and imagery analysis were critical to understanding and responding to world-wide efforts to develop, produce, and proliferate both critical WMD technologies, operational WMD systems, and conventional defense weapons. Analysts monitored worldwide research and development, test and evaluation, production, and proliferation of nuclear, ballistic missile, chemical, biological, and advanced conventional weapons and weapons-related technologies.
- Analytic Support. CIA continued to support policymakers on a broad range of critical proliferation issues by providing intelligence support – both briefings and written products—to Administration and Congressional officials.
- Interagency WMD Center. CIA supported the Department of State and Defense in their effort to create a new WMD Center within NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, which opened in January.
- Support to NATO. The National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) was tasked to support the NATO stockpile planning program. NGIC analysts provided data on equipment performance to support the modeling used to quantify the amounts of materiel and ammunition needed to execute specific missions.
This past year has reminded us that the threat from foreign intelligence services is more diverse, complex, and difficult to counter than ever before. Counterintelligence provides an ability to protect sensitive national security information and to prevent the loss of critical technological, industrial, and commercial information. Counterintelligence efforts provide a comprehensive security program and constant evaluation of the intentions and targets of foreign intelligence services. Counterintelligence capabilities and programs also work to detect and neutralize the impact of espionage against US interests.
Intelligence depends on the adequacy of counterintelligence programs to provide warning and protective measures against both traditional espionage and non-traditional economic theft of US equities. Failure to protect our economic and security interests would impact America's prosperity at home and abroad. Awareness of the threat and adherence to prescribed personnel information and physical security standards and procedures based on risk management principles are critical.
The following lists some accomplishments the IC has achieved in this area:
- Foreign Economic Collection. An informative brochure was developed summarizing the findings of the past several years. The brochure—Foreign Economic & Industrial Espionage Remains a Threat in 1999—is intended for wide public dissemination.
- Training. The National Counterintelligence Center (NACIC) developed a new course to address the need for analytical training. The new course title is Introduction to CI Analysis. NACIC sponsored numerous CI awareness training programs for both the public and private sectors.
- DOE Counterintelligence Implementation Plan. The plan contains 46 recommendations for strengthening the DOE Counterintelligence Program. To date, the Office of Counterintelligence (OCI) has implemented 75% of the 46 recommendations. Additionally, 95% of the Implementation Plan’s most critical recommendations have been implemented.
- CI Training. OCI improved and expanded its CI Training Program, which is responsible for providing DOE personnel with CI and Security Awareness training, as well providing DOE CI personnel with the ongoing instruction necessary for them to remain current in the field. For example, OCI has contracted with a renowned Russian defector who provides lectures at various DOE facilities regarding the methodology of the Russian Intelligence Services.
- Polygraph Program. OCI is instituting a CI-Scope Polygraph Program, a closely supervised, less intrusive means of testing the minimal number of DOE federal and contractor employees with the type of professional duties and/or access that make them attractive targets for individuals affiliated with foreign intelligence services. DOE published a Notice in March 1999 in the Federal Register, announcing expanded authority in the area of polygraph testing allowing OCI to test DOE Federal employees. Construction of an expanded polygraph facility was completed in September 1999 to accommodate the testing requirements.
- Foreign Visits. OCI played a significant role in rewriting the new DOE Order on Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments (DOE Notice 142.1 signed by the Secretary of Energy on July 14, 1999). The primary goal of this new order is to delegate responsibility to approve unclassified foreign visits to the Laboratory Directors, and to hold them accountable for their decisions. Accountability will be ensured, in part, through the CI Inspection function. With Secretarial concurrence, OCI has implemented a policy whereby indices checks are conducted for foreign national visitors and assignees from sensitive countries and all those from any country who will have access to sensitive subjects while at a DOE facility.
- CI-Cyber Pilot Program. OCI began the CI-Cyber Pilot Program in FY 1999. It consists of two parts: (1) an Incident Management and Analysis Capability (IMAC) and, (2) an E-mail Analysis Capability. By the end of FY 2000, the IMAC capability will be extended to a total of 12 sites across the DOE complex. In FY 2001, expansion is planned to an additional 40 sites.
- CI Program. The DoD Foreign Counterintelligence Program (FCIP) provided DoD customers with a comprehensive and professional CI program to identify, assess and or neutralize foreign intelligence service or terrorist threats. DoD CI conducted over 1,500 CI investigations and operations; disseminated more than 25,000 Intelligence Information Reports or service collections reports; published over 8,200 CI analyses, threat estimates or other CI documents; presented 18,000 threat briefings to more than 518,000 people, supported in excess of 370 joint, service, or combined military exercises and accomplished more than 20,562 additional CI initiatives to support DoD and other customers.
- Training. DoD chartered the Joint CI Training Academy (JCITA) to provide standardized introductory and advanced training to members of the Service CI Agencies in a variety of key CI disciplines. The first class was held in October 1999 at the JCITA facility, Elkridge, Maryland.
- Hot Spots. DoD CI specialists deployed with combat and other forces throughout the year to provide support to the commanders. Supporting US forces involved in the NATO Stabilization Forces in the Balkans and the forces deployed pursuant to Operation Allied Force for Kosovo, DoD CI personnel provided a wide range of force protection services that received high praise from customers. Air Force CI identified an important Serbian command center unknown to USAF targeteers. The command center was subsequently targeted and destroyed by the USAF.
- Exercises. DoD CI specialists provided real world and exercise scenario support to a wide range of military exercises around the world, often requiring close liaison with allied or other foreign militaries to practice for contingency deployments. In Thailand, Army, Air Force and Navy CI personnel participated in Cobra Gold 1999, one of the largest annual military exercises in the world involving over 10,000 multinational military personnel. The US Army and Belgian Military Intelligence co-sponsored the first ever NATO-wide, multinational CI and HUMINT exercise in a Kosovo-like Peace and Stability Operation scenario.
- Support to Defense Industry. The Defense Security Service CI has an aggressive threat awareness and training program for US Defense Industry. Those efforts develop threat information which is subsequently shared with the other DoD CI agencies and the FBI.
- DoD Computer Laboratory. The DoD Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory was instrumental in the successful identification of computer hacking groups and the neutralization of vulnerabilities in several high profile CI investigations related to national computer network defense including Solar Sunrise, Digital Demon and Moonlight Maze.
- Assessment of Counterintelligence and Counterterrorism Capabilities. FBI analysts initiated an assessment of the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) counterintelligence and counterterrorism capabilities. In this regard, they prepared detailed survey instruments for FBI field offices and NASA employees to supplement information being obtained through on-site briefings and interviews with NASA employees. This assessment is being conducted to assist NASA in ensuring that their counterterrorism and counterin- telligence capabilities are sufficient to respond to threats posed by terrorist groups and foreign intelligence service entities.
In March 1999, the DCI Strategic Intent was published. The Strategic Intent represents the DCI’s vision for guiding the US Intelligence Community into the 21st Century.
DCI Strategy For The Future
The Strategic Intent challenges the NFIP agencies to break free of traditional ways of doing business to form a unified Intelligence Community that provides a decisive information advantage to the President, national policy makers, the military, diplomats, the law enforcement community, and the Congress. To achieve this vision, we must:
- Unify the Community through collaborative processes.
- Invest in people and knowledge.
- Develop new sources and methods for collection and analysis.
- Adapt security to the new threat environment.
- Improve corporate management.
Unify the Community Through Collaborative Processes
- Underground Facility Analysis. Engineers and analysts from DIA, NIMA, USSTRATCOM, the US Geological Survey, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency worked together to identify and characterize Serbian underground facilities for mission planning during Operation Allied Force.
- Interagency Collaboration Study. CIA executed an IC collaboration baseline study to examine policy, procedural, and cultural barriers to interagency collaboration across the IC. The study was sponsored jointly by the DCI’s Community Management Staff, the Community Operational Definition of the Agile Intelligence Enterprise (CODA) executive agent, and the National Intelligence Production Board. The study focused on virtual teams of analysts and collectors collaborating at the top secret and compartmented level across seven IC Agencies.
- Common Object Framework (COF) Demonstrates Capability To Make Disparate Software Interoperable. The NRO demonstrated its Common Object Framework (COF) at the DODIIS INTEROP 98-2 Conference held in San Antonio, TX. COF was one of four featured government programs that use Object Technology as a solution for interoperability. COF provides an interoperable software architecture that is scalable, extensible, and transportable, and proves that “plug and play” is a viable concept for tactical systems. The results of DODIIS INTEROP 98-2 will provide an opportunity for the four evaluated programs to work together in a coordinated environment, allowing the programs to share lessons learned.
- CIRAS Deployed. DOE deployed the Corporate Information Retrieval and Storage (CIRAS) system, an improved automated message handling system to support intelligence research analysis. It allows analysts and support staff to manage intelligence message traffic in a graphical user interface environment.
- Support to SEAS. DOE initiated development of improved telecommunications architecture supporting the Secure Energy Analysis System (SEAS). The SEAS network links the DOE Office of Intelligence with eight Field Intelligence Elements (FIEs) to permit seamless information exchange, collaborative analysis, and program management. The new architecture, developed as part of the DOE Emergency Communications Network reengineering program, will increase bandwidth to the FIEs and provide improved redundancy.
- JICPAC Country Home Page. The Joint Intelligence Center, Pacific (JICPAC), created a Country Home Page available on Intelink that deals with nations within its area of responsibility. It allows for dynamic updating of information and reduces the number of requests for information during contingencies, such as East Timor, because products available to the field are timely, comprehensive, and current. The JIVA Integration Management Office is working with JICPAC to export this success to the US European Command, and possibly to US Central Command and US Southern Command in FY 2000.
- Geographic Learning Site. INR continued to manage the State Department’s award winning Geographic Learning Site (GLS). GLS is located on the State Department’s Internet web site and aims to engage K-12 students and teachers on both worldwide geographic issues of concern to US foreign policy and the worldwide extent of the Department’s foreign affairs activities. In June 1999, GLS registered its one millionth hit.
- NRO Strengthens Ops Support. A permanent, onsite NRO Liaison Officer (LNO) deployed in February 1999 to support the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) at Ft. Bragg, NC.
- BRIGHT STAR 99/00. The NRO supported USCENTCOM’s biennial, 11-nation field training exercise BRIGHT STAR in Egypt in the fall 1999 by providing unclassified imagery simulations. The NRO’s Synthetic Imagery Generation System (SIGS) provided unclassified simulations of NRO, U-2, and Predator images.
- Enhanced New Shipborne Air Defense System. The NRO integrated an NRO data receiver into the prototype Area Air Defense Command (AADC) module aboard a US ship. The AADC module combines NRO-collected data with databases of geographic and weapons system data in order to provide a real-time targeting capability.
- CINC Exercises To Validate Y2K Compliance. Several Command exercises received NRO support in testing and validating TRAP Data Dissemination System Y2K compliance.
- AC-130U Gunship. NRO data feeds were successfully integrated into the Weapons Control System of the prototype AC-130U Gunship during its initial test flight on 24 July. This successful test will help formalize requirements for this capability to be procured for all AC-130U Gunships.
- Declassification Effort. CIA, at the request of the National Science Foundation, assisted in the declassification of seven images from Antarctica and more than 50 images of the Arctic obtained by US overhead systems for use by the scientific community.
- Collaborative Tools. CIA established a laboratory named “Platinum Rail” to evaluate and better understand the functionality and interoperability of commercial collaborative tools that are in use in the Intelligence Community and can enhance the ability of analysts and their managers to share and produce better intelligence for their customers.
- Non-Profit Firm Established for IT Solutions. The Enterprise for Information Technology Solutions became a reality on 19 February 1999 with the incorporation of “In-Q-Tel”. In-Q-Tel is a unique non-profit corporation that partners with industry and academia to encourage and develop information technology solutions that meet CIA needs and also have value in private sector markets. The Board of Trustees represents expertise and leadership in the fields of industry, academia, venture capital, and intelligence. The CIA’s In-Q-Tel Interface Center devised an unclassified corporate information technology problem set that became the basis for In-Q-Tel’s work program. The problem set was gathered from nearly 200 specific requirements across the Agency.
- Litigation. CIA supported the Department of Justice and U.S. Attorneys across the United States in the prosecution and defense of litigation in over 400 cases. CIA also coordinated the Agency’s response to over 20 major criminal investigations.
- Internal Communications. NSA consolidated its internal communications eliminating redundancies and providing a “one-voice" process to guarantee a well-informed workforce across all levels and locations worldwide.
Invest in People and Knowledge
- Intelligence Products. In FY 1999, INR produced and disseminated more than 5,000 analytic products – almost 4,000 of these products were also placed on INTELINK. These products cover virtually every country and transnational issue of foreign policy significance.
- Reporting on Y2K. CIA open source reporting on Y2K issues worldwide increased by 482 percent -- from 599 items filed in FY 1998 to 2,893 items filed in FY 1999. CIA has been praised for the breadth and depth of its Y2K open source reporting. Analysts cited 23 reports as deserving special mention and noted that they have found the reporting valuable in the preparation of reports for senior policymakers.
- Full-time Training. CIA sponsored over 150 officers, including managers, analysts, and support personnel, for developmental and expertise-building programs that includes full-time academic training. CIA also sponsored 50 analysts for full-time language training.
- Training for Civil Agencies in Alaska. NRO cross-directorate/office representatives developed and presented a joint classified national imagery systems overview for civil agency personnel at a national technical means workshop at Elmendorf AFB, AK. NRO participation at the Anchorage workshop underscored our commitment to inform national customers of our systems’ capabilities and to improve and expand tailored support to civil agencies.
- Customer Information Needs Assessment (CINA). The NRO systematically assesses individual customer’s needs to support their mission. In FY 1999, the CINA methodology was expanded to include MASINT, in addition to SIGINT and IMINT. The Department of State assessment was revised to include the new MASINT procedure and several improvements to their information needs set. Also assessed during this time were two DCI Centers: the Nonproliferation Center and the Arms Control Intelligence Staff. The Director, NRO, directed that CINA also be applied to military customers; USCENTCOM, USPACOM, and USSOUTHCOM were assessed during FY 1999.
- Harvesting the Internet. Recognizing the Internet as a source of increasing importance, CIA initiated a series of timely summaries of military news from a large number of Internet sites. Accompanying the summaries as appropriate are photos and graphics.
- New ‘Portal’ Concept for Information Access. CIA developed a new concept for the delivery of open source information to IC customers. Drawing directly from the Internet concept of “portals,” this initiative envisions a single place of access for open source products and services. This approach will simplify access to the wide variety of open source information that is available through CIA, other IC agencies, and the Internet in general. Feedback from users enabled CIA to develop a working prototype to place on a limited number of Agency users’ desktops.
- Upgrade of Equipment Labs. NSA increased its capacity to train military personnel in SIGINT collection and processing by upgrading three equipment labs at Corry Station, Pensacola, FL, meeting the annual training requirement of 1050 students. Training provides the fundamental and core skills to keep pace with the rapid evolution of worldwide communications technology.
- Environmental Programs With Russia. CIA supported meetings between the Vice President and Russian Prime Minister on environmental issues. In furtherance of USG environmental policy objectives toward Russia, CIA continued to oversee several joint scientific programs with US and Russian organizations, including the Russian Ministry of Defense. Projects include compilation of a large database on Arctic climatology, disaster cooperation, and characterization of boreal forest parameters.
- Building Renovation. NSA continued renovation of the Ops 1 Building, encompassing a 129,000 square foot area, providing modernized workspace and significant communications upgrades to 1,000 personnel. Renovation included an Operations Watch Center, relocation of NSA/CSS corporate servers, and renovated spaces for SIGINT analysts and communications technicians. Extensive upgrades were also completed to the communications system to include Internet connectivity to 10 percent of the workstations in the renovated areas with the infrastructure design to support future expansion to 100 percent of the workforce.
- Intelligence Training. US Joint Forces Command’s Regional Joint Intelligence Training Facilities trained more than 2,500 personnel on various functional areas, disciplines, systems, and applications.
- Handbook for Operating Forces. The Marine Corps Intelligence Activity (MCIA) prepared a Kosovo International Security Force Handbook for US and allied forces operating in the Balkans. Also, in response to the crisis in East Timor, MCIA quickly produced a handbook to support peacekeeping operations during the crisis.
- Using Outside Experts. INR’s External Research Program organized 110 seminars and conferences which brought the talents of more than 800 outside experts to bear on the USG’s most pressing foreign policy issues. These conferences facilitate the interchange of experience and ideas between outside experts and government officials, leading to a more informed foreign policy process and better intelligence analysis in support of diplomacy. These events were attended by more than 4,500 policymakers and analysts from the State Department, other foreign affairs and intelligence agencies, and Congress.
- WEBLink. The NRO developed and demonstrated its “WEBLink" methodology that potentially increases user access to NRO Systems Data. WEBLink allows customers without broadcast-receive equipment, or those without access to standard networks to access live TRAP Data Dissemination System (TDDS) data and Onboard Processing/Tactical Onboard Processing System ([OBP/TOPS]; CONUS, non-real-time) data that have been captured to a common server. The Integrated Broadcast System community is interested in integrating WEBLink into their architecture development, which would allow worldwide live access to OBP/TOPS.
- Marines’ URBAN WARRIOR Advanced Warfighting Experiment (AWE). During 1999 the NRO supported all five phases of the US Marine Corps’ URBAN WARRIOR AWE to develop bet ter capabilities for urban warfare. NRO provided technology, systems, and training that resulted in an improved, information-age, tactical operations center for the battle commander.
- Mobile Education Team 99 (MET 99). The 1999 version of the NRO’s European Mobile Education Team (MET) visited 32 Commands (at 16 sites) throughout Europe in 3QFY99. This eight-person team was an NRO cross-directorate-NIMA/Central Imagery and Tasking Office (CITO) effort to enhance customers’ awareness of NRO systems’ operational capabilities. The team addressed specific theater support issues of interest to EUCOM warfighters.
- New Payroll System. CIA successfully implemented a new Y2K-compliant, payroll system as the first phase of an integrated Human Resource Information System. This ambitious endeavor, conducted under considerable time pressure involving multiple security considerations and adapting a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) product to accommodate numerous pay system variants, was one of the most complex in USG experience.
- CIA Recruitment Center. CIA implemented a new centralized approach to recruitment, establishing the Recruitment Center and instituting updated ad campaigns that have generated a significant increase in applications and positive national media coverage. This approach has allowed CIA to reduce average applicant processing time by 37 percent and has greatly improved hiring against critical skills goals. CIA also hired an industry expert to spur further process improvements.
- Taking Training to the Students. CIA is deploying traditional classroom course content via alternative delivery platforms such as CD-ROMs and Web-based training. CIA entered into a formal partnership with NSA to share training technology and provide employees access to general skills training in modules offered through the NSA’s FasTrac web site. All vehicles enable training to reach wider audiences and reduce the cost of course delivery.
- Recapitalization of Agency Facilities. CIA continued the recapitalization of the Headquarters Compound – projects included a one million gallon ground-mounted water storage tank, asbestos abatement of three mechanical rooms which provide chilled water, steam, and conditioned air throughout the Original Headquarters Building, and refurbishment of an electrical substation.
- Release of Documents. CIA released three million pages of material 25 years old or older in response to Executive Order 12958. This volume tripled FY 1998’s release of one million pages and represents the largest volume of material released in Agency history.
- Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Goals Met. The CIA closed 6,742 FOIA cases which exceeds the goal necessary to demonstrate reasonable progress in meeting the Agency’s FOIA requirement.
- Public Outreach. CIA conducted a number of activities with local schools and universities in an effort to reach out to students and increase the public’s awareness of the Agency mission, as well as to provide new opportunities for recruitment of potential future Agency employees. CIA employees also participated as judges at high school science fairs, and CIA provided a number of presentations to distinguished local high school students and Eagle Scouts who have an interest in future employment with the Agency.
- Leveraging Retirees’ S&T Input. CIA established communication channels to retirees for accepting suggestions related to traditional issues such as current technical challenges and intelligence problems. These individuals have developed different perspectives that could be very beneficial to the CIA.
- Academia. The CIA provided a forum for publication of books and articles on intelligence. Additionally, the DCI participated in conferences, lectures, and seminars in a number of academic fora. Highlights include the following:
- Donald P. Steury, ed., On the Front Lines of the Cold War: Documents on the Intelligence War in Berlin, 1946 to 1961
- Benjamin B. Fischer, “The Katyn Controversy: Stalin’s Killing Field,” Studies in Intelligence
- Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations Conference Panel on US Intelligence and the Atomic Bomb, Princeton University
- Academic lectures at Georgetown University, George Washington University, Princeton University, American University, US Naval Academy, US Naval War College, Ohio State University, Marquette University
- New Information Services Governance Process: CIA’s Chief Information Office Staff implemented a new approach to governing information service activities to better balance mission, resource, security and infrastructure reliability issues in the deployment of IS programs. The new process also speeds the decision-making process and increases responsiveness. During the year, the process reviewed and adjudicated proposals for disseminating intelligence product to East Timor peace keeping forces, procured and tested an improved switchbox product to facilitate use of classified and unclassified systems, and published a National Intelligence Estimate on Y2K on an Intelligence Community Information Network.
- Intelligence Reference Books Updated. CIA updated and significantly enhanced several unclassified intelligence publications disseminated to the public, including the CIA World Factbook and the Consumer’s Guide to Intelligence.
- Harassment-Free Workplace Training. CIA implemented a mandated Agency-wide Harassment-Free Workplace training program and continues to instruct each class on EEO issues. These workshops were also run at select overseas locations. CIA sponsored, with support from the Black Executive Board, an off-site for Agency black employees and initiated data gathering from the Agency’s black population as a result of feedback from the Harassment-Free Workplace Workshops.
- Diversity. CIA developed and sponsored a variety of diversity programs for the Agency population. In addition, CIA continued to address diversity through EEO and other programs. Highlights include the following:
- Provided training opportunities to CIA employees in the areas of American Sign Language, Hearing Culture Workshops, Americans with Disability Act, and a series of internal courses on communications; sponsored external training in the areas of harassment and diversity to investigators, lawyers, and Directorate diversity officers to enable them to support management on internal harassment investigations;
- Worked to create stronger relationships with other Intelligence Community agencies. CIA conducted Heritage/History Month programs for the following special emphasis groups; Hispanic, American Indian, Black, Asian & Pacific Islander, Deaf & Hard of Hearing, People with Disabilities, and Women. Additional programs included celebrations in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King and CIA’s All American Days in July.
- Continued efforts to create a point-to-point privacy Lotus Notes database for field personnel to deal directly with OEEO counselor/investigators.
Develop New Sources and Methods for Collection and Analysis
- Financial Transaction Tool. CIA developed and deployed the TRIX tool to the Directorate of Intelligence. The TRIX tool isolates and displays relationships between information data sets in order to identify financial transaction information.
- Monitoring Open Source Information. CIA started a project to automate monitoring of open source information from specific countries of interest to the Intelligence Community. The Alert tool issues warnings based on defined criteria, triggers, or thresholds.
- Worldwide Y2K Upgrade of ELINT Processors. Understanding customers’ concerns for the Y2K impact on mission accomplishment, NRO engineers developed a Y2K-compliant package for its front-line data receiver and analysis station, and deployed to customer sites worldwide to install and locally test the upgrades. Customers included Battle Groups, forward-deployed units, large Intelligence Centers, and warfighters directly supporting both Iraq and Kosovo operations.
- Anti-terrorism Force Protection. NSA/CSS conducts comprehensive risk assessments of 24 field sites and remote collection/communications facilities, in addition to continuity of operations activities. NSA also completed a baseline AT/FP risk assessment of all field sites serving as the foundation for Global Master Planning.
- Y2K Preparations. DIA’s Joint Collection Management Tools were used in the successful completion and fielding of the Y2K-compliant version of the tools to 25 server sites, including each Combatant Command, the DIA Defense Collection Coordination Center, and the Joint Military Intelligence Training Center.
- Geographic Information Unit. INR created a four-person unit with a mission to support the Department of State’s diplomatic efforts through the provision of accurate and timely geographic information, the creation of high quality cartographic products, and the promotion of geographic information system (GIS) tools to assist in the analysis of complex information.
- An IT Approach to Learning at the Army’s Command and General Staff College. During 1999 the NRO, as part of a joint NRO/Army Space Program Office (ASPO) effort, developed and delivered a computer-based training (CBT) tool on “NRO Systems Support to Military Operations" to the Army’s Command and General Staff College (CGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, KS.
- Automated Software Installation Program. A six-month development effort resulted in the fielding of a software program, titled “Installation Wizard," which allows customers to independently install/re-install the stand-alone version of GALE- Lite, an NRO-data receive system. Historically, the NRO receives customer requests for installation of over 40 stand-alone GALE-Lite systems per year.
- New Travel System Wins Award. The CIA’s Travel Reengineering Integration and Development (TRIAD) system won the annual Travel Manager of the Year award from Government Executive magazine and also received the CIA’s Meritorious Unit Citation. The deployment of this system is the culmination of a three-year travel reengineering process, eliminating 40 paper forms and providing one-stop-shopping for all TDY processing needs.
- Language Tool for Website Searches. CIA’s FLUENT Program deployed the capability to search foreign language web sites without requiring skills in the site’s native language. FLUENT currently searches materials in German, French, Portuguese, and Spanish on the Internet.
- Japanese and Korean Language Tools. CIA integrated two systems that allow foreign language documents (Japanese and Korean) to be queried in English and retrieved documents to be summarized in English using any commercial worldwide web browser such as Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer. CIA also enhanced the government-sponsored Systran Japanese machine translation capability by improving its English output, electronic dictionaries, and the system’s handling of characters.
- Farsi Machine Translation. CIA developed an initial proof-of-concept system to perform Persian (Farsi)-to-English machine translation.
- Data Visualization Tool. CIA has developed an advanced information visualization tool, ThemeScape, that harvests large data sets and displays the information in the form of a landscape-like view. This allows analysts to view very large information sets quickly and thoroughly, and to draw on their own expertise to derive relationships and conclusions.
- Nonproliferation Support. DOE coordinated and implemented a program for the Department of State’s Political-Military Bureau/ Nonproliferation Disarmament Fund that provides technical support for installing nuclear detectors at border crossings within a number of Former Soviet Republics and Eastern Bloc countries. During this period, DOE personnel have conducted site surveys, installed and tested hardware, trained border officials on detector operation, and provided periodic maintenance on installed systems.
Adapt Security to the New Threat Environment
- Foreign Laser Threat. DIA delivered a series of briefings on foreign laser weapons to an OSD/ Defense Research and Engineering-sponsored working group. This information will be used to develop physical and operational methods for protecting US personnel and equipment from this emerging threat.
- Technology Support. Based upon requests for assistance from various agencies, DOE identified innovative approaches/technologies, throughout the DOE laboratory complex, to meet user requirements for: a multi-threat countermeasures system; technical capabilities for supporting intelligence analysis related to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and cyber terrorism; enhanced capabilities for special reconnaissance missions; a robust, user-friendly under-vehicle inspection system; and enhancement of a variety of special operations capabilities.
- NRO Simulations Depict Real World. NRO personnel who participated in the European Command (EUCOM) exercise AGILE LION 1999 in Italy supplemented the standing tasks with real-world imagery depicting worsening conditions in Burundi to simulate support for a noncombatant evacuation operation.
Improve Corporate Management
- Support for President’s Visit to Japan. CIA surged to produce several open source collection analyses of foreign media in advance of, during, and after President Clinton’s visit to Japan in November 1998.
- Geo-Location Device. DOE developed a portable, battery-powered global positioning system that provides the capability to verify the location of personnel anywhere in the world.
- Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture (JIVA) Collaborative Environment Training. The JIVA Integration Management Office, working with the Federal Executive Institute in Charlottesville, Virginia, provided five successful courses for leaders and key members of seven of JIVA’s analytic Communities of Interest (COI). The sessions brought together analysts who will be collaborating on-line on high-priority intelligence items of interest. Personnel from NSA, CIA, and NIMA, as well as GDIP organizations comprising eight COIs, received training on how to use the JIVA Collaborative Environment software in addition to techniques, efficiencies, and challenges of collaborating on-line. The courses are part of an effort to integrate the new tools into the way that analysts work, not just deploy software. Ultimately, these efforts will ensure that decision makers and the analysts who work for them have quick access to collective expertise.
- Coordinating Overseas Activities. INR worked with the Intelligence Community and the State Department’s Office of Resources, Plans, and Policy to develop procedures for closely linking Collection Directives with the Department of State’s International Affairs Strategic Plan and Embassy Mission Performance Plans so that the subjects and areas covered in posts’ reporting plans are linked to those issues identified as the most pressing and important for the intelligence community.
- Briefing New Chiefs of Mission. INR sponsored briefings for fifteen new Ambassadors to acquaint them with the leading experts on their countries of assignment and offer a longer-range view from individuals who have studied a country for years and who have extensive contacts there.
- CIA’s Central Services Program. CIA continued its transition of administrative support services to the Central Services Program with the standup of three new businesses. The Agency now has four fully operational business enterprises: the Central Warehouse for packing and shipping; the Transportation Services Center (TSC) for vehicular transportation; the Central Intelligence Telephone Company (CINTELCO) for telecommunications; and ideas 2 Solutions (i2S) for software development. Through aggressive cost cutting measures, which include staff reductions, process improvements, and external marketing, all businesses met or exceeded their projected performance goals.
- Reengineering Human Resources Practices. In an effort to meet the Agency’s strategic goals and devote more staff resources to mission, CIA initiated the transfer or outsourcing of several non-core activities in 1999: annuity administration, which the CIA has handled for its retirees since 1964, will completely transfer to the Office of Personnel Management by mid-2000; the outsourcing of other activities, such as fileroom maintenance and payroll administration, is also being piloted. Also, technology has been employed to improve corporate human resource practices: employee access to online forms, tools, and records; electronic delivery of Earnings and Leave statements; and bar-coding of official personnel folders have all resulted in printing, distribution, and labor savings.
- Improving Connectivity to the Customer. CIA successfully established PolicyNet connectivity to the Senate Appropriations Committee (SAC). This joint effort between Agency Technology Services and the DI PolicyNet Program Office provides SAC with data and video Intelligence and filtered access to a secure network.
- Public Affairs Strategies. CIA developed and implemented public affairs strategies related to: the renaming of the CIA compound to the George Bush Center for Intelligence; the historic conference in Berlin on intelligence during the Cold War; the declassification of historical documents, including material related to human rights abuses and political violence in Chile; the CIA’s role in the Wye accords; the release of an unclassified summary of a National Intelligence Estimate on the ballistic missile threat; and other intelligence-related matters. CIA responded to nearly 10,000 calls from the general public, as well as more than 2,500 letters—all-time highs.
- Website Redesigned. CIA redesigned its public web site, making it much easier to navigate and locate information on the Agency. CIA also ensured that speeches, press releases and other public statements were posted on the site promptly, allowing the public quick access to such information.
- Law Enforcement. CIA has provided legal and logistical assistance to regular meetings between senior CIA and FBI officials, as well as meetings between the DDCI and the Deputy Attorney General. CIA has conducted training on how intelligence and law enforcement may properly work together.
GLOSSARYACIC - Army Counter Intelligence Center. ACIS - Arms Control Intelligence Staff. ADCI/A&P - Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Analysis and Production. ADCI/C - Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Collection. AFOSI - Air Force Office of Special Investigations. ATAC - Anti-Terrorism Alert Center, Under NCIS. ATC - Applied Technology Center. ATO - Advanced Technology Office. BW - Biological Weapons. C3I - Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence. CBJB - Congressional Budget Justification Book. CBW - Chemical and Biological Warfare. CCP - Consolidated Cryptologic Program. CI - Counterintelligence. CIA - Central Intelligence Agency. CIAP - Central Intelligence Agency Program. CIARDS - Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System. CINC - Commander in Chief. CI&SCM - Counterintelligence and Security Countermeasures. CIS - Commonwealth of Independent States. CITAC - Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center. CLANSIG - Clandestine Signals Intelligence. CMA - Community Management Account. CMO - Central MASINT Organization. CMS - Community Management Staff. CNC - Crime and Narcotics Center. COE - Common Operating Environment. COMINT - Communications Intelligence. CONUS - Continental United States. COSPO - Community Open Source Program Office. COTS - Commercial Off The Shelf. COVCOM - Covert Communications. CPCC - Community Personnel Coordinating Committee. CTBT - Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. CT - Counterterrorism. CTC - Counterterrism Center. CW - Chemical Weapons. CWC - Chemical Weapons Convention. DAO - Defense Attache Office. DCI - Director of Central Intelligence. DCIIS - Defense Counterintelligence Integrated Information System. DDCI/CM - Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management. DDS - Defense Dissemination System. DHS - Defense HUMINT Service. DIA - Defense Intelligence Agency. DIAC - Defense Intelligence Analysis Center. DO - Directorate of Operations. DoD - Department of Defense. DoD/FCIP - Department of Defense Foreign Counterintelligence Program. DOE - Department of Energy. DSS - Defense Security Service. ELINT - Electronic Intelligence. ETF - Environmental Task Force. EXDIR/ICA - Executive Director/Intelligence Community Affairs. FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation. FBI/FCI - Federal Bureau of Investigation Foreign Counterintelligence Program. FBI/SCM - Federal Bureau of Investigation Countermeasures Program. FIA - Future Imagery Architecture. FISA - Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. FIS - Foreign Intelligence Service. FBIS - Foreign Broadcast Information Service. FCI - Foreign Counterintelligence. FISINT - Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence. FLC - Foreign Language Committee. FOIA - Freedom Of Information Act. FSU - Former Soviet Union. FYDP - Future Years Defense Program. GATT - General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs. GDIP - General Defense Intelligence Program. GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications. HF - High Frequency. HOCNET - HUMINT Operational Communications Network. HUMINT - Human Source Intelligence. IC - Intelligence Community. ICBM - Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile. IC CIO - Intelligence Community Chief Information Officer. IG - Inspector General. IO - Information Operations. IMINT - Imagery Intelligence and Geospatial Information. INR - Department of State Bureau of Intelligence and Research. IPRG - Intelligence Program Review Group. IW - Information Warfare. JCS - Joint Chiefs of Staff. JIC - Joint Intelligence Center. JIVA - Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture. JMIP - Joint Military Intelligence Program. JTF - Joint Task Force. JTTF - Joint Terrorism Task Force. JWICS - Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System. MASINT - Measurement and Signature Intelligence. MBB - Mission Based Budgeting. NACIC - National Counterintelligence Center. NAFTA - North American Free Trade Agreement. NAIC - National Air Intelligence Center. NBC - Nuclear, Biological, Chemical weapons. NCIPB - National Counterintelligence Policy Board. NCIS - Naval Criminal Investigative Service. NDIC - National Drug Intelligence Center. NFIP - National Foreign Intelligence Program. NIC - National Intelligence Council. NICB - National Intelligence Collection Board. NIMA - National Imagery and Mapping Agency. NIMAP - National Imagery and Mapping Agency Program. NIPB - National Intelligence Producers Board. NIST - National Intelligence Support Team. NPC - Nonproliferation Center. NRO - National Reconnaissance Office. NRP - National Reconnaissance Program. NSA - National Security Agency. NSA/CSS - National Security Agency/Central Security Service. OMB - Office of Management and Budget. OPM - Office of Personnel Management. ORD - Office of Research and Development. OSIS - Open-Source Information System. PAEO - Program Assessment and Evaluation Office, Community Management Staff. PDD - Presidential Decision Directive. R&D - Research and Development. SAFE - Support to the Analysts’ File Environment. SIGINT - Signals intelligence. Intelligence information derived from all communications intelligence, electronics intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted or collected. SLBM - Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile. SSO - Special Security Office/Officer. TECH ELINT - Technical Electronic Intelligence. TIARA - Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities. The military service intelligence programs separate from the NFIP and (starting in FY 1996) from the JMIP. UCA - Unified Cryptologic Architecture. USACOM - US Atlantic Command. USCENTCOM - US Central Command. USCS - US Cryptologic System. USEUCOM - US European Command. USFK - US Forces Korea. USIGS - US Imagery and Geospatial Information System. USPACOM - US Pacific Command. USSOCOM - US Special Operations Command. USSOUTHCOM - US Southern Command. USSPACECOM - US Space Command. USSS - US SIGINT System. USSTRATCOM - US Strategic Command. USTRANSCOM - US Transportation Command. WMD - Weapons of Mass Destruction.